Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation

T. Sasaki, K. Beppu, K. Tanaka, Y. Fukazawa, R. Shigemoto, K. Matsui, PNAS 109 (2012) 20720–20725.

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Abstract
Dynamic activity of glia has repeatedly been demonstrated, but if such activity is independent from neuronal activity, glia would not have any role in the information processing in the brain or in the generation of animal behavior. Evidence for neurons communicating with glia is solid, but the signaling pathway leading back from glial-to-neuronal activity was often difficult to study. Here, we introduced a transgenic mouse line in which channelrhodopsin-2, a light-gated cation channel, was expressed in astrocytes. Selective photostimulation of these astrocytes in vivo triggered neuronal activation. Using slice preparations, we show that glial photostimulation leads to release of glutamate, which was sufficient to activate AMPA receptors on Purkinje cells and to induce long-term depression of parallel fiber-to-Purkinje cell synapses through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In contrast to neuronal synaptic vesicular release, glial activation likely causes preferential activation of extrasynaptic receptors that appose glial membrane. Finally, we show that neuronal activation by glial stimulation can lead to perturbation of cerebellar modulated motor behavior. These findings demonstrate that glia can modulate the tone of neuronal activity and behavior. This animal model is expected to be a potentially powerful approach to study the role of glia in brain function.
Publishing Year
Date Published
2012-12-11
Journal Title
PNAS
Volume
109
Issue
50
Page
20720 - 20725
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Sasaki T, Beppu K, Tanaka K, Fukazawa Y, Shigemoto R, Matsui K. Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation. PNAS. 2012;109(50):20720-20725. doi:10.1073/pnas.1213458109
Sasaki, T., Beppu, K., Tanaka, K., Fukazawa, Y., Shigemoto, R., & Matsui, K. (2012). Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation. PNAS, 109(50), 20720–20725. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1213458109
Sasaki, Takuya, Kaoru Beppu, Kenji Tanaka, Yugo Fukazawa, Ryuichi Shigemoto, and Ko Matsui. “Application of an Optogenetic Byway for Perturbing Neuronal Activity via Glial Photostimulation.” PNAS 109, no. 50 (2012): 20720–25. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1213458109.
T. Sasaki, K. Beppu, K. Tanaka, Y. Fukazawa, R. Shigemoto, and K. Matsui, “Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation,” PNAS, vol. 109, no. 50, pp. 20720–20725, 2012.
Sasaki T, Beppu K, Tanaka K, Fukazawa Y, Shigemoto R, Matsui K. 2012. Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation. PNAS. 109(50), 20720–20725.
Sasaki, Takuya, et al. “Application of an Optogenetic Byway for Perturbing Neuronal Activity via Glial Photostimulation.” PNAS, vol. 109, no. 50, National Academy of Sciences, 2012, pp. 20720–25, doi:10.1073/pnas.1213458109.

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