IST Austria Thesis
The polaron model is a basic model of quantum field theory describing a single particle interacting with a bosonic field. It arises in many physical contexts. We are mostly concerned with models applicable in the context of an impurity atom in a Bose-Einstein condensate as well as the problem of electrons moving in polar crystals. The model has a simple structure in which the interaction of the particle with the field is given by a term linear in the field’s creation and annihilation operators. In this work, we investigate the properties of this model by providing rigorous estimates on various energies relevant to the problem. The estimates are obtained, for the most part, by suitable operator techniques which constitute the principal mathematical substance of the thesis. The first application of these techniques is to derive the polaron model rigorously from first principles, i.e., from a full microscopic quantum-mechanical many-body problem involving an impurity in an otherwise homogeneous system. We accomplish this for the N + 1 Bose gas in the mean-field regime by showing that a suitable polaron-type Hamiltonian arises at weak interactions as a low-energy effective theory for this problem. In the second part, we investigate rigorously the ground state of the model at fixed momentum and for large values of the coupling constant. Qualitatively, the system is expected to display a transition from the quasi-particle behavior at small momenta, where the dispersion relation is parabolic and the particle moves through the medium dragging along a cloud of phonons, to the radiative behavior at larger momenta where the polaron decelerates and emits free phonons. At the same time, in the strong coupling regime, the bosonic field is expected to behave purely classically. Accordingly, the effective mass of the polaron at strong coupling is conjectured to be asymptotically equal to the one obtained from the semiclassical counterpart of the problem, first studied by Landau and Pekar in the 1940s. For polaron models with regularized form factors and phonon dispersion relations of superfluid type, i.e., bounded below by a linear function of the wavenumbers for all phonon momenta as in the interacting Bose gas, we prove that for a large window of momenta below the radiation threshold, the energy-momentum relation at strong coupling is indeed essentially a parabola with semi-latus rectum equal to the Landau–Pekar effective mass, as expected. For the Fröhlich polaron describing electrons in polar crystals where the dispersion relation is of the optical type and the form factor is formally UV–singular due to the nature of the point charge-dipole interaction, we are able to give the corresponding upper bound. In contrast to the regular case, this requires the inclusion of the quantum fluctuations of the phonon field, which makes the problem considerably more difficult. The results are supplemented by studies on the absolute ground-state energy at strong coupling, a proof of the divergence of the effective mass with the coupling constant for a wide class of polaron models, as well as the discussion of the apparent UV singularity of the Fröhlich model and the application of the techniques used for its removal for the energy estimates.
Mysliwy K. Polarons in Bose gases and polar crystals: Some rigorous energy estimates. 2022. doi:10.15479/at:ista:11473
Mysliwy, K. (2022). Polarons in Bose gases and polar crystals: Some rigorous energy estimates. Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA). https://doi.org/10.15479/at:ista:11473
Mysliwy, Krzysztof. “Polarons in Bose Gases and Polar Crystals: Some Rigorous Energy Estimates.” Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA), 2022. https://doi.org/10.15479/at:ista:11473.
K. Mysliwy, “Polarons in Bose gases and polar crystals: Some rigorous energy estimates,” Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA), 2022.
Mysliwy K. 2022. Polarons in Bose gases and polar crystals: Some rigorous energy estimates. Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA).
Mysliwy, Krzysztof. Polarons in Bose Gases and Polar Crystals: Some Rigorous Energy Estimates. Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA), 2022, doi:10.15479/at:ista:11473.
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