Noda-García, Lianet; Davidi, Dan; Korenblum, Elisa; Elazar, Assaf; Putintseva, KatyaIST Austria; Aharoni, Asaph; Tawfik, Dan S.
How does environmental complexity affect the evolution of single genes? Here, we measured the effects of a set of Bacillus subtilis glutamate dehydrogenase mutants across 19 different environments—from phenotypically homogeneous single-cell populations in liquid media to heterogeneous biofilms, plant roots and soil populations. The effects of individual gene mutations on organismal fitness were highly reproducible in liquid cultures. However, 84% of the tested alleles showed opposing fitness effects under different growth conditions (sign environmental pleiotropy). In colony biofilms and soil samples, different alleles dominated in parallel replica experiments. Accordingly, we found that in these heterogeneous cell populations the fate of mutations was dictated by a combination of selection and drift. The latter relates to programmed prophage excisions that occurred during biofilm development. Overall, for each condition, a wide range of glutamate dehydrogenase mutations persisted and sometimes fixated as a result of the combined action of selection, pleiotropy and chance. However, over longer periods and in multiple environments, nearly all of this diversity would be lost—across all the environments and conditions that we tested, the wild type was the fittest allele.
Noda-García L, Davidi D, Korenblum E, et al. Chance and pleiotropy dominate genetic diversity in complex bacterial environments. Nature Microbiology. 2019;4(7):1221–1230. doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0412-y
Noda-García, L., Davidi, D., Korenblum, E., Elazar, A., Putintseva, E., Aharoni, A., & Tawfik, D. S. (2019). Chance and pleiotropy dominate genetic diversity in complex bacterial environments. Nature Microbiology, 4(7), 1221–1230. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0412-y
Noda-García, Lianet, Dan Davidi, Elisa Korenblum, Assaf Elazar, Ekaterina Putintseva, Asaph Aharoni, and Dan S. Tawfik. “Chance and Pleiotropy Dominate Genetic Diversity in Complex Bacterial Environments.” Nature Microbiology 4, no. 7 (2019): 1221–1230. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0412-y.
L. Noda-García et al., “Chance and pleiotropy dominate genetic diversity in complex bacterial environments,” Nature Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1221–1230, 2019.
Noda-García L, Davidi D, Korenblum E, Elazar A, Putintseva E, Aharoni A, Tawfik DS. 2019. Chance and pleiotropy dominate genetic diversity in complex bacterial environments. Nature Microbiology. 4(7), 1221–1230.
Noda-García, Lianet, et al. “Chance and Pleiotropy Dominate Genetic Diversity in Complex Bacterial Environments.” Nature Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 7, Springer Nature, 2019, pp. 1221–1230, doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0412-y.