Nardo, Alexander D.; Schneeweiss-Gleixner, Mathias; Bakail, MayIST Austria; Dixon, Emmanuel D.; Lax, Sigurd F.; Trauner, Michael
The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has resulted in a world‐wide pandemic. Disseminated lung injury with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main cause of mortality in COVID‐19. Although liver failure does not seem to occur in the absence of pre‐existing liver disease, hepatic involvement in COVID‐19 may correlate with overall disease severity and serve as a prognostic factor for the development of ARDS. The spectrum of liver injury in COVID‐19 may range from direct infection by SARS‐CoV‐2, indirect involvement by systemic inflammation, hypoxic changes, iatrogenic causes such as drugs and ventilation to exacerbation of underlying liver disease. This concise review discusses the potential pathophysiological mechanisms for SARS‐CoV‐2 hepatic tropism as well as acute and possibly long‐term liver injury in COVID‐19.
This work was supported by grant F7310‐B21 from the Austrian Science Foundation (to MT). We thank Jelena Remetic, Claudia D. Fuchs, Veronika Mlitz and Daniel Steinacher, for their valuable input and discussion. Figure 1 and Figure 2 have been created with BioRender.com.
Nardo AD, Schneeweiss-Gleixner M, Bakail MM, Dixon ED, Lax SF, Trauner M. Pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury in COVID-19. Liver International. 2021;41(1):20-32. doi:10.1111/liv.14730
Nardo, A. D., Schneeweiss-Gleixner, M., Bakail, M. M., Dixon, E. D., Lax, S. F., & Trauner, M. (2021). Pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury in COVID-19. Liver International. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.14730
Nardo, Alexander D., Mathias Schneeweiss-Gleixner, May M Bakail, Emmanuel D. Dixon, Sigurd F. Lax, and Michael Trauner. “Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Liver Injury in COVID-19.” Liver International. Wiley, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.14730.
A. D. Nardo, M. Schneeweiss-Gleixner, M. M. Bakail, E. D. Dixon, S. F. Lax, and M. Trauner, “Pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury in COVID-19,” Liver International, vol. 41, no. 1. Wiley, pp. 20–32, 2021.
Nardo AD, Schneeweiss-Gleixner M, Bakail MM, Dixon ED, Lax SF, Trauner M. 2021. Pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury in COVID-19. Liver International. 41(1), 20–32.
Nardo, Alexander D., et al. “Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Liver Injury in COVID-19.” Liver International, vol. 41, no. 1, Wiley, 2021, pp. 20–32, doi:10.1111/liv.14730.
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