Introgression through rare hybridisation: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland

S. Goodman, N.H. Barton, G. Swanson, K. Abernethy, J. Pemberton, Genetics 152 (1999) 355–371.

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Abstract
In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and introduced Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red- like phenotype. Introgression is rare at any one locus, but where the taxa overlap up to 40% of deer carry apparently introgressed alleles. While most putative hybrids are heterozygous at only one locus, there are rare multiple heterozygotes, reflecting significant linkage disequilibrium within both sika- and red-like populations. The rate of backcrossing into the sika population is estimated as H = 0.002 per generation and into red, H = 0.001 per generation. On the basis of historical evidence that red deer entered Kintyre only recently, a diffusion model evaluated by maximum likelihood shows that sika have increased at ~9.2% yr-1 from low frequency and disperse at a rate of ~3.7 km yr-1. Introgression into the red-like population is greater in the south, while introgression into sika varies little along the transect. For both sika- and red-like populations, the degree of introgression is 30-40% of that predicted from the rates of current hybridization inferred from linkage disequilibria; however, in neither case is this statistically significant evidence for selection against introgression.
Publishing Year
Date Published
1999-05-01
Journal Title
Genetics
Volume
152
Issue
1
Page
355 - 371
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Goodman S, Barton NH, Swanson G, Abernethy K, Pemberton J. Introgression through rare hybridisation: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland. Genetics. 1999;152(1):355-371.
Goodman, S., Barton, N. H., Swanson, G., Abernethy, K., & Pemberton, J. (1999). Introgression through rare hybridisation: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland. Genetics, 152(1), 355–371.
Goodman, Simon, Nicholas H Barton, Graeme Swanson, Kate Abernethy, and Josephine Pemberton. “Introgression through Rare Hybridisation: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland.” Genetics 152, no. 1 (1999): 355–71.
S. Goodman, N. H. Barton, G. Swanson, K. Abernethy, and J. Pemberton, “Introgression through rare hybridisation: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland,” Genetics, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 355–371, 1999.
Goodman S, Barton NH, Swanson G, Abernethy K, Pemberton J. 1999. Introgression through rare hybridisation: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland. Genetics. 152(1), 355–371.
Goodman, Simon, et al. “Introgression through Rare Hybridisation: A Genetic Study of a Hybrid Zone between Red and Sika Deer (Genus Cervus), in Argyll, Scotland.” Genetics, vol. 152, no. 1, Genetics Society of America, 1999, pp. 355–71.

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