Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials

Nirwan JS, Lou S, Hussain S, Nauman M, Hussain T, Conway BR, Ghori MU. 2022. Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials. Micromachines. 13(1), 17.

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Journal Article | Published | English

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Author
Nirwan, Jorabar Singh; Lou, Shan; Hussain, Saqib; Nauman, MuhammadIST Austria ; Hussain, Tariq; Conway, Barbara R.; Ghori, Muhammad Usman
Department
Abstract
Electrically tunable lenses (ETLs) are those with the ability to alter their optical power in response to an electric signal. This feature allows such systems to not only image the areas of interest but also obtain spatial depth perception (depth of field, DOF). The aim of the present study was to develop an ETL-based imaging system for quantitative surface analysis. Firstly, the system was calibrated to achieve high depth resolution, warranting the accurate measurement of the depth and to account for and correct any influences from external factors on the ETL. This was completed using the Tenengrad operator which effectively identified the plane of best focus as demonstrated by the linear relationship between the control current applied to the ETL and the height at which the optical system focuses. The system was then employed to measure amplitude, spatial, hybrid, and volume surface texture parameters of a model material (pharmaceutical dosage form) which were validated against the parameters obtained using a previously validated surface texture analysis technique, optical profilometry. There were no statistically significant differences between the surface texture parameters measured by the techniques, highlighting the potential application of ETL-based imaging systems as an easily adaptable and low-cost alternative surface texture analysis technique to conventional microscopy techniques
Publishing Year
Date Published
2022-01-01
Journal Title
Micromachines
Acknowledgement
The authors acknowledge the financial assistance provided by the University of Huddersfield.
Volume
13
Issue
1
Article Number
17
eISSN
IST-REx-ID

Cite this

Nirwan JS, Lou S, Hussain S, et al. Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials. Micromachines. 2022;13(1). doi:10.3390/mi13010017
Nirwan, J. S., Lou, S., Hussain, S., Nauman, M., Hussain, T., Conway, B. R., & Ghori, M. U. (2022). Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials. Micromachines. MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010017
Nirwan, Jorabar Singh, Shan Lou, Saqib Hussain, Muhammad Nauman, Tariq Hussain, Barbara R. Conway, and Muhammad Usman Ghori. “Electrically Tunable Lens (ETL) - Based Variable Focus Imaging System for Parametric Surface Texture Analysis of Materials.” Micromachines. MDPI, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010017.
J. S. Nirwan et al., “Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials,” Micromachines, vol. 13, no. 1. MDPI, 2022.
Nirwan JS, Lou S, Hussain S, Nauman M, Hussain T, Conway BR, Ghori MU. 2022. Electrically tunable lens (ETL) - based variable focus imaging system for parametric surface texture analysis of materials. Micromachines. 13(1), 17.
Nirwan, Jorabar Singh, et al. “Electrically Tunable Lens (ETL) - Based Variable Focus Imaging System for Parametric Surface Texture Analysis of Materials.” Micromachines, vol. 13, no. 1, 17, MDPI, 2022, doi:10.3390/mi13010017.
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2022-01-03
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