The regular real-time languages

T.A. Henzinger, J. Raskin, P. Schobbens, in:, Springer, 1998, pp. 580–591.

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A specification formalism for reactive systems defines a class of Ω-languages. We call a specification formalism fully decidable if it is constructively closed under boolean operations and has a decidable satisfiability (nonemptiness) problem. There are two important, robust classes of Ω-languages that are definable by fully decidable formalisms. The Ω -reqular languages are definable by finite automata, or equivalcntly, by the Sequential Calculus. The counter-free Ω-regular languages are definable by temporal logic, or equivalcntly, by the first-order fragment of the Sequential Calculus. The gap between both classes can be closed by finite counting (using automata connectives), or equivalently, by projection (existential second-order quantification over letters). A specification formalism for real-time systems defines a class of timed Ω-langnages, whose letters have real-numbered time stamps. Two popular ways of specifying timing constraints rely on the use of clocks, and on the use of time bounds for temporal operators. However, temporal logics with clocks or time bounds have undecidable satisfiability problems, and finite automata with clocks (so-called timed automata) are not closed under complement. Therefore, two fully decidable restrictions of these formalisms have been proposed. In the first case, clocks are restricted to event clocks, which measure distances to immediately preceding or succeeding events only. In the second case, time bounds are restricted to nonsingular intervals, which cannot specify the exact punctuality of events. We show that the resulting classes of timed Ω-languages are robust, and we explain their relationship. First, we show that temporal logic with event clocks defines the same class of timed Ω-languages as temporal logic with nonsingular time bounds, and we identify a first-order monadic theory that also defines this class. Second, we show that if the ability of finite counting is added to these formalisms, we obtain the class of timed Ω-languages that are definable by finite automata with event clocks, or equivalently, by a restricted second-order extension of the monadic theory. Third, we show that if projection is added, we obtain the class of timed Ω-languages that are definable by timed automata, or equivalently, by a richer second-order extension of the monadic theory. These results identify three robust classes of timed Ω-languages, of which the third, while popular, is not definable by a, fully decidable formalism. By contrast, the first two classes are definable by fully decidable formalisms from temporal logic, from automata theory, and from monadic logic. Since the gap between these two classes can be closed by finite counting, we dub them the timed Ω-regular languages and the timed counter-free Ω-rcgular languages, respectively.
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This work is supported in part by the ONR YIP award N00014-95-1-0520, the NSF CAREER award CCR-9501708, the NSF grant CCR-9504469, the ARO MURI grant DAAH-04-96-1-0341, the SRC contract 97-DC-324.041, the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), the European Commission under WGs Aspire and Fireworks, the Portuguese FCT, and by Belgacom.
580 - 591
ICALP: Automata, Languages and Programming

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Henzinger TA, Raskin J, Schobbens P. The regular real-time languages. In: Vol 1443. Springer; 1998:580-591. doi:10.1007/BFb0055086
Henzinger, T. A., Raskin, J., & Schobbens, P. (1998). The regular real-time languages (Vol. 1443, pp. 580–591). Presented at the ICALP: Automata, Languages and Programming, Springer.
Henzinger, Thomas A, Jean Raskin, and Pierre Schobbens. “The Regular Real-Time Languages,” 1443:580–91. Springer, 1998.
T. A. Henzinger, J. Raskin, and P. Schobbens, “The regular real-time languages,” presented at the ICALP: Automata, Languages and Programming, 1998, vol. 1443, pp. 580–591.
Henzinger TA, Raskin J, Schobbens P. 1998. The regular real-time languages. ICALP: Automata, Languages and Programming, LNCS, vol. 1443. 580–591.
Henzinger, Thomas A., et al. The Regular Real-Time Languages. Vol. 1443, Springer, 1998, pp. 580–91, doi:10.1007/BFb0055086.


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