The asymmetric localization of proteins in the plasma membrane domains of eukaryotic cells is a fundamental manifestation of cell polarity that is central to multicellular organization and developmental patterning. In plants, the mechanisms underlying the polar localization of cargo proteins are still largely unknown and appear to be fundamentally distinct from those operating in mammals. Here, we present a systematic, quantitative comparative analysis of the polar delivery and subcellular localization of proteins that characterize distinct polar plasma membrane domains in plant cells. The combination of microscopic analyses and computational modeling revealed a mechanistic framework common to diverse polar cargos and underlying the establishment and maintenance of apical, basal, and lateral polar domains in plant cells. This mechanism depends on the polar secretion, constitutive endocytic recycling, and restricted lateral diffusion of cargos within the plasma membrane. Moreover, our observations suggest that polar cargo distribution involves the individual protein potential to form clusters within the plasma membrane and interact with the extracellular matrix. Our observations provide insights into the shared cellular mechanisms of polar cargo delivery and polarity maintenance in plant cells.
We thank Bonnie Bartel, Jenny Russinova and Niko Geldner for sharing published material, Martine de Cock and Annick Bleys for help in preparing the manuscript. This work was supported by the European Research Council (project ERC-2011-StG-20101109-PSDP); Czech Science Foundation GAČR (GA13-40637S); project CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068). SV is a postdoctoral fellow of the Research Foundation-Flanders. SN is a Project Assistant Professor supported by the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS; 30612022 to SN), the NC-CARP project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan to SN.
Łangowski Ł, Wabnik KT, Li H, et al. Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells. Cell Discovery. 2016;2. doi:10.1038/celldisc.2016.18
Łangowski, Ł., Wabnik, K. T., Li, H., Vanneste, S., Naramoto, S., Tanaka, H., & Friml, J. (2016). Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells. Cell Discovery, 2. https://doi.org/10.1038/celldisc.2016.18
Łangowski, Łukasz, Krzysztof T Wabnik, Hongjiang Li, Steffen Vanneste, Satoshi Naramoto, Hirokazu Tanaka, and Jirí Friml. “Cellular Mechanisms for Cargo Delivery and Polarity Maintenance at Different Polar Domains in Plant Cells.” Cell Discovery 2 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/celldisc.2016.18.
Ł. Łangowski et al., “Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells,” Cell Discovery, vol. 2, 2016.
Łangowski Ł, Wabnik KT, Li H, Vanneste S, Naramoto S, Tanaka H, Friml J. 2016. Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells. Cell Discovery. 2, 16018.
Łangowski, Łukasz, et al. “Cellular Mechanisms for Cargo Delivery and Polarity Maintenance at Different Polar Domains in Plant Cells.” Cell Discovery, vol. 2, 16018, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, doi:10.1038/celldisc.2016.18.