When plants grow in close proximity basic resources such as light can become limiting. Under such conditions plants respond to anticipate and/or adapt to the light shortage, a process known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Following genetic screening using a shade-responsive luciferase reporter line (PHYB:LUC), we identified DRACULA2 (DRA2), which encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of mammalian nucleoporin 98, a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). DRA2, together with other nucleoporins, participates positively in the control of the hypocotyl elongation response to plant proximity, a role that can be considered dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules (i.e. is transport dependent). In addition, our results reveal a specific role for DRA2 in controlling shade-induced gene expression. We suggest that this novel regulatory role of DRA2 is transport independent and that it might rely on its dynamic localization within and outside of the NPC. These results provide mechanistic insights in to how SAS responses are rapidly established by light conditions. They also indicate that nucleoporins have an active role in plant signaling.
M.G. received an FPI fellowship from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO). A.G. and A.F.-A. received FPU fellowships from the Spanish Ministerio de Educación. S.P. received an FI fellowship from the Agència de Gestió D'ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR - Generalitat de Catalunya). C.T. received a Marie Curie IEF postdoctoral contract funded by the European Commission. I.R.-V. received initially an FPI fellowship from the Spanish MINECO and later a Beatriu de Pinós contract from AGAUR. Our research is supported by grants from the Spanish MINECO-FEDER [BIO2008-00169, BIO2011-23489 and BIO2014-59895-P] and Generalitat de Catalunya [2011-SGR447 and Xarba] to J.F.M.-G., and Generalitat Valenciana [PROMETEO/2009/112, PROMETEOII/2014/006] to M.R.P. and J.L.M. We acknowledge the support of the Spanish MINECO for the ‘Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2016-2019’ [award SEV-2015-0533]. We thank the CRAG greenhouse service for plant care; Chus Burillo for technical help; Sergi Portolés and Carles Rentero for assistance with mutagenesis; Mark Estelle (UCSD, USA) for providing sar1-4, sar3-1 and sar3-3 seeds; Juanjo López-Moya (CRAG, Barcelona; 35S:HcPro plasmid) and Dolors Ludevid (CRAG; C307 plasmid) for providing DNA plasmids; and Manuel Rodríguez-Concepción (CRAG) and Miguel Blázquez (IBMCP, Valencia, Spain) for comments on the manuscript.
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Gallemi M, Galstyan A, Paulišić S, et al. DRACULA2 is a dynamic nucleoporin with a role in regulating the shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis. Development. 2016;143(9):1623-1631. doi:10.1242/dev.130211
Gallemi, M., Galstyan, A., Paulišić, S., Then, C., Ferrández Ayela, A., Lorenzo Orts, L., … Martínez García, J. (2016). DRACULA2 is a dynamic nucleoporin with a role in regulating the shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis. Development. Company of Biologists. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.130211
Gallemi, Marçal, Anahit Galstyan, Sandi Paulišić, Christiane Then, Almudena Ferrández Ayela, Laura Lorenzo Orts, Irma Roig Villanova, et al. “DRACULA2 Is a Dynamic Nucleoporin with a Role in Regulating the Shade Avoidance Syndrome in Arabidopsis.” Development. Company of Biologists, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.130211.
M. Gallemi et al., “DRACULA2 is a dynamic nucleoporin with a role in regulating the shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis,” Development, vol. 143, no. 9. Company of Biologists, pp. 1623–1631, 2016.
Gallemi M, Galstyan A, Paulišić S, Then C, Ferrández Ayela A, Lorenzo Orts L, Roig Villanova I, Wang X, Micol J, Ponce M, Devlin P, Martínez García J. 2016. DRACULA2 is a dynamic nucleoporin with a role in regulating the shade avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis. Development. 143(9), 1623–1631.
Gallemi, Marçal, et al. “DRACULA2 Is a Dynamic Nucleoporin with a Role in Regulating the Shade Avoidance Syndrome in Arabidopsis.” Development, vol. 143, no. 9, Company of Biologists, 2016, pp. 1623–31, doi:10.1242/dev.130211.