To fight infectious diseases, host immune defences are employed at multiple levels. Sanitary behaviour, such as pathogen avoidance and removal, acts as a first line of defence to prevent infection  before activation of the physiological immune system. Insect societies have evolved a wide range of collective hygiene measures and intensive health care towards pathogen-exposed group members . One of the most common behaviours is allogrooming, in which nestmates remove infectious particles from the body surfaces of exposed individuals . Here we show that, in invasive garden ants, grooming of fungus-exposed brood is effective beyond the sheer mechanical removal of fungal conidiospores as it also includes chemical disinfection through the application of poison produced by the ants themselves. Formic acid is the main active component of the poison. It inhibits fungal growth of conidiospores remaining on the brood surface after grooming and also those collected in the mouth of the grooming ant. This dual function is achieved by uptake of the poison droplet into the mouth through acidopore self-grooming and subsequent application onto the infectious brood via brood grooming. This extraordinary behaviour extends current understanding of grooming and the establishment of social immunity in insect societies.
Tragust S, Mitteregger B, Barone V, Konrad M, Ugelvig LV, Cremer S. Data from: Ants disinfect fungus-exposed brood by oral uptake and spread of their poison. 2012. doi:10.5061/dryad.61649
Tragust, S., Mitteregger, B., Barone, V., Konrad, M., Ugelvig, L. V., & Cremer, S. (2012). Data from: Ants disinfect fungus-exposed brood by oral uptake and spread of their poison. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.61649
Tragust, Simon, Barbara Mitteregger, Vanessa Barone, Matthias Konrad, Line V Ugelvig, and Sylvia Cremer. “Data from: Ants Disinfect Fungus-Exposed Brood by Oral Uptake and Spread of Their Poison.” Dryad, 2012. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.61649.
S. Tragust, B. Mitteregger, V. Barone, M. Konrad, L. V. Ugelvig, and S. Cremer, “Data from: Ants disinfect fungus-exposed brood by oral uptake and spread of their poison.” Dryad, 2012.
Tragust S, Mitteregger B, Barone V, Konrad M, Ugelvig LV, Cremer S. 2012. Data from: Ants disinfect fungus-exposed brood by oral uptake and spread of their poison, Dryad, 10.5061/dryad.61649.
Tragust, Simon, et al. Data from: Ants Disinfect Fungus-Exposed Brood by Oral Uptake and Spread of Their Poison. Dryad, 2012, doi:10.5061/dryad.61649.
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