Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation

B. Vicoso, J. Emerson, Y. Zektser, S. Mahajan, D. Bachtrog, PLoS Biology 11 (2013).

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Abstract
Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes evolution.
Publishing Year
Date Published
2013-08-27
Journal Title
PLoS Biology
Acknowledgement
Funded by NIH grants (R01GM076007 and R01GM093182) and a Packard Fellowship to DB.
Volume
11
Issue
8
IST-REx-ID

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Vicoso B, Emerson J, Zektser Y, Mahajan S, Bachtrog D. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation. PLoS Biology. 2013;11(8). doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001643
Vicoso, B., Emerson, J., Zektser, Y., Mahajan, S., & Bachtrog, D. (2013). Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation. PLoS Biology, 11(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001643
Vicoso, Beatriz, Jr Emerson, Yulia Zektser, Shivani Mahajan, and Doris Bachtrog. “Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation Evolutionary Strata and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation.” PLoS Biology 11, no. 8 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001643.
B. Vicoso, J. Emerson, Y. Zektser, S. Mahajan, and D. Bachtrog, “Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation,” PLoS Biology, vol. 11, no. 8, 2013.
Vicoso B, Emerson J, Zektser Y, Mahajan S, Bachtrog D. 2013. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation. PLoS Biology. 11(8).
Vicoso, Beatriz, et al. “Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation Evolutionary Strata and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation.” PLoS Biology, vol. 11, no. 8, Public Library of Science, 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001643.

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