10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_16
Abusalah, Hamza M
Hamza M
Abusalah
Fuchsbauer, Georg
Georg
Fuchsbauer
Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
Krzysztof Z
Pietrzak
Offline witness encryption
LNCS
Springer
2016
2018-12-11T11:50:50Z
2019-08-13T13:33:03Z
conference
https://research-explorer.app.ist.ac.at/record/1229
https://research-explorer.app.ist.ac.at/record/1229.json
515000 bytes
application/pdf
Witness encryption (WE) was introduced by Garg et al. [GGSW13]. A WE scheme is defined for some NP language L and lets a sender encrypt messages relative to instances x. A ciphertext for x can be decrypted using w witnessing x ∈ L, but hides the message if x ∈ L. Garg et al. construct WE from multilinear maps and give another construction [GGH+13b] using indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) for circuits. Due to the reliance on such heavy tools, WE can cur- rently hardly be implemented on powerful hardware and will unlikely be realizable on constrained devices like smart cards any time soon. We construct a WE scheme where encryption is done by simply computing a Naor-Yung ciphertext (two CPA encryptions and a NIZK proof). To achieve this, our scheme has a setup phase, which outputs public parameters containing an obfuscated circuit (only required for decryption), two encryption keys and a common reference string (used for encryption). This setup need only be run once, and the parame- ters can be used for arbitrary many encryptions. Our scheme can also be turned into a functional WE scheme, where a message is encrypted w.r.t. a statement and a function f, and decryption with a witness w yields f (m, w). Our construction is inspired by the functional encryption scheme by Garg et al. and we prove (selective) security assuming iO and statistically simulation-sound NIZK. We give a construction of the latter in bilinear groups and combining it with ElGamal encryption, our ciphertexts are of size 1.3 kB at a 128-bit security level and can be computed on a smart card.