Emergence of embryo shape during cleavage divisions

A. McDougall, J. Chenevert, B.G. Godard, R. Dumollard, in:, W. Tworzydlo, S.M. Bilinski (Eds.), Evo-Devo: Non-Model Species in Cell and Developmental Biology, Springer Nature, Cham, 2019, pp. 127–154.

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Abstract
Cells are arranged into species-specific patterns during early embryogenesis. Such cell division patterns are important since they often reflect the distribution of localized cortical factors from eggs/fertilized eggs to specific cells as well as the emergence of organismal form. However, it has proven difficult to reveal the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of cell positioning patterns that underlie embryonic shape, likely because a systems-level approach is required that integrates cell biological, genetic, developmental, and mechanical parameters. The choice of organism to address such questions is also important. Because ascidians display the most extreme form of invariant cleavage pattern among the metazoans, we have been analyzing the cell biological mechanisms that underpin three aspects of cell division (unequal cell division (UCD), oriented cell division (OCD), and asynchronous cell cycles) which affect the overall shape of the blastula-stage ascidian embryo composed of 64 cells. In ascidians, UCD creates two small cells at the 16-cell stage that in turn undergo two further successive rounds of UCD. Starting at the 16-cell stage, the cell cycle becomes asynchronous, whereby the vegetal half divides before the animal half, thus creating 24-, 32-, 44-, and then 64-cell stages. Perturbing either UCD or the alternate cell division rhythm perturbs cell position. We propose that dynamic cell shape changes propagate throughout the embryo via cell-cell contacts to create the ascidian-specific invariant cleavage pattern.
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Date Published
2019-10-10
Book Title
Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology
Volume
68
Page
127-154
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McDougall A, Chenevert J, Godard BG, Dumollard R. Emergence of embryo shape during cleavage divisions. In: Tworzydlo W, Bilinski SM, eds. Evo-Devo: Non-Model Species in Cell and Developmental Biology. Vol 68. RESULTS. Cham: Springer Nature; 2019:127-154. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-23459-1_6
McDougall, A., Chenevert, J., Godard, B. G., & Dumollard, R. (2019). Emergence of embryo shape during cleavage divisions. In W. Tworzydlo & S. M. Bilinski (Eds.), Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology (Vol. 68, pp. 127–154). Cham: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23459-1_6
McDougall, Alex, Janet Chenevert, Benoit G Godard, and Remi Dumollard. “Emergence of Embryo Shape during Cleavage Divisions.” In Evo-Devo: Non-Model Species in Cell and Developmental Biology, edited by Waclaw Tworzydlo and Szczepan M. Bilinski, 68:127–54. RESULTS. Cham: Springer Nature, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23459-1_6.
A. McDougall, J. Chenevert, B. G. Godard, and R. Dumollard, “Emergence of embryo shape during cleavage divisions,” in Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology, vol. 68, W. Tworzydlo and S. M. Bilinski, Eds. Cham: Springer Nature, 2019, pp. 127–154.
McDougall A, Chenevert J, Godard BG, Dumollard R. 2019. Emergence of embryo shape during cleavage divisions. Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology. RESULTS vol. 68. 127–154.
McDougall, Alex, et al. “Emergence of Embryo Shape during Cleavage Divisions.” Evo-Devo: Non-Model Species in Cell and Developmental Biology, edited by Waclaw Tworzydlo and Szczepan M. Bilinski, vol. 68, Springer Nature, 2019, pp. 127–54, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-23459-1_6.

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