De novo transcriptome assembly and sex-biased gene expression in the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata

A.K. Huylmans, A. López Ezquerra, J. Parsch, M. Cordellier, Genome Biology and Evolution 8 (2016) 3120–3139.

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Abstract
Daphnia species have become models for ecological genomics and exhibit interesting features, such as high phenotypic plasticity and a densely packed genome with many lineage-specific genes. They are also cyclic parthenogenetic, with alternating asexual and sexual cycles and environmental sex determination. Here, we present a de novo transcriptome assembly of over 32,000 D. galeata genes and use it to investigate gene expression in females and spontaneously produced males of two clonal lines derived from lakes in Germany and the Czech Republic. We find that only a low percentage (18%) of genes shows sex-biased expression and that there are many more female-biased gene (FBG) than male-biased gene (MBG). Furthermore, FBGs tend to be more conserved between species than MBGs in both sequence and expression. These patterns may be a consequence of cyclic parthenogenesis leading to a relaxation of purifying selection on MBGs. The two clonal lines show considerable differences in both number and identity of sex-biased genes, suggesting that they may have reproductive strategies differing in their investment in sexual reproduction. Orthologs of key genes in the sex determination and juvenile hormone pathways, which are thought to be important for the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction, are present in D. galeata and highly conserved among Daphnia species.
Publishing Year
Date Published
2016-10-01
Journal Title
Genome Biology and Evolution
Acknowledgement
This study was financially supported by individual grants from the Volkswagen Stiftung (to M.C.), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant PA 903/6 to J.P.) and the DAAD (to A.K.H.). The authors would like to thank I. Schrank, L. Theodosiou, M. Kredler, C. Laforsch, J. Wolinska, J. Griebel, R. Jaenichen, and K. Otte for providing the necessary resources and help for maintaining Daphnia cultures in the laboratory. H. Lainer supported us for the molecular laboratory work. D. Gilbert and J. K. Colbourne contributed ideas for the bioinformatics analysis, and L. Hardulak did the orthology mapping including more insect species. This study was financially supported by individual grants from the Volkswagen Stiftung (to M.C.), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant PA 903/6 to J.P.) and the DAAD (to A.K.H.). This work benefits from and contributes to the Daphnia Genomics Consortium.
Volume
8
Issue
10
Page
3120 - 3139
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Huylmans AK, López Ezquerra A, Parsch J, Cordellier M. De novo transcriptome assembly and sex-biased gene expression in the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata. Genome Biology and Evolution. 2016;8(10):3120-3139. doi:10.1093/gbe/evw221
Huylmans, A. K., López Ezquerra, A., Parsch, J., & Cordellier, M. (2016). De novo transcriptome assembly and sex-biased gene expression in the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8(10), 3120–3139. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw221
Huylmans, Ann K, Alberto López Ezquerra, John Parsch, and Mathilde Cordellier. “De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in the Cyclical Parthenogenetic Daphnia Galeata.” Genome Biology and Evolution 8, no. 10 (2016): 3120–39. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw221.
A. K. Huylmans, A. López Ezquerra, J. Parsch, and M. Cordellier, “De novo transcriptome assembly and sex-biased gene expression in the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata,” Genome Biology and Evolution, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 3120–3139, 2016.
Huylmans AK, López Ezquerra A, Parsch J, Cordellier M. 2016. De novo transcriptome assembly and sex-biased gene expression in the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata. Genome Biology and Evolution. 8(10), 3120–3139.
Huylmans, Ann K., et al. “De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in the Cyclical Parthenogenetic Daphnia Galeata.” Genome Biology and Evolution, vol. 8, no. 10, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 3120–39, doi:10.1093/gbe/evw221.
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