TY - JOUR
AB - There is a huge gap between the speeds of modern caches and main memories, and therefore cache misses account for a considerable loss of efficiency in programs. The predominant technique to address this issue has been Data Packing: data elements that are frequently accessed within time proximity are packed into the same cache block, thereby minimizing accesses to the main memory. We consider the algorithmic problem of Data Packing on a two-level memory system. Given a reference sequence R of accesses to data elements, the task is to partition the elements into cache blocks such that the number of cache misses on R is minimized. The problem is notoriously difficult: it is NP-hard even when the cache has size 1, and is hard to approximate for any cache size larger than 4. Therefore, all existing techniques for Data Packing are based on heuristics and lack theoretical guarantees. In this work, we present the first positive theoretical results for Data Packing, along with new and stronger negative results. We consider the problem under the lens of the underlying access hypergraphs, which are hypergraphs of affinities between the data elements, where the order of an access hypergraph corresponds to the size of the affinity group. We study the problem parameterized by the treewidth of access hypergraphs, which is a standard notion in graph theory to measure the closeness of a graph to a tree. Our main results are as follows: We show there is a number q* depending on the cache parameters such that (a) if the access hypergraph of order q* has constant treewidth, then there is a linear-time algorithm for Data Packing; (b)the Data Packing problem remains NP-hard even if the access hypergraph of order q*-1 has constant treewidth. Thus, we establish a fine-grained dichotomy depending on a single parameter, namely, the highest order among access hypegraphs that have constant treewidth; and establish the optimal value q* of this parameter. Finally, we present an experimental evaluation of a prototype implementation of our algorithm. Our results demonstrate that, in practice, access hypergraphs of many commonly-used algorithms have small treewidth. We compare our approach with several state-of-the-art heuristic-based algorithms and show that our algorithm leads to significantly fewer cache-misses.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
AU - Okati, Nastaran
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
ID - 6380
IS - POPL
JF - Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages
SN - 2475-1421
TI - Efficient parameterized algorithms for data packing
VL - 3
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Smart contracts are programs that are stored and executed on the Blockchain and can receive, manage and transfer money (cryptocurrency units). Two important problems regarding smart contracts are formal analysis and compiler optimization. Formal analysis is extremely important, because smart contracts hold funds worth billions of dollars and their code is immutable after deployment. Hence, an undetected bug can cause significant financial losses. Compiler optimization is also crucial, because every action of a smart contract has to be executed by every node in the Blockchain network. Therefore, optimizations in compiling smart contracts can lead to significant savings in computation, time and energy.
Two classical approaches in program analysis and compiler optimization are intraprocedural and interprocedural analysis. In intraprocedural analysis, each function is analyzed separately, while interprocedural analysis considers the entire program. In both cases, the analyses are usually reduced to graph problems over the control flow graph (CFG) of the program. These graph problems are often computationally expensive. Hence, there has been ample research on exploiting structural properties of CFGs for efficient algorithms. One such well-studied property is the treewidth, which is a measure of tree-likeness of graphs. It is known that intraprocedural CFGs of structured programs have treewidth at most 6, whereas the interprocedural treewidth cannot be bounded. This result has been used as a basis for many efficient intraprocedural analyses.
In this paper, we explore the idea of exploiting the treewidth of smart contracts for formal analysis and compiler optimization. First, similar to classical programs, we show that the intraprocedural treewidth of structured Solidity and Vyper smart contracts is at most 9. Second, for global analysis, we prove that the interprocedural treewidth of structured smart contracts is bounded by 10 and, in sharp contrast with classical programs, treewidth-based algorithms can be easily applied for interprocedural analysis. Finally, we supplement our theoretical results with experiments using a tool we implemented for computing treewidth of smart contracts and show that the treewidth is much lower in practice. We use 36,764 real-world Ethereum smart contracts as benchmarks and find that they have an average treewidth of at most 3.35 for the intraprocedural case and 3.65 for the interprocedural case.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
AU - Goharshady, Ehsan Kafshdar
ID - 6490
SN - 9781450359337
T2 - Proceedings of the 34th ACM Symposium on Applied Computing
TI - The treewidth of smart contracts
VL - Part F147772
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB -
Interprocedural analysis is at the heart of numerous applications in programming languages, such as alias analysis, constant propagation, and so on. Recursive state machines (RSMs) are standard models for interprocedural analysis. We consider a general framework with RSMs where the transitions are labeled from a semiring and path properties are algebraic with semiring operations. RSMs with algebraic path properties can model interprocedural dataflow analysis problems, the shortest path problem, the most probable path problem, and so on. The traditional algorithms for interprocedural analysis focus on path properties where the starting point is fixed as the entry point of a specific method. In this work, we consider possible multiple queries as required in many applications such as in alias analysis. The study of multiple queries allows us to bring in an important algorithmic distinction between the resource usage of the one-time preprocessing vs for each individual query. The second aspect we consider is that the control flow graphs for most programs have constant treewidth.
Our main contributions are simple and implementable algorithms that support multiple queries for algebraic path properties for RSMs that have constant treewidth. Our theoretical results show that our algorithms have small additional one-time preprocessing but can answer subsequent queries significantly faster as compared to the current algorithmic solutions for interprocedural dataflow analysis. We have also implemented our algorithms and evaluated their performance for performing on-demand interprocedural dataflow analysis on various domains, such as for live variable analysis and reaching definitions, on a standard benchmark set. Our experimental results align with our theoretical statements and show that after a lightweight preprocessing, on-demand queries are answered much faster than the standard existing algorithmic approaches.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
AU - Goyal, Prateesh
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
ID - 7158
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
SN - 0164-0925
TI - Faster algorithms for dynamic algebraic queries in basic RSMs with constant treewidth
VL - 41
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In today's programmable blockchains, smart contracts are limited to being deterministic and non-probabilistic. This lack of randomness is a consequential limitation, given that a wide variety of real-world financial contracts, such as casino games and lotteries, depend entirely on randomness. As a result, several ad-hoc random number generation approaches have been developed to be used in smart contracts. These include ideas such as using an oracle or relying on the block hash. However, these approaches are manipulatable, i.e. their output can be tampered with by parties who might not be neutral, such as the owner of the oracle or the miners.We propose a novel game-theoretic approach for generating provably unmanipulatable pseudorandom numbers on the blockchain. Our approach allows smart contracts to access a trustworthy source of randomness that does not rely on potentially compromised miners or oracles, hence enabling the creation of a new generation of smart contracts that are not limited to being non-probabilistic and can be drawn from the much more general class of probabilistic programs.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
AU - Pourdamghani, Arash
ID - 6056
T2 - IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency
TI - Probabilistic smart contracts: Secure randomness on the blockchain
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the problem of developing efficient approaches for proving
worst-case bounds of non-deterministic recursive programs. Ranking functions
are sound and complete for proving termination and worst-case bounds of
nonrecursive programs. First, we apply ranking functions to recursion,
resulting in measure functions. We show that measure functions provide a sound
and complete approach to prove worst-case bounds of non-deterministic recursive
programs. Our second contribution is the synthesis of measure functions in
nonpolynomial forms. We show that non-polynomial measure functions with
logarithm and exponentiation can be synthesized through abstraction of
logarithmic or exponentiation terms, Farkas' Lemma, and Handelman's Theorem
using linear programming. While previous methods obtain worst-case polynomial
bounds, our approach can synthesize bounds of the form $\mathcal{O}(n\log n)$
as well as $\mathcal{O}(n^r)$ where $r$ is not an integer. We present
experimental results to demonstrate that our approach can obtain efficiently
worst-case bounds of classical recursive algorithms such as (i) Merge-Sort, the
divide-and-conquer algorithm for the Closest-Pair problem, where we obtain
$\mathcal{O}(n \log n)$ worst-case bound, and (ii) Karatsuba's algorithm for
polynomial multiplication and Strassen's algorithm for matrix multiplication,
where we obtain $\mathcal{O}(n^r)$ bound such that $r$ is not an integer and
close to the best-known bounds for the respective algorithms.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Fu, Hongfei
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
ID - 7014
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
TI - Non-polynomial worst-case analysis of recursive programs
VL - 41
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Vector Addition Systems with States (VASS) provide a well-known and fundamental model for the analysis of concurrent processes, parameterized systems, and are also used as abstract models of programs in resource bound analysis. In this paper we study the problem of obtaining asymptotic bounds on the termination time of a given VASS. In particular, we focus on the practically important case of obtaining polynomial bounds on termination time. Our main contributions are as follows: First, we present a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding whether a given VASS has a linear asymptotic complexity. We also show that if the complexity of a VASS is not linear, it is at least quadratic. Second, we classify VASS according to quantitative properties of their cycles. We show that certain singularities in these properties are the key reason for non-polynomial asymptotic complexity of VASS. In absence of singularities, we show that the asymptotic complexity is always polynomial and of the form Θ(nk), for some integer k d, where d is the dimension of the VASS. We present a polynomial-time algorithm computing the optimal k. For general VASS, the same algorithm, which is based on a complete technique for the construction of ranking functions in VASS, produces a valid lower bound, i.e., a k such that the termination complexity is (nk). Our results are based on new insights into the geometry of VASS dynamics, which hold the potential for further applicability to VASS analysis.
AU - Brázdil, Tomáš
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kučera, Antonín
AU - Novotny, Petr
AU - Velan, Dominik
AU - Zuleger, Florian
ID - 143
SN - 978-1-4503-5583-4
TI - Efficient algorithms for asymptotic bounds on termination time in VASS
VL - F138033
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a model and a specification, the fundamental model-checking problem asks for algorithmic verification of whether the model satisfies the specification. We consider graphs and Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are fundamental models for reactive systems. One of the very basic specifications that arise in verification of reactive systems is the strong fairness (aka Streett) objective. Given different types of requests and corresponding grants, the objective requires that for each type, if the request event happens infinitely often, then the corresponding grant event must also happen infinitely often. All ω -regular objectives can be expressed as Streett objectives and hence they are canonical in verification. To handle the state-space explosion, symbolic algorithms are required that operate on a succinct implicit representation of the system rather than explicitly accessing the system. While explicit algorithms for graphs and MDPs with Streett objectives have been widely studied, there has been no improvement of the basic symbolic algorithms. The worst-case numbers of symbolic steps required for the basic symbolic algorithms are as follows: quadratic for graphs and cubic for MDPs. In this work we present the first sub-quadratic symbolic algorithm for graphs with Streett objectives, and our algorithm is sub-quadratic even for MDPs. Based on our algorithmic insights we present an implementation of the new symbolic approach and show that it improves the existing approach on several academic benchmark examples.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Loitzenbauer, Veronika
AU - Oraee, Simin
AU - Toman, Viktor
ID - 141
TI - Symbolic algorithms for graphs and Markov decision processes with fairness objectives
VL - 10982
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Social dilemmas occur when incentives for individuals are misaligned with group interests 1-7 . According to the 'tragedy of the commons', these misalignments can lead to overexploitation and collapse of public resources. The resulting behaviours can be analysed with the tools of game theory 8 . The theory of direct reciprocity 9-15 suggests that repeated interactions can alleviate such dilemmas, but previous work has assumed that the public resource remains constant over time. Here we introduce the idea that the public resource is instead changeable and depends on the strategic choices of individuals. An intuitive scenario is that cooperation increases the public resource, whereas defection decreases it. Thus, cooperation allows the possibility of playing a more valuable game with higher payoffs, whereas defection leads to a less valuable game. We analyse this idea using the theory of stochastic games 16-19 and evolutionary game theory. We find that the dependence of the public resource on previous interactions can greatly enhance the propensity for cooperation. For these results, the interaction between reciprocity and payoff feedback is crucial: neither repeated interactions in a constant environment nor single interactions in a changing environment yield similar cooperation rates. Our framework shows which feedbacks between exploitation and environment - either naturally occurring or designed - help to overcome social dilemmas.
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Šimsa, Štepán
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 157
IS - 7713
JF - Nature
TI - Evolution of cooperation in stochastic games
VL - 559
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a class of students learning a language from a teacher. The situation can be interpreted as a group of child learners receiving input from the linguistic environment. The teacher provides sample sentences. The students try to learn the grammar from the teacher. In addition to just listening to the teacher, the students can also communicate with each other. The students hold hypotheses about the grammar and change them if they receive counter evidence. The process stops when all students have converged to the correct grammar. We study how the time to convergence depends on the structure of the classroom by introducing and evaluating various complexity measures. We find that structured communication between students, although potentially introducing confusion, can greatly reduce some of the complexity measures. Our theory can also be interpreted as applying to the scientific process, where nature is the teacher and the scientists are the students.
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 198
IS - 140
JF - Journal of the Royal Society Interface
TI - Language acquisition with communication between learners
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Indirect reciprocity explores how humans act when their reputation is at stake, and which social norms they use to assess the actions of others. A crucial question in indirect reciprocity is which social norms can maintain stable cooperation in a society. Past research has highlighted eight such norms, called “leading-eight” strategies. This past research, however, is based on the assumption that all relevant information about other population members is publicly available and that everyone agrees on who is good or bad. Instead, here we explore the reputation dynamics when information is private and noisy. We show that under these conditions, most leading-eight strategies fail to evolve. Those leading-eight strategies that do evolve are unable to sustain full cooperation.Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation based on shared moral systems and individual reputations. It assumes that members of a community routinely observe and assess each other and that they use this information to decide who is good or bad, and who deserves cooperation. When information is transmitted publicly, such that all community members agree on each other’s reputation, previous research has highlighted eight crucial moral systems. These “leading-eight” strategies can maintain cooperation and resist invasion by defectors. However, in real populations individuals often hold their own private views of others. Once two individuals disagree about their opinion of some third party, they may also see its subsequent actions in a different light. Their opinions may further diverge over time. Herein, we explore indirect reciprocity when information transmission is private and noisy. We find that in the presence of perception errors, most leading-eight strategies cease to be stable. Even if a leading-eight strategy evolves, cooperation rates may drop considerably when errors are common. Our research highlights the role of reliable information and synchronized reputations to maintain stable moral systems.
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Schmid, Laura
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 2
IS - 48
JF - PNAS
TI - Indirect reciprocity with private, noisy, and incomplete information
VL - 115
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with discounted-sum payoff are a standard framework to model a wide range of problems related to decision making under uncertainty. Traditionally, the goal has been to obtain policies that optimize the expectation of the discounted-sum payoff. A key drawback of the expectation measure is that even low probability events with extreme payoff can significantly affect the expectation, and thus the obtained policies are not necessarily risk-averse. An alternate approach is to optimize the probability that the payoff is above a certain threshold, which allows obtaining risk-averse policies, but ignores optimization of the expectation. We consider the expectation optimization with probabilistic guarantee (EOPG) problem, where the goal is to optimize the expectation ensuring that the payoff is above a given threshold with at least a specified probability. We present several results on the EOPG problem, including the first algorithm to solve it.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Elgyütt, Adrian
AU - Novotny, Petr
AU - Rouillé, Owen
ID - 24
TI - Expectation optimization with probabilistic guarantees in POMDPs with discounted-sum objectives
VL - 2018
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) are the standard models for planning under uncertainty with both finite and infinite horizon. Besides the well-known discounted-sum objective, indefinite-horizon objective (aka Goal-POMDPs) is another classical objective for POMDPs. In this case, given a set of target states and a positive cost for each transition, the optimization objective is to minimize the expected total cost until a target state is reached. In the literature, RTDP-Bel or heuristic search value iteration (HSVI) have been used for solving Goal-POMDPs. Neither of these algorithms has theoretical convergence guarantees, and HSVI may even fail to terminate its trials. We give the following contributions: (1) We discuss the challenges introduced in Goal-POMDPs and illustrate how they prevent the original HSVI from converging. (2) We present a novel algorithm inspired by HSVI, termed Goal-HSVI, and show that our algorithm has convergence guarantees. (3) We show that Goal-HSVI outperforms RTDP-Bel on a set of well-known examples.
AU - Horák, Karel
AU - Bošanský, Branislav
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 25
T2 - Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
TI - Goal-HSVI: Heuristic search value iteration for goal-POMDPs
VL - 2018-July
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - People sometimes make their admirable deeds and accomplishments hard to spot, such as by giving anonymously or avoiding bragging. Such ‘buried’ signals are hard to reconcile with standard models of signalling or indirect reciprocity, which motivate costly pro-social behaviour by reputational gains. To explain these phenomena, we design a simple game theory model, which we call the signal-burying game. This game has the feature that senders can bury their signal by deliberately reducing the probability of the signal being observed. If the signal is observed, however, it is identified as having been buried. We show under which conditions buried signals can be maintained, using static equilibrium concepts and calculations of the evolutionary dynamics. We apply our analysis to shed light on a number of otherwise puzzling social phenomena, including modesty, anonymous donations, subtlety in art and fashion, and overeagerness.
AU - Hoffman, Moshe
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 293
JF - Nature Human Behaviour
TI - The signal-burying game can explain why we obscure positive traits and good deeds
VL - 2
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Graph games played by two players over finite-state graphs are central in many problems in computer science. In particular, graph games with ω -regular winning conditions, specified as parity objectives, which can express properties such as safety, liveness, fairness, are the basic framework for verification and synthesis of reactive systems. The decisions for a player at various states of the graph game are represented as strategies. While the algorithmic problem for solving graph games with parity objectives has been widely studied, the most prominent data-structure for strategy representation in graph games has been binary decision diagrams (BDDs). However, due to the bit-level representation, BDDs do not retain the inherent flavor of the decisions of strategies, and are notoriously hard to minimize to obtain succinct representation. In this work we propose decision trees for strategy representation in graph games. Decision trees retain the flavor of decisions of strategies and allow entropy-based minimization to obtain succinct trees. However, decision trees work in settings (e.g., probabilistic models) where errors are allowed, and overfitting of data is typically avoided. In contrast, for strategies in graph games no error is allowed, and the decision tree must represent the entire strategy. We develop new techniques to extend decision trees to overcome the above obstacles, while retaining the entropy-based techniques to obtain succinct trees. We have implemented our techniques to extend the existing decision tree solvers. We present experimental results for problems in reactive synthesis to show that decision trees provide a much more efficient data-structure for strategy representation as compared to BDDs.
AU - Brázdil, Tomáš
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kretinsky, Jan
AU - Toman, Viktor
ID - 297
TI - Strategy representation by decision trees in reactive synthesis
VL - 10805
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A model of computation that is widely used in the formal analysis of reactive systems is symbolic algorithms. In this model the access to the input graph is restricted to consist of symbolic operations, which are expensive in comparison to the standard RAM operations. We give lower bounds on the number of symbolic operations for basic graph problems such as the computation of the strongly connected components and of the approximate diameter as well as for fundamental problems in model checking such as safety, liveness, and coliveness. Our lower bounds are linear in the number of vertices of the graph, even for constant-diameter graphs. For none of these problems lower bounds on the number of symbolic operations were known before. The lower bounds show an interesting separation of these problems from the reachability problem, which can be solved with O(D) symbolic operations, where D is the diameter of the graph. Additionally we present an approximation algorithm for the graph diameter which requires Õ(n/D) symbolic steps to achieve a (1 +ϵ)-approximation for any constant > 0. This compares to O(n/D) symbolic steps for the (naive) exact algorithm and O(D) symbolic steps for a 2-approximation. Finally we also give a refined analysis of the strongly connected components algorithms of [15], showing that it uses an optimal number of symbolic steps that is proportional to the sum of the diameters of the strongly connected components.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Dvorák, Wolfgang
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Loitzenbauer, Veronika
ID - 310
TI - Lower bounds for symbolic computation on graphs: Strongly connected components, liveness, safety and diameter
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Probabilistic programs extend classical imperative programs with real-valued random variables and random branching. The most basic liveness property for such programs is the termination property. The qualitative (aka almost-sure) termination problem asks whether a given program program terminates with probability 1. While ranking functions provide a sound and complete method for non-probabilistic programs, the extension of them to probabilistic programs is achieved via ranking supermartingales (RSMs). Although deep theoretical results have been established about RSMs, their application to probabilistic programs with nondeterminism has been limited only to programs of restricted control-flow structure. For non-probabilistic programs, lexicographic ranking functions provide a compositional and practical approach for termination analysis of real-world programs. In this work we introduce lexicographic RSMs and show that they present a sound method for almost-sure termination of probabilistic programs with nondeterminism. We show that lexicographic RSMs provide a tool for compositional reasoning about almost-sure termination, and for probabilistic programs with linear arithmetic they can be synthesized efficiently (in polynomial time). We also show that with additional restrictions even asymptotic bounds on expected termination time can be obtained through lexicographic RSMs. Finally, we present experimental results on benchmarks adapted from previous work to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
AU - Agrawal, Sheshansh
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Novotny, Petr
ID - 325
IS - POPL
TI - Lexicographic ranking supermartingales: an efficient approach to termination of probabilistic programs
VL - 2
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) are widely used in probabilistic planning problems in which an agent interacts with an environment using noisy and imprecise sensors. We study a setting in which the sensors are only partially defined and the goal is to synthesize “weakest” additional sensors, such that in the resulting POMDP, there is a small-memory policy for the agent that almost-surely (with probability 1) satisfies a reachability objective. We show that the problem is NP-complete, and present a symbolic algorithm by encoding the problem into SAT instances. We illustrate trade-offs between the amount of memory of the policy and the number of additional sensors on a simple example. We have implemented our approach and consider three classical POMDP examples from the literature, and show that in all the examples the number of sensors can be significantly decreased (as compared to the existing solutions in the literature) without increasing the complexity of the policies.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Chemlík, Martin
AU - Topcu, Ufuk
ID - 34
TI - Sensor synthesis for POMDPs with reachability objectives
VL - 2018
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider planning problems for graphs, Markov decision processes (MDPs), and games on graphs. While graphs represent the most basic planning model, MDPs represent interaction with nature and games on graphs represent interaction with an adversarial environment. We consider two planning problems where there are k different target sets, and the problems are as follows: (a) the coverage problem asks whether there is a plan for each individual target set; and (b) the sequential target reachability problem asks whether the targets can be reached in sequence. For the coverage problem, we present a linear-time algorithm for graphs, and quadratic conditional lower bound for MDPs and games on graphs. For the sequential target problem, we present a linear-time algorithm for graphs, a sub-quadratic algorithm for MDPs, and a quadratic conditional lower bound for games on graphs. Our results with conditional lower bounds establish (i) model-separation results showing that for the coverage problem MDPs and games on graphs are harder than graphs and for the sequential reachability problem games on graphs are harder than MDPs and graphs; and (ii) objective-separation results showing that for MDPs the coverage problem is harder than the sequential target problem.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Dvorák, Wolfgang
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Svozil, Alexander
ID - 35
T2 - 28th International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling
TI - Algorithms and conditional lower bounds for planning problems
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Reciprocity is a major factor in human social life and accounts for a large part of cooperation in our communities. Direct reciprocity arises when repeated interactions occur between the same individuals. The framework of iterated games formalizes this phenomenon. Despite being introduced more than five decades ago, the concept keeps offering beautiful surprises. Recent theoretical research driven by new mathematical tools has proposed a remarkable dichotomy among the crucial strategies: successful individuals either act as partners or as rivals. Rivals strive for unilateral advantages by applying selfish or extortionate strategies. Partners aim to share the payoff for mutual cooperation, but are ready to fight back when being exploited. Which of these behaviours evolves depends on the environment. Whereas small population sizes and a limited number of rounds favour rivalry, partner strategies are selected when populations are large and relationships stable. Only partners allow for evolution of cooperation, while the rivals’ attempt to put themselves first leads to defection. Hilbe et al. synthesize recent theoretical work on zero-determinant and ‘rival’ versus ‘partner’ strategies in social dilemmas. They describe the environments under which these contrasting selfish or cooperative strategies emerge in evolution.
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 419
JF - Nature Human Behaviour
TI - Partners and rivals in direct reciprocity
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze “crosstalk” between a player’s concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person’s decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Rand, David
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 454
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness
VL - 9
ER -