Diz Muñoz, Alba ; Krieg, Michael ; Bergert, Martin ; Ibarlucea Benitez, Itziar ; Müller, Daniel ; Paluch, Ewa ; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp IST Austria
Cell shape and motility are primarily controlled by cellular mechanics. The attachment of the plasma membrane to the underlying actomyosin cortex has been proposed to be important for cellular processes involving membrane deformation. However, little is known about the actual function of membrane-to-cortex attachment (MCA) in cell protrusion formation and migration, in particular in the context of the developing embryo. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to study MCA in zebrafish mesoderm and endoderm (mesendoderm) germ layer progenitor cells, which migrate using a combination of different protrusion types, namely, lamellipodia, filopodia, and blebs, during zebrafish gastrulation. By interfering with the activity of molecules linking the cortex to the membrane and measuring resulting changes in MCA by atomic force microscopy, we show that reducing MCA in mesendoderm progenitors increases the proportion of cellular blebs and reduces the directionality of cell migration. We propose that MCA is a key parameter controlling the relative proportions of different cell protrusion types in mesendoderm progenitors, and thus is key in controlling directed migration during gastrulation.
We would like to thank A. G. Clark, S. Grill, A. Oates, E. Raz, L. Rohde, and M. Zerial for reading earlier versions of the manuscript. We are grateful to W. Zachariae, Y. Arboleda-Estudillo, S. Schneider, P. Stockinger, D. Panhans, M. Biro, J. C. Olaya, and the BIOTEC/MPI-CBG zebrafish and imaging facilities for help and advice at various stages of this project and to J. Helenius for help with programming. This work was supported by grants from the Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds to MK, the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education to E. P., and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (HE 3231/6-1 and PA 1590/1-1) to CPH and EP.
Diz Muñoz A, Krieg M, Bergert M, et al. Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment. PLoS Biology. 2010;8(11):e1000544. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000544
Diz Muñoz, A., Krieg, M., Bergert, M., Ibarlucea Benitez, I., Müller, D., Paluch, E., & Heisenberg, C.-P. J. (2010). Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment. PLoS Biology, 8(11), e1000544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000544
Diz Muñoz, Alba, Michael Krieg, Martin Bergert, Itziar Ibarlucea Benitez, Daniel Müller, Ewa Paluch, and Carl-Philipp J Heisenberg. “Control of Directed Cell Migration in Vivo by Membrane-to-Cortex Attachment.” PLoS Biology 8, no. 11 (2010): e1000544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000544.
A. Diz Muñoz et al., “Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment,” PLoS Biology, vol. 8, no. 11, p. e1000544, 2010.
Diz Muñoz A, Krieg M, Bergert M, Ibarlucea Benitez I, Müller D, Paluch E, Heisenberg C-PJ. 2010. Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment. PLoS Biology. 8(11), e1000544.
Diz Muñoz, Alba, et al. “Control of Directed Cell Migration in Vivo by Membrane-to-Cortex Attachment.” PLoS Biology, vol. 8, no. 11, Public Library of Science, 2010, p. e1000544, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000544.