Inglés Prieto, ÁlvaroIST Austria ; Furthmann, Nikolas; Crossman, Samuel H.; Tichy, Alexandra Madelaine; Hoyer, Nina; Petersen, Meike; Zheden, VanessaIST Austria; Bicher, JuliaIST Austria; Gschaider-Reichhart, EvaIST Austria ; György, AttilaIST Austria ; Siekhaus, Daria EIST Austria ; Soba, Peter
Optogenetics has been harnessed to shed new mechanistic light on current and future therapeutic strategies. This has been to date achieved by the regulation of ion flow and electrical signals in neuronal cells and neural circuits that are known to be affected by disease. In contrast, the optogenetic delivery of trophic biochemical signals, which support cell survival and are implicated in degenerative disorders, has never been demonstrated in an animal model of disease. Here, we reengineered the human and Drosophila melanogaster REarranged during Transfection (hRET and dRET) receptors to be activated by light, creating one-component optogenetic tools termed Opto-hRET and Opto-dRET. Upon blue light stimulation, these receptors robustly induced the MAPK/ERK proliferative signaling pathway in cultured cells. In PINK1B9 flies that exhibit loss of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a kinase associated with familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), light activation of Opto-dRET suppressed mitochondrial defects, tissue degeneration and behavioral deficits. In human cells with PINK1 loss-of-function, mitochondrial fragmentation was rescued using Opto-dRET via the PI3K/NF-кB pathway. Our results demonstrate that a light-activated receptor can ameliorate disease hallmarks in a genetic model of PD. The optogenetic delivery of trophic signals is cell type-specific and reversible and thus has the potential to inspire novel strategies towards a spatio-temporal regulation of tissue repair.
We thank R. Cagan, A. Whitworth and J. Nagpal for fly lines and advice, S. Herlitze for provision of a tissue culture illuminator, and Verian Bader for help with statistical analysis.
Inglés Prieto Á, Furthmann N, Crossman SH, et al. Optogenetic delivery of trophic signals in a genetic model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS genetics. 2021;17(4):e1009479. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1009479
Inglés Prieto, Á., Furthmann, N., Crossman, S. H., Tichy, A. M., Hoyer, N., Petersen, M., … Janovjak, H. L. (2021). Optogenetic delivery of trophic signals in a genetic model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS Genetics. Public Library of Science. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009479
Inglés Prieto, Álvaro, Nikolas Furthmann, Samuel H. Crossman, Alexandra Madelaine Tichy, Nina Hoyer, Meike Petersen, Vanessa Zheden, et al. “Optogenetic Delivery of Trophic Signals in a Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease.” PLoS Genetics. Public Library of Science, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009479.
Á. Inglés Prieto et al., “Optogenetic delivery of trophic signals in a genetic model of Parkinson’s disease,” PLoS genetics, vol. 17, no. 4. Public Library of Science, p. e1009479, 2021.
Inglés Prieto Á, Furthmann N, Crossman SH, Tichy AM, Hoyer N, Petersen M, Zheden V, Bicher J, Gschaider-Reichhart E, György A, Siekhaus DE, Soba P, Winklhofer KF, Janovjak HL. 2021. Optogenetic delivery of trophic signals in a genetic model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS genetics. 17(4), e1009479.
Inglés Prieto, Álvaro, et al. “Optogenetic Delivery of Trophic Signals in a Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease.” PLoS Genetics, vol. 17, no. 4, Public Library of Science, 2021, p. e1009479, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1009479.
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