Witness encryption (WE) was introduced by Garg et al. [GGSW13]. A WE scheme is defined for some NP language L and lets a sender encrypt messages relative to instances x. A ciphertext for x can be decrypted using w witnessing x ∈ L, but hides the message if x ∈ L. Garg et al. construct WE from multilinear maps and give another construction [GGH+13b] using indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) for circuits. Due to the reliance on such heavy tools, WE can cur- rently hardly be implemented on powerful hardware and will unlikely be realizable on constrained devices like smart cards any time soon. We construct a WE scheme where encryption is done by simply computing a Naor-Yung ciphertext (two CPA encryptions and a NIZK proof). To achieve this, our scheme has a setup phase, which outputs public parameters containing an obfuscated circuit (only required for decryption), two encryption keys and a common reference string (used for encryption). This setup need only be run once, and the parame- ters can be used for arbitrary many encryptions. Our scheme can also be turned into a functional WE scheme, where a message is encrypted w.r.t. a statement and a function f, and decryption with a witness w yields f (m, w). Our construction is inspired by the functional encryption scheme by Garg et al. and we prove (selective) security assuming iO and statistically simulation-sound NIZK. We give a construction of the latter in bilinear groups and combining it with ElGamal encryption, our ciphertexts are of size 1.3 kB at a 128-bit security level and can be computed on a smart card.
Research supported by the European Research Council, ERC starting grant (259668-PSPC) and ERC consolidator grant (682815 - TOCNeT).
285 - 303
ACNS: Applied Cryptography and Network Security
2016-06-19 – 2016-06-22
Abusalah HM, Fuchsbauer G, Pietrzak KZ. Offline witness encryption. In: Vol 9696. Springer; 2016:285-303. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_16
Abusalah, H. M., Fuchsbauer, G., & Pietrzak, K. Z. (2016). Offline witness encryption (Vol. 9696, pp. 285–303). Presented at the ACNS: Applied Cryptography and Network Security, Guildford, UK: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_16
Abusalah, Hamza M, Georg Fuchsbauer, and Krzysztof Z Pietrzak. “Offline Witness Encryption,” 9696:285–303. Springer, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_16.
H. M. Abusalah, G. Fuchsbauer, and K. Z. Pietrzak, “Offline witness encryption,” presented at the ACNS: Applied Cryptography and Network Security, Guildford, UK, 2016, vol. 9696, pp. 285–303.
Abusalah HM, Fuchsbauer G, Pietrzak KZ. 2016. Offline witness encryption. ACNS: Applied Cryptography and Network Security, LNCS, vol. 9696, 285–303.
Abusalah, Hamza M., et al. Offline Witness Encryption. Vol. 9696, Springer, 2016, pp. 285–303, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_16.
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