Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis

Li L. 2021. Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis. IST Austria.

Restricted 0._IST_Austria_Thesis_Lanxin_Li_1014_pdftron.pdf 8.62 MB

Thesis | Published | English
Li, Lanxin
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IST Austria Thesis
Plant motions occur across a wide spectrum of timescales, ranging from seed dispersal through bursting (milliseconds) and stomatal opening (minutes) to long-term adaptation of gross architecture. Relatively fast motions include water-driven growth as exemplified by root cell expansion under abiotic/biotic stresses or during gravitropism. A showcase is a root growth inhibition in 30 seconds triggered by the phytohormone auxin. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. This thesis covers the studies about this topic as follows. By taking advantage of microfluidics combined with live imaging, pharmaceutical tools, and transgenic lines, we examined the kinetics of and causal relationship among various auxininduced rapid cellular changes in root growth, apoplastic pH, cytosolic Ca2+, cortical microtubule (CMT) orientation, and vacuolar morphology. We revealed that CMT reorientation and vacuolar constriction are the consequence of growth itself instead of responding directly to auxin. In contrast, auxin induces apoplast alkalinization to rapidly inhibit root growth in 30 seconds. This auxin-triggered apoplast alkalinization results from rapid H+- influx that is contributed by Ca2+ inward channel CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL 14 (CNGC14)-dependent Ca2+ signaling. To dissect which auxin signaling mediates the rapid apoplast alkalinization, we combined microfluidics and genetic engineering to verify that TIR1/AFB receptors conduct a non-transcriptional regulation on Ca2+ and H+ -influx. This non-canonical pathway is mostly mediated by the cytosolic portion of TIR1/AFB. On the other hand, we uncovered, using biochemical and phospho-proteomic analysis, that auxin cell surface signaling component TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE 1 (TMK1) plays a negative role during auxin-trigger apoplast alkalinization and root growth inhibition through directly activating PM H+ -ATPases. Therefore, we discovered that PM H+ -ATPases counteract instead of mediate the auxintriggered rapid H+ -influx, and that TIR1/AFB and TMK1 regulate root growth antagonistically. This opposite effect of TIR1/AFB and TMK1 is consistent during auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, leading us to explore the relation of two signaling pathways. Assisted with biochemistry and fluorescent imaging, we verified for the first time that TIR1/AFB and TMK1 can interact with each other. The ability of TIR1/AFB binding to membrane lipid provides a basis for the interaction of plasma membrane- and cytosol-localized proteins. Besides, transgenic analysis combined with genetic engineering and biochemistry showed that vi they do function in the same pathway. Particularly, auxin-induced TMK1 increase is TIR1/AFB dependent, suggesting TIR1/AFB regulation on TMK1. Conversely, TMK1 also regulates TIR1/AFB protein levels and thus auxin canonical signaling. To follow the study of rapid growth regulation, we analyzed another rapid growth regulator, signaling peptide RALF1. We showed that RALF1 also triggers a rapid and reversible growth inhibition caused by H + influx, highly resembling but not dependent on auxin. Besides, RALF1 promotes auxin biosynthesis by increasing expression of auxin biosynthesis enzyme YUCCAs and thus induces auxin signaling in ca. 1 hour, contributing to the sustained RALF1-triggered growth inhibition. These studies collectively contribute to understanding rapid regulation on plant cell growth, novel auxin signaling pathway as well as auxin-peptide crosstalk.
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Li L. Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis. 2021. doi:10.15479/at:ista:10083
Li, L. (2021). Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis. IST Austria. https://doi.org/10.15479/at:ista:10083
Li, Lanxin. “Rapid Cell Growth Regulation in Arabidopsis.” IST Austria, 2021. https://doi.org/10.15479/at:ista:10083.
L. Li, “Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis,” IST Austria, 2021.
Li L. 2021. Rapid cell growth regulation in Arabidopsis. IST Austria.
Li, Lanxin. Rapid Cell Growth Regulation in Arabidopsis. IST Austria, 2021, doi:10.15479/at:ista:10083.
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