Diversified actin protrusions promote environmental exploration but are dispensable for locomotion of leukocytes

A.F. Leithner, A. Eichner, J. Müller, A. REVERSAT, M. Brown, J. Schwarz, J. Merrin, D. De Gorter, F.K. Schur, J. Bayerl, I. de Vries, S. Wieser, R. Hauschild, F. Lai, M. Moser, D. Kerjaschki, K. Rottner, V. Small, T. Stradal, M.K. Sixt, Nature Cell Biology 18 (2016) 1253–1259.

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Journal Article | Published | English
Abstract
Most migrating cells extrude their front by the force of actin polymerization. Polymerization requires an initial nucleation step, which is mediated by factors establishing either parallel filaments in the case of filopodia or branched filaments that form the branched lamellipodial network. Branches are considered essential for regular cell motility and are initiated by the Arp2/3 complex, which in turn is activated by nucleation-promoting factors of the WASP and WAVE families. Here we employed rapid amoeboid crawling leukocytes and found that deletion of the WAVE complex eliminated actin branching and thus lamellipodia formation. The cells were left with parallel filaments at the leading edge, which translated, depending on the differentiation status of the cell, into a unipolar pointed cell shape or cells with multiple filopodia. Remarkably, unipolar cells migrated with increased speed and enormous directional persistence, while they were unable to turn towards chemotactic gradients. Cells with multiple filopodia retained chemotactic activity but their migration was progressively impaired with increasing geometrical complexity of the extracellular environment. These findings establish that diversified leading edge protrusions serve as explorative structures while they slow down actual locomotion.
Publishing Year
Date Published
2016-10-24
Journal Title
Nature Cell Biology
Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Priority Program SP 1464 to T.E.B.S. and M.S., and European Research Council (ERC GA 281556) and Human Frontiers Program grants to M.S. Service Units of IST Austria for excellent technical support.
Volume
18
Page
1253 - 1259
IST-REx-ID

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Leithner AF, Eichner A, Müller J, et al. Diversified actin protrusions promote environmental exploration but are dispensable for locomotion of leukocytes. Nature Cell Biology. 2016;18:1253-1259. doi:10.1038/ncb3426
Leithner, A. F., Eichner, A., Müller, J., REVERSAT, A., Brown, M., Schwarz, J., … Sixt, M. K. (2016). Diversified actin protrusions promote environmental exploration but are dispensable for locomotion of leukocytes. Nature Cell Biology, 18, 1253–1259. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb3426
Leithner, Alexander F, Alexander Eichner, Jan Müller, Anne REVERSAT, Markus Brown, Jan Schwarz, Jack Merrin, et al. “Diversified Actin Protrusions Promote Environmental Exploration but Are Dispensable for Locomotion of Leukocytes.” Nature Cell Biology 18 (2016): 1253–59. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb3426.
A. F. Leithner et al., “Diversified actin protrusions promote environmental exploration but are dispensable for locomotion of leukocytes,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 18, pp. 1253–1259, 2016.
Leithner AF, Eichner A, Müller J, REVERSAT A, Brown M, Schwarz J, Merrin J, De Gorter D, Schur FK, Bayerl J, de Vries I, Wieser S, Hauschild R, Lai F, Moser M, Kerjaschki D, Rottner K, Small V, Stradal T, Sixt MK. 2016. Diversified actin protrusions promote environmental exploration but are dispensable for locomotion of leukocytes. Nature Cell Biology. 18, 1253–1259.
Leithner, Alexander F., et al. “Diversified Actin Protrusions Promote Environmental Exploration but Are Dispensable for Locomotion of Leukocytes.” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 18, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, pp. 1253–59, doi:10.1038/ncb3426.
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