Kaneko, Takeshi; Itoh, Kazuo; Shigemoto, RyuichiIST Austria ; Mizuno, Noboru
Distribution of putative glutamatergic neurons in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the rat was examined immunocytochemically by using a monoclonal antibody against phosphate-activated glutaminase, which has been proposed to be a major synthetic enzyme of transmitter glutamate and so may serve as a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the central nervous system. Intensely-immunolabeled neuronal cell bodies were densely distributed in the main precerebellar nuclei sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the pontine nuclei, pontine tegmental reticular nucleus of Bechterew, external cuneate nucleus, and lateral reticular nucleus of the medulla oblongata. Phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactive granular deposits were densely seen in the brachium pontis and restiform body, suggesting the immunolabeling of mossy fibers of passage. In the cerebellum, neuropil within the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex displayed intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity, and that within the deep cerebellar nuclei showed moderate immunoreactivity. These results indicate that many mossy fiber terminals originate from phosphate-activated glutaminase-containing neurons and utilize phosphate-activated glutaminase for the synthesis of transmitter glutamate. Intensely-immunostained neuronal cell bodies were further observed in other regions which have been reported to contain neurons sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the dorsal part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, dorsomedial part of the oral subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolar subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, supragenual nucleus, regions dorsal to the abducens nucleus and genu of the facial nerve, superior and medial vestibular nuclei, cell groups f, x and y, hypoglossal prepositus nucleus, intercalated nucleus, nucleus of Roller, reticular regions intercalated between the motor trigeminal and principal sensory trigeminal nuclei, linear nucleus, and gigantocellular and paramedian reticular formation. Neuronal cell bodies with intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity were also found in other brainstem regions, such as the paracochlear glial substance, posterior ventral cochlear nucleus, and cell group e. Although it is still controversial whether all glutamatergic neurons use phosphate-activated glutaminase in a transmitter-related process and whether phosphate-activated glutaminase is involved in other metabolism-related processes, the neurons showing intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immuno-reactivity in the present study were suggested to be putative glutamatergic neurons.
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Kaneko T, Itoh K, Shigemoto R, Mizuno N. Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat. Neuroscience. 1989;32(1):79-98. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90109-7
Kaneko, T., Itoh, K., Shigemoto, R., & Mizuno, N. (1989). Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat. Neuroscience, 32(1), 79–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(89)90109-7
Kaneko, Takeshi, Kazuo Itoh, Ryuichi Shigemoto, and Noboru Mizuno. “Glutaminase-like Immunoreactivity in the Lower Brainstem and Cerebellum of the Adult Rat.” Neuroscience 32, no. 1 (1989): 79–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(89)90109-7.
T. Kaneko, K. Itoh, R. Shigemoto, and N. Mizuno, “Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat,” Neuroscience, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 79–98, 1989.
Kaneko T, Itoh K, Shigemoto R, Mizuno N. 1989. Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat. Neuroscience. 32(1), 79–98.
Kaneko, Takeshi, et al. “Glutaminase-like Immunoreactivity in the Lower Brainstem and Cerebellum of the Adult Rat.” Neuroscience, vol. 32, no. 1, Elsevier, 1989, pp. 79–98, doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90109-7.