IST Austria Thesis
Brain function is mediated by complex dynamical interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cell types. The Cholecystokinin-expressing inhibitory cells (CCK-interneurons) are one of the least studied types, despite being suspected to play important roles in cognitive processes. We studied the network effects of optogenetic silencing of CCK-interneurons in the CA1 hippocampal area during exploration and sleep states. The cell firing pattern in response to light pulses allowed us to classify the recorded neurons in 5 classes, including disinhibited and non-responsive pyramidal cell and interneurons, and the inhibited interneurons corresponding to the CCK group. The light application, which inhibited the activity of CCK interneurons triggered wider changes in the firing dynamics of cells. We observed rate changes (i.e. remapping) of pyramidal cells during the exploration session in which the light was applied relative to the previous control session that was not restricted neither in time nor space to the light delivery. Also, the disinhibited pyramidal cells had higher increase in bursting than in single spike firing rate as a result of CCK silencing. In addition, the firing activity patterns during exploratory periods were more weakly reactivated in sleep for those periods in which CCK-interneuron were silenced than in the unaffected periods. Furthermore, light pulses during sleep disrupted the reactivation of recent waking patterns. Hence, silencing CCK neurons during exploration suppressed the reactivation of waking firing patterns in sleep and CCK interneuron activity was also required during sleep for the normal reactivation of waking patterns. These findings demonstrate the involvement of CCK cells in reactivation-related memory consolidation. An important part of our analysis was to test the relationship of the identified CCKinterneurons to brain oscillations. Our findings showed that these cells exhibited different oscillatory behaviour during anaesthesia and natural waking and sleep conditions. We showed that: 1) Contrary to the past studies performed under anaesthesia, the identified CCKinterneurons fired on the descending portion of the theta phase in waking exploration. 2) CCKinterneuron preferred phases around the trough of gamma oscillations. 3) Contrary to anaesthesia conditions, the average firing rate of the CCK-interneurons increased around the peak activity of the sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events in natural sleep, which is congruent with new reports about their functional connectivity. We also found that light driven CCK-interneuron silencing altered the dynamics on the CA1 network oscillatory activity: 1) Pyramidal cells negatively shifted their preferred theta phases when the light was applied, while interneurons responses were less consistent. 2) As a population, pyramidal cells negatively shifted their preferred activity during gamma oscillations, albeit we did not find gamma modulation differences related to the light application when pyramidal cells were subdivided into the disinhibited and unaffected groups. 3) During the peak of SWR events, all but the CCK-interneurons had a reduction in their relative firing rate change during the light application as compared to the change observed at SWR initiation. Finally, regarding to the place field activity of the recorded pyramidal neurons, we showed that the disinhibited pyramidal cells had reduced place field similarity, coherence and spatial information, but only during the light application. The mechanisms behind such observed behaviours might involve eCB signalling and plastic changes in CCK-interneuron synapses. In conclusion, the observed changes related to the light-mediated silencing of CCKinterneurons have unravelled characteristics of this interneuron subpopulation that might change the understanding not only of their particular network interactions, but also of the current theories about the emergence of certain cognitive processes such as place coding needed for navigation or hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.
Rangel Guerrero DK. The role of CCK-interneurons in regulating hippocampal network dynamics. 2019. doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:6849
Rangel Guerrero, D. K. (2019). The role of CCK-interneurons in regulating hippocampal network dynamics. IST Austria. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:6849
Rangel Guerrero, Dámaris K. “The Role of CCK-Interneurons in Regulating Hippocampal Network Dynamics.” IST Austria, 2019. https://doi.org/10.15479/AT:ISTA:6849.
D. K. Rangel Guerrero, “The role of CCK-interneurons in regulating hippocampal network dynamics,” IST Austria, 2019.
Rangel Guerrero DK. 2019. The role of CCK-interneurons in regulating hippocampal network dynamics. IST Austria.
Rangel Guerrero, Dámaris K. The Role of CCK-Interneurons in Regulating Hippocampal Network Dynamics. IST Austria, 2019, doi:10.15479/AT:ISTA:6849.
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