Nonreciprocal circuit elements form an integral part of modern measurement and communication systems. Mathematically they require breaking of time-reversal symmetry, typically achieved using magnetic materials and more recently using the quantum Hall effect, parametric permittivity modulation or Josephson nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate an on-chip magnetic-free circulator based on reservoir-engineered electromechanic interactions. Directional circulation is achieved with controlled phase-sensitive interference of six distinct electro-mechanical signal conversion paths. The presented circulator is compact, its silicon-on-insulator platform is compatible with both superconducting qubits and silicon photonics, and its noise performance is close to the quantum limit. With a high dynamic range, a tunable bandwidth of up to 30 MHz and an in situ reconfigurability as beam splitter or wavelength converter, it could pave the way for superconducting qubit processors with multiplexed on-chip signal processing and readout.
Barzanjeh S, Wulf M, Peruzzo M, et al. Mechanical on chip microwave circulator. Nature Communications. 2017;8(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01304-x
Barzanjeh, S., Wulf, M., Peruzzo, M., Kalaee, M., Dieterle, P., Painter, O., & Fink, J. M. (2017). Mechanical on chip microwave circulator. Nature Communications, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01304-x
Barzanjeh, Shabir, Matthias Wulf, Matilda Peruzzo, Mahmoud Kalaee, Paul Dieterle, Oskar Painter, and Johannes M Fink. “Mechanical on Chip Microwave Circulator.” Nature Communications 8, no. 1 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01304-x.
S. Barzanjeh et al., “Mechanical on chip microwave circulator,” Nature Communications, vol. 8, no. 1, 2017.
Barzanjeh S, Wulf M, Peruzzo M, Kalaee M, Dieterle P, Painter O, Fink JM. 2017. Mechanical on chip microwave circulator. Nature Communications. 8(1).
Barzanjeh, Shabir, et al. “Mechanical on Chip Microwave Circulator.” Nature Communications, vol. 8, no. 1, 1304, Nature Publishing Group, 2017, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01304-x.