de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas AIST Austria ; Majumdar, Ritankar S; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
We consider concurrent two-person games played in real time, in which the players decide both which action to play, and when to play it. Such timed games differ from untimed games in two essential ways. First, players can take each other by surprise, because actions are played with delays that cannot be anticipated by the opponent. Second, a player should not be able to win the game by preventing time from diverging. We present a model of timed games that preserves the element of surprise and accounts for time divergence in a way that treats both players symmetrically and applies to all ω-regular winning conditions. We prove that the ability to take each other by surprise adds extra power to the players. For the case that the games are specified in the style of timed automata, we provide symbolic algorithms for their solution with respect to all ω-regular winning conditions. We also show that for these timed games, memory strategies are more powerful than memoryless strategies already in the case of reachability objectives.
Supported in part by the AFOSR MURI grant F49620-00-1-0327, the DARPA grant F33615-C-98-3614, the MARCO grant 98-DT-660, -the ONR grant N00014-02-1-0671, the NSF grants CCR-9988172, CCR-0225610, and CCR-0234690, the NSF CAREER award CCR-0132780, and the MIUR grant MEFISTO.
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CONCUR: Concurrency Theory
De Alfaro L, Faella M, Henzinger TA, Majumdar R, Stoelinga M. The element of surprise in timed games. In: Vol 2761. Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik; 2003:144-158. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45187-7_9
De Alfaro, L., Faella, M., Henzinger, T. A., Majumdar, R., & Stoelinga, M. (2003). The element of surprise in timed games (Vol. 2761, pp. 144–158). Presented at the CONCUR: Concurrency Theory, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45187-7_9
De Alfaro, Luca, Marco Faella, Thomas A Henzinger, Ritankar Majumdar, and Mariëlle Stoelinga. “The Element of Surprise in Timed Games,” 2761:144–58. Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45187-7_9.
L. De Alfaro, M. Faella, T. A. Henzinger, R. Majumdar, and M. Stoelinga, “The element of surprise in timed games,” presented at the CONCUR: Concurrency Theory, 2003, vol. 2761, pp. 144–158.
De Alfaro L, Faella M, Henzinger TA, Majumdar R, Stoelinga M. 2003. The element of surprise in timed games. CONCUR: Concurrency Theory, LNCS, vol. 2761, 144–158.
De Alfaro, Luca, et al. The Element of Surprise in Timed Games. Vol. 2761, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2003, pp. 144–58, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45187-7_9.