Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

C. Bippes, H.L. Janovjak, A. Kedrov, D. Mueller, Nanotechnology 18 (2007).

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Abstract
Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand–receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA.
Publishing Year
Date Published
2007-01-31
Journal Title
Nanotechnology
Volume
18
Issue
4
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Bippes C, Janovjak HL, Kedrov A, Mueller D. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology. 2007;18(4). doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/4/044022
Bippes, C., Janovjak, H. L., Kedrov, A., & Mueller, D. (2007). Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology, 18(4). https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/4/044022
Bippes, Christian, Harald L Janovjak, Alexej Kedrov, and Daniel Mueller. “Digital Force-Feedback for Protein Unfolding Experiments Using Atomic Force Microscopy.” Nanotechnology 18, no. 4 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/4/044022.
C. Bippes, H. L. Janovjak, A. Kedrov, and D. Mueller, “Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 4, 2007.
Bippes C, Janovjak HL, Kedrov A, Mueller D. 2007. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology. 18(4).
Bippes, Christian, et al. “Digital Force-Feedback for Protein Unfolding Experiments Using Atomic Force Microscopy.” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 4, IOP Publishing Ltd., 2007, doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/4/044022.

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