Hollander, Johan; Montaño-Rendón, Mauricio; Bianco, Giuseppe; Yang, Xi; Westram, Anja MIST Austria ; Duvaux, Ludovic; Reid, David G.; Butlin, Roger K.
The evolution of assortative mating is a key part of the speciation process. Stronger assortment, or greater divergence in mating traits, between species pairs with overlapping ranges is commonly observed, but possible causes of this pattern of reproductive character displacement are difficult to distinguish. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a rare example where it is possible to distinguish among hypotheses concerning the evolution of reproductive character displacement. We build on an earlier comparative analysis that illustrated a strong pattern of greater divergence in penis form between pairs of sister species with overlapping ranges than between allopatric sister-species pairs, in a large clade of marine gastropods (Littorinidae). We investigate both assortative mating and divergence in male genitalia in one of the sister-species pairs, discriminating among three contrasting processes each of which can generate a pattern of reproductive character displacement: reinforcement, reproductive interference and the Templeton effect. We demonstrate reproductive character displacement in assortative mating, but not in genital form between this pair of sister species and use demographic models to distinguish among the different processes. Our results support a model with no gene flow since secondary contact and thus favor reproductive interference as the cause of reproductive character displacement for mate choice, rather than reinforcement. High gene flow within species argues against the Templeton effect. Secondary contact appears to have had little impact on genital divergence.
The authors express a special thanks to Dr Richard Willan at the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory for guidance and support in the field, and to Carole Smadja for reading and commenting on the manuscript. The authors thank the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife (license no. 009254) and Fishery Research Division (exemption no. 2262) for assistance with permits. Khalid Belkhir modified the coalescent sampler msnsam for the specific needs of this project and Martin Hirsch helped to set up the ABC pipeline and to modify the summary statistic calculator mscalc. The authors are grateful to the Crafoord Foundation for supporting this project. R.K.B., A.M.W., and L.D. were supported by grants from the Natural Environment Research Council, R.K.B. and A.M.W. were also supported by the European Research Council and R.K.B. and L.D. by the Leverhulme Trust. M.M.R. was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and Secretaría de Educación Pública, Mexico. G.B. was supported by the Centre for Animal Movement Research (CAnMove) financed by a Linnaeus grant (No. 349-2007-8690) from the Swedish Research Council and Lund University.
Hollander J, Montaño-Rendón M, Bianco G, et al. Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement? Evolution Letters. 2018;2(6):557-566. doi:10.1002/evl3.85
Hollander, J., Montaño-Rendón, M., Bianco, G., Yang, X., Westram, A. M., Duvaux, L., … Butlin, R. K. (2018). Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement? Evolution Letters. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/evl3.85
Hollander, Johan, Mauricio Montaño-Rendón, Giuseppe Bianco, Xi Yang, Anja M Westram, Ludovic Duvaux, David G. Reid, and Roger K. Butlin. “Are Assortative Mating and Genital Divergence Driven by Reinforcement?” Evolution Letters. Wiley, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1002/evl3.85.
J. Hollander et al., “Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement?,” Evolution Letters, vol. 2, no. 6. Wiley, pp. 557–566, 2018.
Hollander J, Montaño-Rendón M, Bianco G, Yang X, Westram AM, Duvaux L, Reid DG, Butlin RK. 2018. Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement? Evolution Letters. 2(6), 557–566.
Hollander, Johan, et al. “Are Assortative Mating and Genital Divergence Driven by Reinforcement?” Evolution Letters, vol. 2, no. 6, Wiley, 2018, pp. 557–66, doi:10.1002/evl3.85.
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