Segregation of maternal determinants within the oocyte constitutes the first step in embryo patterning. In zebrafish oocytes, extensive ooplasmic streaming leads to the segregation of ooplasm from yolk granules along the animal-vegetal axis of the oocyte. Here, we show that this process does not rely on cortical actin reorganization, as previously thought, but instead on a cell-cycle-dependent bulk actin polymerization wave traveling from the animal to the vegetal pole of the oocyte. This wave functions in segregation by both pulling ooplasm animally and pushing yolk granules vegetally. Using biophysical experimentation and theory, we show that ooplasm pulling is mediated by bulk actin network flows exerting friction forces on the ooplasm, while yolk granule pushing is achieved by a mechanism closely resembling actin comet formation on yolk granules. Our study defines a novel role of cell-cycle-controlled bulk actin polymerization waves in oocyte polarization via ooplasmic segregation.
We would like to thank Pierre Recho, Guillaume Salbreux, and Silvia Grigolon for advice on the theory, Lila Solnica-Krezel for kindly providing us with zebrafish dachsous mutants, members of the Heisenberg and Hannezo groups for fruitful discussions, and the Bioimaging and zebrafish facilities at IST Austria for their continuous support. This project has received funding from the European Union (European Research Council Advanced Grant 742573 to C.P.H.) and from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) (P 31639 to E.H.).
Shamipour S, Kardos R, Xue S, Hof B, Hannezo EB, Heisenberg C-PJ. Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes. Cell. 2019;177(6):1463-1479.e18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.030
Shamipour, S., Kardos, R., Xue, S., Hof, B., Hannezo, E. B., & Heisenberg, C.-P. J. (2019). Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes. Cell. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.030
Shamipour, Shayan, Roland Kardos, Shi-lei Xue, Björn Hof, Edouard B Hannezo, and Carl-Philipp J Heisenberg. “Bulk Actin Dynamics Drive Phase Segregation in Zebrafish Oocytes.” Cell. Elsevier, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.030.
S. Shamipour, R. Kardos, S. Xue, B. Hof, E. B. Hannezo, and C.-P. J. Heisenberg, “Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes,” Cell, vol. 177, no. 6. Elsevier, p. 1463–1479.e18, 2019.
Shamipour S, Kardos R, Xue S, Hof B, Hannezo EB, Heisenberg C-PJ. 2019. Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes. Cell. 177(6), 1463–1479.e18.
Shamipour, Shayan, et al. “Bulk Actin Dynamics Drive Phase Segregation in Zebrafish Oocytes.” Cell, vol. 177, no. 6, Elsevier, 2019, p. 1463–1479.e18, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.030.
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