TY - JOUR
AB - Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently-predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)]. Most importantly, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1119
IS - 9
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Quasiparticle approach to molecules interacting with quantum solvents
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - It is a common knowledge that an effective interaction of a quantum impurity with an electromagnetic field can be screened by surrounding charge carriers, whether mobile or static. Here we demonstrate that very strong, "anomalous" screening can take place in the presence of a neutral, weakly polarizable environment, due to an exchange of orbital angular momentum between the impurity and the bath. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to generalize all phenomena related to isolated impurities in an external field to the case when a many-body environment is present, by casting the problem in terms of the angulon quasiparticle. As a result, the relevant observables such as the effective Rabi frequency, geometric phase, and impurity spatial alignment are straightforward to evaluate in terms of a single parameter: the angular-momentum-dependent screening factor.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1133
IS - 8
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Anomalous screening of quantum impurities by a neutral environment
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Selected universal experimental properties of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprates have been singled out in the last decade. One of the pivotal challenges in this field is the designation of a consistent interpretation framework within which we can describe quantitatively the universal features of those systems. Here we analyze in a detailed manner the principal experimental data and compare them quantitatively with the approach based on a single-band model of strongly correlated electrons supplemented with strong antiferromagnetic (super)exchange interaction (the so-called t−J−U model). The model rationale is provided by estimating its microscopic parameters on the basis of the three-band approach for the Cu-O plane. We use our original full Gutzwiller wave-function solution by going beyond the renormalized mean-field theory (RMFT) in a systematic manner. Our approach reproduces very well the observed hole doping (δ) dependence of the kinetic-energy gain in the superconducting phase, one of the principal non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer features of the cuprates. The calculated Fermi velocity in the nodal direction is practically δ-independent and its universal value agrees very well with that determined experimentally. Also, a weak doping dependence of the Fermi wave vector leads to an almost constant value of the effective mass in a pure superconducting phase which is both observed in experiment and reproduced within our approach. An assessment of the currently used models (t−J, Hubbard) is carried out and the results of the canonical RMFT as a zeroth-order solution are provided for comparison to illustrate the necessity of the introduced higher-order contributions.
AU - Spałek, Jozef
AU - Zegrodnik, Michał
AU - Kaczmarczyk, Jan
ID - 1162
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
SN - 24699950
TI - Universal properties of high temperature superconductors from real space pairing t-J-U model and its quantitative comparison with experiment
VL - 95
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the effect of the electron-hole (e-h) symmetry breaking on d-wave superconductivity induced by non-local effects of correlations in the generalized Hubbard model. The symmetry breaking is introduced in a two-fold manner: by the next-to-nearest neighbor hopping of electrons and by the charge-bond interaction - the off-diagonal term of the Coulomb potential. Both terms lead to a pronounced asymmetry of the superconducting order parameter. The next-to-nearest neighbor hopping enhances superconductivity for h-doping, while diminishes it for e-doping. The charge-bond interaction alone leads to the opposite effect and, additionally, to the kinetic-energy gain upon condensation in the underdoped regime. With both terms included, with similar amplitudes, the height of the superconducting dome and the critical doping remain in favor of h-doping. The influence of the charge-bond interaction on deviations from symmetry of the shape of the gap at the Fermi surface in the momentum space is briefly discussed.
AU - Wysokiński, Marcin
AU - Kaczmarczyk, Jan
ID - 1163
IS - 8
JF - Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
SN - 09538984
TI - Unconventional superconductivity in generalized Hubbard model role of electron–hole symmetry breaking terms
VL - 29
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - In several settings of physics and chemistry one has to deal with molecules interacting with some kind of an external environment, be it a gas, a solution, or a crystal surface. Understanding molecular processes in the presence of such a many-particle bath is inherently challenging, and usually requires large-scale numerical computations. Here, we present an alternative approach to the problem, based on the notion of the angulon quasiparticle. We show that molecules rotating inside superfluid helium nanodroplets and Bose–Einstein condensates form angulons, and therefore can be described by straightforward solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. Casting the problem in the language of angulons allows us not only to greatly simplify it, but also to gain insights into the origins of the observed phenomena and to make predictions for future experimental studies.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Schmidt, Richard
ED - Dulieu, Oliver
ED - Osterwalder, Andreas
ID - 604
SN - 20413181
T2 - Cold Chemistry: Molecular Scattering and Reactivity Near Absolute Zero
TI - Molecular impurities interacting with a many-particle environment: From ultracold gases to helium nanodroplets
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The first hundred attoseconds of the electron dynamics during strong field tunneling ionization are investigated. We quantify theoretically how the electron’s classical trajectories in the continuum emerge from the tunneling process and test the results with those achieved in parallel from attoclock measurements. An especially high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier is accomplished here by comparing the momentum distributions of two atomic species of slightly deviating atomic potentials (argon and krypton) being ionized under absolutely identical conditions with near-infrared laser pulses (1300 nm). The agreement between experiment and theory provides clear evidence for a nonzero tunneling time delay and a nonvanishing longitudinal momentum of the electron at the “tunnel exit.”
AU - Camus, Nicolas
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Fechner, Lutz
AU - Klaiber, Michael
AU - Laux, Martin
AU - Mi, Yonghao
AU - Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.
AU - Pfeifer, Thomas
AU - Keitel, Christoph H.
AU - Moshammer, Robert
ID - 6013
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 0031-9007
TI - Experimental evidence for quantum tunneling time
VL - 119
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Tunneling of a particle through a potential barrier remains one of the most remarkable quantum phenomena. Owing to advances in laser technology, electric fields comparable to those electrons experience in atoms are readily generated and open opportunities to dynamically investigate the process of electron tunneling through the potential barrier formed by the superposition of both laser and atomic fields. Attosecond-time and angstrom-space resolution of the strong laser-field technique allow to address fundamental questions related to tunneling, which are still open and debated: Which time is spent under the barrier and what momentum is picked up by the particle in the meantime? In this combined experimental and theoretical study we demonstrate that for strong-field ionization the leading quantum mechanical Wigner treatment for the time resolved description of tunneling is valid. We achieve a high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier and unambiguously isolate its effects by performing a differential study of two systems with almost identical tunneling geometry. Moreover, working with a low frequency laser, we essentially limit the non-adiabaticity of the process as a major source of uncertainty. The agreement between experiment and theory implies two substantial corrections with respect to the widely employed quasiclassical treatment: In addition to a non-vanishing longitudinal momentum along the laser field-direction we provide clear evidence for a non-zero tunneling time delay. This addresses also the fundamental question how the transition occurs from the tunnel barrier to free space classical evolution of the ejected electron.
AU - Camus, Nicolas
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Fechner, Lutz
AU - Klaiber, Michael
AU - Laux, Martin
AU - Mi, Yonghao
AU - Hatsagortsyan, Karen
AU - Pfeifer, Thomas
AU - Keitel, Cristoph
AU - Moshammer, Robert
ID - 313
IS - 1
SN - 17426588
TI - Experimental evidence for Wigner's tunneling time
VL - 999
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The existence of a self-localization transition in the polaron problem has been under an active debate ever since Landau suggested it 83 years ago. Here we reveal the self-localization transition for the rotational analogue of the polaron -- the angulon quasiparticle. We show that, unlike for the polarons, self-localization of angulons occurs at finite impurity-bath coupling already at the mean-field level. The transition is accompanied by the spherical-symmetry breaking of the angulon ground state and a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state energy. Moreover, the type of the symmetry breaking is dictated by the symmetry of the microscopic impurity-bath interaction, which leads to a number of distinct self-localized states. The predicted effects can potentially be addressed in experiments on cold molecules trapped in superfluid helium droplets and ultracold quantum gases, as well as on electronic excitations in solids and Bose-Einstein condensates.
AU - Li, Xiang
AU - Seiringer, Robert
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1120
IS - 3
JF - Physical Review A
SN - 24699926
TI - Angular self-localization of impurities rotating in a bosonic bath
VL - 95
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The formation of vortices is usually considered to be the main mechanism of angular momentum disposal in superfluids. Recently, it was predicted that a superfluid can acquire angular momentum via an alternative, microscopic route -- namely, through interaction with rotating impurities, forming so-called `angulon quasiparticles' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)]. The angulon instabilities correspond to transfer of a small number of angular momentum quanta from the impurity to the superfluid, as opposed to vortex instabilities, where angular momentum is quantized in units of ℏ per atom. Furthermore, since conventional impurities (such as molecules) represent three-dimensional (3D) rotors, the angular momentum transferred is intrinsically 3D as well, as opposed to a merely planar rotation which is inherent to vortices. Herein we show that the angulon theory can explain the anomalous broadening of the spectroscopic lines observed for CH 3 and NH 3 molecules in superfluid helium nanodroplets, thereby providing a fingerprint of the emerging angulon instabilities in experiment.
AU - Cherepanov, Igor
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 994
IS - 3
JF - Physical Review Materials
TI - Fingerprints of angulon instabilities in the spectra of matrix-isolated molecules
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently it was shown that an impurity exchanging orbital angular momentum with a surrounding bath can be described in terms of the angulon quasiparticle [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 095301 (2017)]. The angulon consists of a quantum rotor dressed by a many-particle field of boson excitations, and can be formed out of, for example, a molecule or a nonspherical atom in superfluid helium, or out of an electron coupled to lattice phonons or a Bose condensate. Here we develop an approach to the angulon based on the path-integral formalism, which sets the ground for a systematic, perturbative treatment of the angulon problem. The resulting perturbation series can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams, from which, in turn, one can derive a set of diagrammatic rules. These rules extend the machinery of the graphical theory of angular momentum - well known from theoretical atomic spectroscopy - to the case where an environment with an infinite number of degrees of freedom is present. In particular, we show that each diagram can be interpreted as a 'skeleton', which enforces angular momentum conservation, dressed by an additional many-body contribution. This connection between the angulon theory and the graphical theory of angular momentum is particularly important as it allows to systematically and substantially simplify the analytical representation of each diagram. In order to exemplify the technique, we calculate the 1- and 2-loop contributions to the angulon self-energy, the spectral function, and the quasiparticle weight. The diagrammatic theory we develop paves the way to investigate next-to-leading order quantities in a more compact way compared to the variational approaches.
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 995
IS - 8
JF - Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
SN - 24699950
TI - Diagrammatic approach to orbital quantum impurities interacting with a many-particle environment
VL - 96
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Iodine (I 2 ) molecules embedded in He nanodroplets are aligned by a 160 ps long laser pulse. The highest degree of alignment, occurring at the peak of the pulse and quantified by ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ , is measured as a function of the laser intensity. The results are well described by ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ calculated for a gas of isolated molecules each with an effective rotational constant of 0.6 times the gas-phase value, and at a temperature of 0.4 K. Theoretical analysis using the angulon quasiparticle to describe rotating molecules in superfluid helium rationalizes why the alignment mechanism is similar to that of isolated molecules with an effective rotational constant. A major advantage of molecules in He droplets is that their 0.4 K temperature leads to stronger alignment than what can generally be achieved for gas phase molecules -- here demonstrated by a direct comparison of the droplet results to measurements on a ∼ 1 K supersonic beam of isolated molecules. This point is further illustrated for more complex system by measurements on 1,4-diiodobenzene and 1,4-dibromobenzene. For all three molecular species studied the highest values of ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ achieved in He droplets exceed 0.96.
AU - Shepperson, Benjamin
AU - Chatterley, Adam
AU - Søndergaard, Anders
AU - Christiansen, Lars
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Stapelfeldt, Henrik
ID - 996
IS - 1
JF - The Journal of Chemical Physics
SN - 00219606
TI - Strongly aligned molecules inside helium droplets in the near-adiabatic regime
VL - 147
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently it was shown that molecules rotating in superfluid helium can be described in terms of the angulon quasiparticles (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 095301 (2017)). Here we demonstrate that in the experimentally realized regime the angulon can be seen as a point charge on a 2-sphere interacting with a gauge field of a non-abelian magnetic monopole. Unlike in several other settings, the gauge fields of the angulon problem emerge in the real coordinate space, as opposed to the momentum space or some effective parameter space. Furthermore, we find a topological transition associated with making the monopole abelian, which takes place in the vicinity of the previously reported angulon instabilities. These results pave the way for studying topological phenomena in experiments on molecules trapped in superfluid helium nanodroplets, as well as on other realizations of orbital impurity problems.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Deuchert, Andreas
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 997
IS - 23
JF - APS Physics, Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Emergence of non-abelian magnetic monopoles in a quantum impurity problem
VL - 119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We reveal the existence of continuous families of guided single-mode solitons in planar waveguides with weakly nonlinear active core and absorbing boundaries. Stable propagation of TE and TM-polarized solitons is accompanied by attenuation of all other modes, i.e., the waveguide features properties of conservative and dissipative systems. If the linear spectrum of the waveguide possesses exceptional points, which occurs in the case of TM polarization, an originally focusing (defocusing) material nonlinearity may become effectively defocusing (focusing). This occurs due to the geometric phase of the carried eigenmode when the surface impedance encircles the exceptional point. In its turn, the change of the effective nonlinearity ensures the existence of dark (bright) solitons in spite of focusing (defocusing) Kerr nonlinearity of the core. The existence of an exceptional point can also result in anomalous enhancement of the effective nonlinearity. In terms of practical applications, the nonlinearity of the reported waveguide can be manipulated by controlling the properties of the absorbing cladding.
AU - Midya, Bikashkali
AU - Konotop, Vladimir
ID - 939
IS - 3
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Waveguides with absorbing boundaries: Nonlinearity controlled by an exceptional point and solitons
VL - 119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In science, as in life, "surprises" can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like π or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a "surprisingly" simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.
AU - Amir, Ariel
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Tokieda, Tadashi
ID - 1204
IS - 6
JF - American Mathematical Monthly
TI - Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants
VL - 123
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study a polar molecule immersed in a superfluid environment, such as a helium nanodroplet or a Bose–Einstein condensate, in the presence of a strong electrostatic field. We show that coupling of the molecular pendular motion, induced by the field, to the fluctuating bath leads to formation of pendulons—spherical harmonic librators dressed by a field of many-particle excitations. We study the behavior of the pendulon in a broad range of molecule–bath and molecule–field interaction strengths, and reveal that its spectrum features a series of instabilities which are absent in the field-free case of the angulon quasiparticle. Furthermore, we show that an external field allows to fine-tune the positions of these instabilities in the molecular rotational spectrum. This opens the door to detailed experimental studies of redistribution of orbital angular momentum in many-particle systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
AU - Redchenko, Elena
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1206
IS - 22
JF - ChemPhysChem
TI - Libration of strongly oriented polar molecules inside a superfluid
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We use recently developed angulon theory [R. Schmidt and M. Lemeshko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.203001] to study the rotational spectrum of a cyanide molecular anion immersed into Bose-Einstein condensates of rubidium and strontium. Based on ab initio potential energy surfaces, we provide a detailed study of the rotational Lamb shift and many-body-induced fine structure which arise due to dressing of molecular rotation by a field of phonon excitations. We demonstrate that the magnitude of these effects is large enough in order to be observed in modern experiments on cold molecular ions. Furthermore, we introduce a novel method to construct pseudopotentials starting from the ab initio potential energy surfaces, which provides a means to obtain effective coupling constants for low-energy polaron models.
AU - Midya, Bikashkali
AU - Tomza, Michał
AU - Schmidt, Richard
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1286
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
TI - Rotation of cold molecular ions inside a Bose-Einstein condensate
VL - 94
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A planar waveguide with an impedance boundary, composed of nonperfect metallic plates, and with passive or active dielectric filling, is considered. We show the possibility of selective mode guiding and amplification when a homogeneous pump is added to the dielectric and analyze differences in TE and TM mode propagation. Such a non-conservative system is also shown to feature exceptional points for specific and experimentally tunable parameters, which are described for a particular case of transparent dielectric.
AU - Midya, Bikashkali
AU - Konotop, Vladimir
ID - 1287
IS - 20
JF - Optics Letters
TI - Modes and exceptional points in waveguides with impedance boundary conditions
VL - 41
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - During the past 70 years, the quantum theory of angular momentum has been successfully applied to describing the properties of nuclei, atoms, and molecules, and their interactions with each other as well as with external fields. Because of the properties of quantum rotations, the angular-momentum algebra can be of tremendous complexity even for a few interacting particles, such as valence electrons of an atom, not to mention larger many-particle systems. In this work, we study an example of the latter: A rotating quantum impurity coupled to a many-body bosonic bath. In the regime of strong impurity-bath couplings, the problem involves the addition of an infinite number of angular momenta, which renders it intractable using currently available techniques. Here, we introduce a novel canonical transformation that allows us to eliminate the complex angular-momentum algebra from such a class of many-body problems. In addition, the transformation exposes the problem's constants of motion, and renders it solvable exactly in the limit of a slowly rotating impurity. We exemplify the technique by showing that there exists a critical rotational speed at which the impurity suddenly acquires one quantum of angular momentum from the many-particle bath. Such an instability is accompanied by the deformation of the phonon density in the frame rotating along with the impurity.
AU - Schmidt, Richard
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1347
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review X
TI - Deformation of a quantum many-particle system by a rotating impurity
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Fermi-Hubbard model is one of the key models of condensed matter physics, which holds a
potential for explaining the mystery of high-temperature superconductivity. Recent progress in
ultracold atoms in optical lattices has paved the way to studying the model’s phase diagram using
the tools of quantum simulation, which emerged as a promising alternative to the numerical
calculations plagued by the infamous sign problem. However, the temperatures achieved using
elaborate laser cooling protocols so far have been too high to show the appearance of
antiferromagnetic (AF) and superconducting quantum phases directly. In this work, we demonstrate
that using the machinery of dissipative quantum state engineering, one can observe the emergence of
the AF order in the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermions in optical lattices. The core of the approach
is to add incoherent laser scattering in such a way that the AF state emerges as the dark state of
the driven-dissipative dynamics. The proposed controlled dissipation channels described in this work
are straightforward to add to already existing experimental setups.
AU - Kaczmarczyk, Jan
AU - Weimer, Hendrik
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 1343
IS - 9
JF - New Journal of Physics
TI - Dissipative preparation of antiferromagnetic order in the Fermi-Hubbard model
VL - 18
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has an unconventional nature and is considered to originate from the universal features of the electronic structure. Here, the Anderson lattice model is studied by means of the full variational Gutzwiller wave function incorporating nonlocal effects of the on-site interaction. We show that the d-wave superconducting ground state can be driven solely by interelectronic correlations. The proposed microscopic mechanism leads to a multigap superconductivity with the dominant contribution due to f electrons and in the dx2−y2-wave channel. Our results rationalize several important observations for CeCoIn5.
AU - Wysokiński, Marcin
AU - Kaczmarczyk, Jan
AU - Spałek, Jozef
ID - 1368
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
TI - Correlation driven d wave superconductivity in Anderson lattice model: Two gaps
VL - 94
ER -