Rogaev, Evgeny I ; Moliaka, Yuri K ; Malyarchuk, Boris A ; Kondrashov, FyodorIST Austria ; Derenko, Miroslava V ; Chumakov, Ilya M ; Grigorenko, Anastasia P
Phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), and the Asian (Elephas maximus) and African savanna (Loxodonta africana) elephants remain unresolved. Here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs) of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the Pleistocene epoch - the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. We demonstrate that well-preserved mitochondrial genome fragments, as long as ∼1,600-1700 base pairs, can be retrieved from pre-Holocene remains of an extinct species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Elephantinae clade suggests that M. primigenius and E. maximus are sister species that diverged soon after their common ancestor split from the L. africana lineage. Low nucleotide diversity found between independently determined mitochondrial genomic sequences of woolly mammoths separated geographically and in time suggests that north-eastern Siberia was occupied by a relatively homogeneous population of M. primigenius throughout the late Pleistocene.
FAK is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. We thank the Natural History Museum, North-Eastern Research Center, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences for photographic material ofM. primigenius leg, V. A. Nikishina for artwork and technical support, Y.B. Yurov, G. Dvoryanchikov, N. Riazanskaya and T. Kolesnikova for technical support, K. Mehren and C. Gray for elephant specimens, and V. Y. Solovyev for help with artwork of animal images.
0403 - 0410
Rogaev E, Moliaka Y, Malyarchuk B, et al. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. PLoS Biology. 2006;4(3):0403-0410. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040073
Rogaev, E., Moliaka, Y., Malyarchuk, B., Kondrashov, F., Derenko, M., Chumakov, I., & Grigorenko, A. (2006). Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. PLoS Biology, 4(3), 0403–0410. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040073
Rogaev, Evgeny, Yuri Moliaka, Boris Malyarchuk, Fyodor Kondrashov, Miroslava Derenko, Ilya Chumakov, and Anastasia Grigorenko. “Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogeny of Pleistocene Mammoth Mammuthus Primigenius.” PLoS Biology 4, no. 3 (2006): 0403–10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040073.
E. Rogaev et al., “Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius,” PLoS Biology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 0403–0410, 2006.
Rogaev E, Moliaka Y, Malyarchuk B, Kondrashov F, Derenko M, Chumakov I, Grigorenko A. 2006. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. PLoS Biology. 4(3), 0403–0410.
Rogaev, Evgeny, et al. “Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogeny of Pleistocene Mammoth Mammuthus Primigenius.” PLoS Biology, vol. 4, no. 3, Public Library of Science, 2006, pp. 0403–10, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040073.