One of the hallmarks of quantum statistics, tightly entwined with the concept of topological phases of matter, is the prediction of anyons. Although anyons are predicted to be realized in certain fractional quantum Hall systems, they have not yet been unambiguously detected in experiment. Here we introduce a simple quantum impurity model, where bosonic or fermionic impurities turn into anyons as a consequence of their interaction with the surrounding many-particle bath. A cloud of phonons dresses each impurity in such a way that it effectively attaches fluxes or vortices to it and thereby converts it into an Abelian anyon. The corresponding quantum impurity model, first, provides a different approach to the numerical solution of the many-anyon problem, along with a concrete perspective of anyons as emergent quasiparticles built from composite bosons or fermions. More importantly, the model paves the way toward realizing anyons using impurities in crystal lattices as well as ultracold gases. In particular, we consider two heavy electrons interacting with a two-dimensional lattice crystal in a magnetic field, and show that when the impurity-bath system is rotated at the cyclotron frequency, impurities behave as anyons as a consequence of the angular momentum exchange between the impurities and the bath. A possible experimental realization is proposed by identifying the statistics parameter in terms of the mean-square distance of the impurities and the magnetization of the impurity-bath system, both of which are accessible to experiment. Another proposed application is impurities immersed in a two-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gas.
Physical Review B
We are grateful to M. Correggi, A. Deuchert, and P. Schmelcher for valuable discussions. We also thank the anonymous referees for helping to clarify a few important points in the experimental realization. A.G. acknowledges support by the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 754411. D.L. acknowledges financial support from the Goran Gustafsson Foundation (grant no. 1804) and LMU Munich. R.S., M.L., and N.R. gratefully acknowledge financial support by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreements No 694227, No 801770, and No 758620, respectively).
Yakaboylu E, Ghazaryan A, Lundholm D, Rougerie N, Lemeshko M, Seiringer R. Quantum impurity model for anyons. Physical Review B. 2020;102(14). doi:10.1103/physrevb.102.144109
Yakaboylu, E., Ghazaryan, A., Lundholm, D., Rougerie, N., Lemeshko, M., & Seiringer, R. (2020). Quantum impurity model for anyons. Physical Review B. American Physical Society. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.102.144109
Yakaboylu, Enderalp, Areg Ghazaryan, D. Lundholm, N. Rougerie, Mikhail Lemeshko, and Robert Seiringer. “Quantum Impurity Model for Anyons.” Physical Review B. American Physical Society, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.102.144109.
E. Yakaboylu, A. Ghazaryan, D. Lundholm, N. Rougerie, M. Lemeshko, and R. Seiringer, “Quantum impurity model for anyons,” Physical Review B, vol. 102, no. 14. American Physical Society, 2020.
Yakaboylu E, Ghazaryan A, Lundholm D, Rougerie N, Lemeshko M, Seiringer R. 2020. Quantum impurity model for anyons. Physical Review B. 102(14), 144109.
Yakaboylu, Enderalp, et al. “Quantum Impurity Model for Anyons.” Physical Review B, vol. 102, no. 14, 144109, American Physical Society, 2020, doi:10.1103/physrevb.102.144109.