Practical quantum networks require low-loss and noise-resilient optical interconnects as well as non-Gaussian resources for entanglement distillation and distributed quantum computation. The latter could be provided by superconducting circuits but existing solutions to interface the microwave and optical domains lack either scalability or efficiency, and in most cases the conversion noise is not known. In this work we utilize the unique opportunities of silicon photonics, cavity optomechanics and superconducting circuits to demonstrate a fully integrated, coherent transducer interfacing the microwave X and the telecom S bands with a total (internal) bidirectional transduction efficiency of 1.2% (135%) at millikelvin temperatures. The coupling relies solely on the radiation pressure interaction mediated by the femtometer-scale motion of two silicon nanobeams reaching a <jats:italic>V</jats:italic><jats:sub><jats:italic>π</jats:italic></jats:sub> as low as 16 μV for sub-nanowatt pump powers. Without the associated optomechanical gain, we achieve a total (internal) pure conversion efficiency of up to 0.019% (1.6%), relevant for future noise-free operation on this qubit-compatible platform.
We thank Yuan Chen for performing supplementary FEM simulations and Andrew Higginbotham, Ralf Riedinger, Sungkun Hong, and Lorenzo Magrini for valuable discussions. This work was supported by IST Austria, the IST nanofabrication facility (NFF), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 732894 (FET Proactive HOT) and the European Research Council under grant agreement no. 758053 (ERC StG QUNNECT). G.A. is the recipient of a DOC fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences at IST Austria. W.H. is the recipient of an ISTplus postdoctoral fellowship with funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 754411. J.M.F. acknowledges support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) through BeyondC (F71), a NOMIS foundation research grant, and the EU’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 862644 (FET Open QUARTET).
Arnold GM, Wulf M, Barzanjeh S, et al. Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface. Nature Communications. 2020;11. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18269-z
Arnold, G. M., Wulf, M., Barzanjeh, S., Redchenko, E., Rueda Sanchez, A. R., Hease, W. J., … Fink, J. M. (2020). Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface. Nature Communications, 11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18269-z
Arnold, Georg M, Matthias Wulf, Shabir Barzanjeh, Elena Redchenko, Alfredo R Rueda Sanchez, William J Hease, Farid Hassani, and Johannes M Fink. “Converting Microwave and Telecom Photons with a Silicon Photonic Nanomechanical Interface.” Nature Communications 11 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18269-z.
G. M. Arnold et al., “Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface,” Nature Communications, vol. 11, 2020.
Arnold GM, Wulf M, Barzanjeh S, Redchenko E, Rueda Sanchez AR, Hease WJ, Hassani F, Fink JM. 2020. Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface. Nature Communications. 11.
Arnold, Georg M., et al. “Converting Microwave and Telecom Photons with a Silicon Photonic Nanomechanical Interface.” Nature Communications, vol. 11, 4460, Springer Nature, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18269-z.
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