TY - CONF
AB - Formal design of embedded and cyber-physical systems relies on mathematical modeling. In this paper, we consider the model class of hybrid automata whose dynamics are defined by affine differential equations. Given a set of time-series data, we present an algorithmic approach to synthesize a hybrid automaton exhibiting behavior that is close to the data, up to a specified precision, and changes in synchrony with the data. A fundamental problem in our synthesis algorithm is to check membership of a time series in a hybrid automaton. Our solution integrates reachability and optimization techniques for affine dynamical systems to obtain both a sufficient and a necessary condition for membership, combined in a refinement framework. The algorithm processes one time series at a time and hence can be interrupted, provide an intermediate result, and be resumed. We report experimental results demonstrating the applicability of our synthesis approach.
AU - Garcia Soto, Miriam
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 9200
KW - hybrid automaton
KW - membership
KW - system identification
SN - 9781450383394
T2 - HSCC '21: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control
TI - Synthesis of hybrid automata with affine dynamics from time-series data
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a computational design system that assists users to model, optimize, and fabricate quad-robots with soft skins. Our system addresses the challenging task of predicting their physical behavior by fully integrating the multibody dynamics of the mechanical skeleton and the elastic behavior of the soft skin. The developed motion control strategy uses an alternating optimization scheme to avoid expensive full space time-optimization, interleaving space-time optimization for the skeleton, and frame-by-frame optimization for the full dynamics. The output are motor torques to drive the robot to achieve a user prescribed motion trajectory. We also provide a collection of convenient engineering tools and empirical manufacturing guidance to support the fabrication of the designed quad-robot. We validate the feasibility of designs generated with our system through physics simulations and with a physically-fabricated prototype.
AU - Feng, Xudong
AU - Liu, Jiafeng
AU - Wang, Huamin
AU - Yang, Yin
AU - Bao, Hujun
AU - Bickel, Bernd
AU - Xu, Weiwei
ID - 9408
IS - 6
JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
SN - 19410506
TI - Computational design of skinned Quad-Robots
VL - 27
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Antibiotic concentrations vary dramatically in the body and the environment. Hence, understanding the dynamics of resistance evolution along antibiotic concentration gradients is critical for predicting and slowing the emergence and spread of resistance. While it has been shown that increasing the concentration of an antibiotic slows resistance evolution, how adaptation to one antibiotic concentration correlates with fitness at other points along the gradient has not received much attention. Here, we selected populations of Escherichia coli at several points along a concentration gradient for three different antibiotics, asking how rapidly resistance evolved and whether populations became specialized to the antibiotic concentration they were selected on. Populations selected at higher concentrations evolved resistance more slowly but exhibited equal or higher fitness across the whole gradient. Populations selected at lower concentrations evolved resistance rapidly, but overall fitness in the presence of antibiotics was lower. However, these populations readily adapted to higher concentrations upon subsequent selection. Our results indicate that resistance management strategies must account not only for the rates of resistance evolution but also for the fitness of evolved strains.
AU - Lagator, Mato
AU - Uecker, Hildegard
AU - Neve, Paul
ID - 9410
IS - 5
JF - Biology letters
TI - Adaptation at different points along antibiotic concentration gradients
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents a method for designing planar multistable compliant structures. Given a sequence of desired stable states and the corresponding poses of the structure, we identify the topology and geometric realization of a mechanism—consisting of bars and joints—that is able to physically reproduce the desired multistable behavior. In order to solve this problem efficiently, we build on insights from minimally rigid graph theory to identify simple but effective topologies for the mechanism. We then optimize its geometric parameters, such as joint positions and bar lengths, to obtain correct transitions between the given poses. Simultaneously, we ensure adequate stability of each pose based on an effective approximate error metric related to the elastic energy Hessian of the bars in the mechanism. As demonstrated by our results, we obtain functional multistable mechanisms of manageable complexity that can be fabricated using 3D printing. Further, we evaluated the effectiveness of our method on a large number of examples in the simulation and fabricated several physical prototypes.
AU - Zhang, Ran
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Bickel, Bernd
ID - 9376
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
KW - multistability
KW - mechanism
KW - computational design
KW - rigidity
TI - Computational design of planar multistable compliant structures
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We derive rigorously the leading order of the correlation energy of a Fermi gas in a scaling regime of high density and weak interaction. The result verifies the prediction of the random-phase approximation. Our proof refines the method of collective bosonization in three dimensions. We approximately diagonalize an effective Hamiltonian describing approximately bosonic collective excitations around the Hartree–Fock state, while showing that gapless and non-collective excitations have only a negligible effect on the ground state energy.
AU - Benedikter, Niels P
AU - Nam, Phan Thành
AU - Porta, Marcello
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 7901
JF - Inventiones Mathematicae
SN - 00209910
TI - Correlation energy of a weakly interacting Fermi gas
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The synaptic connection from medial habenula (MHb) to interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) is critical for emotion-related behaviors and uniquely expresses R-type Ca2+ channels (Cav2.3) and auxiliary GABAB receptor (GBR) subunits, the K+-channel tetramerization domain-containing proteins (KCTDs). Activation of GBRs facilitates or inhibits transmitter release from MHb terminals depending on the IPN subnucleus, but the role of KCTDs is unknown. We therefore examined the localization and function of Cav2.3, GBRs, and KCTDs in this pathway in mice. We show in heterologous cells that KCTD8 and KCTD12b directly bind to Cav2.3 and that KCTD8 potentiates Cav2.3 currents in the absence of GBRs. In the rostral IPN, KCTD8, KCTD12b, and Cav2.3 co-localize at the presynaptic active zone. Genetic deletion indicated a bidirectional modulation of Cav2.3-mediated release by these KCTDs with a compensatory increase of KCTD8 in the active zone in KCTD12b-deficient mice. The interaction of Cav2.3 with KCTDs therefore scales synaptic strength independent of GBR activation.
AU - Bhandari, Pradeep
AU - Vandael, David H
AU - Fernández-Fernández, Diego
AU - Fritzius, Thorsten
AU - Kleindienst, David
AU - Önal, Hüseyin C
AU - Montanaro-Punzengruber, Jacqueline-Claire
AU - Gassmann, Martin
AU - Jonas, Peter M
AU - Kulik, Akos
AU - Bettler, Bernhard
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Koppensteiner, Peter
ID - 9437
JF - eLife
TI - GABAB receptor auxiliary subunits modulate Cav2.3-mediated release from medial habenula terminals
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The ability to adapt to changes in stimulus statistics is a hallmark of sensory systems. Here, we developed a theoretical framework that can account for the dynamics of adaptation from an information processing perspective. We use this framework to optimize and analyze adaptive sensory codes, and we show that codes optimized for stationary environments can suffer from prolonged periods of poor performance when the environment changes. To mitigate the adversarial effects of these environmental changes, sensory systems must navigate tradeoffs between the ability to accurately encode incoming stimuli and the ability to rapidly detect and adapt to changes in the distribution of these stimuli. We derive families of codes that balance these objectives, and we demonstrate their close match to experimentally observed neural dynamics during mean and variance adaptation. Our results provide a unifying perspective on adaptation across a range of sensory systems, environments, and sensory tasks.
AU - Mlynarski, Wiktor F
AU - Hermundstad, Ann M.
ID - 9439
JF - Nature Neuroscience
SN - 10976256
TI - Efficient and adaptive sensory codes
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - For any given positive integer l, we prove that every plane deformation of a circlewhich preserves the 1/2and 1/ (2l + 1) -rational caustics is trivial i.e. the deformationconsists only of similarities (rescalings and isometries).
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Koudjinan, Edmond
ID - 9435
TI - Non co-preservation of the 1/2 and 1/(2l+1)-rational caustics along deformations of circles
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Rigorous investigation of synaptic transmission requires analysis of unitary synaptic events by simultaneous recording from presynaptic terminals and postsynaptic target neurons. However, this has been achieved at only a limited number of model synapses, including the squid giant synapse and the mammalian calyx of Held. Cortical presynaptic terminals have been largely inaccessible to direct presynaptic recording, due to their small size. Here, we describe a protocol for improved subcellular patch-clamp recording in rat and mouse brain slices, with the synapse in a largely intact environment. Slice preparation takes ~2 h, recording ~3 h and post hoc morphological analysis 2 d. Single presynaptic hippocampal mossy fiber terminals are stimulated minimally invasively in the bouton-attached configuration, in which the cytoplasmic content remains unperturbed, or in the whole-bouton configuration, in which the cytoplasmic composition can be precisely controlled. Paired pre–postsynaptic recordings can be integrated with biocytin labeling and morphological analysis, allowing correlative investigation of synapse structure and function. Paired recordings can be obtained from mossy fiber terminals in slices from both rats and mice, implying applicability to genetically modified synapses. Paired recordings can also be performed together with axon tract stimulation or optogenetic activation, allowing comparison of unitary and compound synaptic events in the same target cell. Finally, paired recordings can be combined with spontaneous event analysis, permitting collection of miniature events generated at a single identified synapse. In conclusion, the subcellular patch-clamp techniques detailed here should facilitate analysis of biophysics, plasticity and circuit function of cortical synapses in the mammalian central nervous system.
AU - Vandael, David H
AU - Okamoto, Yuji
AU - Borges Merjane, Carolina
AU - Vargas Barroso, Victor M
AU - Suter, Benjamin
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 9438
IS - 6
JF - Nature Protocols
SN - 17542189
TI - Subcellular patch-clamp techniques for single-bouton stimulation and simultaneous pre- and postsynaptic recording at cortical synapses
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Embryo morphogenesis is impacted by dynamic changes in tissue material properties, which have been proposed to occur via processes akin to phase transitions (PTs). Here, we show that rigidity percolation provides a simple and robust theoretical framework to predict material/structural PTs of embryonic tissues from local cell connectivity. By using percolation theory, combined with directly monitoring dynamic changes in tissue rheology and cell contact mechanics, we demonstrate that the zebrafish blastoderm undergoes a genuine rigidity PT, brought about by a small reduction in adhesion-dependent cell connectivity below a critical value. We quantitatively predict and experimentally verify hallmarks of PTs, including power-law exponents and associated discontinuities of macroscopic observables. Finally, we show that this uniform PT depends on blastoderm cells undergoing meta-synchronous divisions causing random and, consequently, uniform changes in cell connectivity. Collectively, our theoretical and experimental findings reveal the structural basis of material PTs in an organismal context.
AU - Petridou, Nicoletta
AU - Corominas-Murtra, Bernat
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
AU - Hannezo, Edouard B
ID - 9316
IS - 7
JF - Cell
SN - 00928674
TI - Rigidity percolation uncovers a structural basis for embryonic tissue phase transitions
VL - 184
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The inverse problem of designing component interactions to target emergent structure is fundamental to numerous applications in biotechnology, materials science, and statistical physics. Equally important is the inverse problem of designing emergent kinetics, but this has received considerably less attention. Using recent advances in automatic differentiation, we show how kinetic pathways can be precisely designed by directly differentiating through statistical physics models, namely free energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We consider two systems that are crucial to our understanding of structural self-assembly: bulk crystallization and small nanoclusters. In each case, we are able to assemble precise dynamical features. Using gradient information, we manipulate interactions among constituent particles to tune the rate at which these systems yield specific structures of interest. Moreover, we use this approach to learn nontrivial features about the high-dimensional design space, allowing us to accurately predict when multiple kinetic features can be simultaneously and independently controlled. These results provide a concrete and generalizable foundation for studying nonstructural self-assembly, including kinetic properties as well as other complex emergent properties, in a vast array of systems.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - King, Ella M.
AU - Schoenholz, Samuel S.
AU - Cubuk, Ekin D.
AU - Brenner, Michael P.
ID - 9257
IS - 10
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
SN - 0027-8424
TI - Designing self-assembling kinetics with differentiable statistical physics models
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Electrodepositing insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is the key process during discharge of aprotic Li–O2 batteries and determines rate, capacity, and reversibility. Current understanding states that the partition between surface adsorbed and dissolved lithium superoxide governs whether Li2O2 grows as a conformal surface film or larger particles, leading to low or high capacities, respectively. However, better understanding governing factors for Li2O2 packing density and capacity requires structural sensitive in situ metrologies. Here, we establish in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) as a suitable method to record the Li2O2 phase evolution with atomic to submicrometer resolution during cycling a custom-built in situ Li–O2 cell. Combined with sophisticated data analysis, SAXS allows retrieving rich quantitative structural information from complex multiphase systems. Surprisingly, we find that features are absent that would point at a Li2O2 surface film formed via two consecutive electron transfers, even in poorly solvating electrolytes thought to be prototypical for surface growth. All scattering data can be modeled by stacks of thin Li2O2 platelets potentially forming large toroidal particles. Li2O2 solution growth is further justified by rotating ring-disk electrode measurements and electron microscopy. Higher discharge overpotentials lead to smaller Li2O2 particles, but there is no transition to an electronically passivating, conformal Li2O2 coating. Hence, mass transport of reactive species rather than electronic transport through a Li2O2 film limits the discharge capacity. Provided that species mobilities and carbon surface areas are high, this allows for high discharge capacities even in weakly solvating electrolytes. The currently accepted Li–O2 reaction mechanism ought to be reconsidered.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Samojlov, Aleksej
AU - Nachtnebel, Manfred
AU - Lovicar, Ludek
AU - Kriechbaum, Manfred
AU - Amenitsch, Heinz
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
ID - 9301
IS - 14
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
KW - small-angle X-ray scattering
KW - oxygen reduction
KW - disproportionation
KW - Li-air battery
SN - 0027-8424
TI - In situ small-angle X-ray scattering reveals solution phase discharge of Li–O2 batteries with weakly solvating electrolytes
VL - 118
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Modeling a crystal as a periodic point set, we present a fingerprint consisting of density functionsthat facilitates the efficient search for new materials and material properties. We prove invarianceunder isometries, continuity, and completeness in the generic case, which are necessary featuresfor the reliable comparison of crystals. The proof of continuity integrates methods from discretegeometry and lattice theory, while the proof of generic completeness combines techniques fromgeometry with analysis. The fingerprint has a fast algorithm based on Brillouin zones and relatedinclusion-exclusion formulae. We have implemented the algorithm and describe its application tocrystal structure prediction.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Heiss, Teresa
AU - Kurlin , Vitaliy
AU - Smith, Philip
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 9345
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)
TI - The density fingerprint of a periodic point set
VL - 189
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Isomanifolds are the generalization of isosurfaces to arbitrary dimension and codimension, i.e. submanifolds of ℝ^d defined as the zero set of some multivariate multivalued smooth function f: ℝ^d → ℝ^{d-n}, where n is the intrinsic dimension of the manifold. A natural way to approximate a smooth isomanifold M is to consider its Piecewise-Linear (PL) approximation M̂ based on a triangulation 𝒯 of the ambient space ℝ^d. In this paper, we describe a simple algorithm to trace isomanifolds from a given starting point. The algorithm works for arbitrary dimensions n and d, and any precision D. Our main result is that, when f (or M) has bounded complexity, the complexity of the algorithm is polynomial in d and δ = 1/D (and unavoidably exponential in n). Since it is known that for δ = Ω (d^{2.5}), M̂ is O(D²)-close and isotopic to M, our algorithm produces a faithful PL-approximation of isomanifolds of bounded complexity in time polynomial in d. Combining this algorithm with dimensionality reduction techniques, the dependency on d in the size of M̂ can be completely removed with high probability. We also show that the algorithm can handle isomanifolds with boundary and, more generally, isostratifolds. The algorithm for isomanifolds with boundary has been implemented and experimental results are reported, showing that it is practical and can handle cases that are far ahead of the state-of-the-art.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Kachanovich, Siargey
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 9441
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)
TI - Tracing isomanifolds in Rd in time polynomial in d using Coxeter-Freudenthal-Kuhn triangulations
VL - 189
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) based water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSEs) has recently emerged as a new promising class of electrolytes, primarily owing to their wide electrochemical stability windows (~3–4 V), that by far exceed the thermodynamic stability window of water (1.23 V). Upon increasing the salt concentration towards superconcentration the onset of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) shifts more significantly than the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) does. The OER shift has been explained by the accumulation of hydrophobic anions blocking water access to the electrode surface, hence by double layer theory. Here we demonstrate that the processes during oxidation are much more complex, involving OER, carbon and salt decomposition by OER intermediates, and salt precipitation upon local oversaturation. The positive shift in the onset potential of oxidation currents was elucidated by combining several advanced analysis techniques: rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, online electrochemical mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, using both dilute and superconcentrated electrolytes. The results demonstrate the importance of reactive OER intermediates and surface films for electrolyte and electrode stability and motivate further studies of the nature of the electrode.
AU - Maffre, Marion
AU - Bouchal, Roza
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Lindahl, Niklas
AU - Johansson, Patrik
AU - Favier, Frédéric
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
AU - Bélanger, Daniel
ID - 9447
IS - 5
JF - Journal of The Electrochemical Society
KW - Renewable Energy
KW - Sustainability and the Environment
KW - Electrochemistry
KW - Materials Chemistry
KW - Electronic
KW - Optical and Magnetic Materials
KW - Surfaces
KW - Coatings and Films
KW - Condensed Matter Physics
SN - 0013-4651
TI - Investigation of electrochemical and chemical processes occurring at positive potentials in “Water-in-Salt” electrolytes
VL - 168
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Spin qubits are considered to be among the most promising candidates for building a quantum processor. Group IV hole spin qubits have moved into the focus of interest due to the ease of operation and compatibility with Si technology. In addition, Ge offers the option for monolithic superconductor-semiconductor integration. Here we demonstrate a hole spin qubit operating at fields below 10 mT, the critical field of Al, by exploiting the large out-of-plane hole g-factors in planar Ge and by encoding the qubit into the singlet-triplet states of a double quantum dot. We observe electrically controlled X and Z-rotations with tunable frequencies exceeding 100 MHz and dephasing times of 1μs which we extend beyond 15μs with echo techniques. These results show that Ge hole singlet triplet qubits outperform their electronic Si and GaAs based counterparts in speed and coherence, respectively. In addition, they are on par with Ge single spin qubits, but can be operated at much lower fields underlining their potential for on chip integration with superconducting technologies.
AU - Jirovec, Daniel
AU - Hofmann, Andrea C
AU - Ballabio, Andrea
AU - Mutter, Philipp M.
AU - Tavani, Giulio
AU - Botifoll, Marc
AU - Crippa, Alessandro
AU - Kukucka, Josip
AU - Sagi, Oliver
AU - Martins, Frederico
AU - Saez Mollejo, Jaime
AU - Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan
AU - Borovkov, Maksim
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Chrastina, Daniel
AU - Isella, Giovanni
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
ID - 8909
JF - Nature Materials
SN - 1476-1122
TI - A singlet triplet hole spin qubit in planar Ge
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Given a locally finite set 𝑋⊆ℝ𝑑 and an integer 𝑘≥0, we consider the function 𝐰𝑘:Del𝑘(𝑋)→ℝ on the dual of the order-k Voronoi tessellation, whose sublevel sets generalize the notion of alpha shapes from order-1 to order-k (Edelsbrunner et al. in IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-29:551–559, 1983; Krasnoshchekov and Polishchuk in Inf Process Lett 114:76–83, 2014). While this function is not necessarily generalized discrete Morse, in the sense of Forman (Adv Math 134:90–145, 1998) and Freij (Discrete Math 309:3821–3829, 2009), we prove that it satisfies similar properties so that its increments can be meaningfully classified into critical and non-critical steps. This result extends to the case of weighted points and sheds light on k-fold covers with balls in Euclidean space.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Nikitenko, Anton
AU - Osang, Georg F
ID - 9465
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Geometry
SN - 00472468
TI - A step in the Delaunay mosaic of order k
VL - 112
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work, we apply the dynamical systems analysis of Hanrot et al. (CRYPTO’11) to a class of lattice block reduction algorithms that includes (natural variants of) slide reduction and block-Rankin reduction. This implies sharper bounds on the polynomial running times (in the query model) for these algorithms and opens the door to faster practical variants of slide reduction. We give heuristic arguments showing that such variants can indeed speed up slide reduction significantly in practice. This is confirmed by experimental evidence, which also shows that our variants are competitive with state-of-the-art reduction algorithms.
AU - Walter, Michael
ID - 9466
SN - 03029743
TI - The convergence of slide-type reductions
VL - 12710
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We firstly introduce the self-assembled growth of highly uniform Ge quantum wires with controllable position, distance and length on patterned Si (001) substrates. We then present the electrically tunable strong spin-orbit coupling, the first Ge hole spin qubit and ultrafast operation of hole spin qubit in the Ge/Si quantum wires.
AU - Gao, Fei
AU - Zhang, Jie Yin
AU - Wang, Jian Huan
AU - Ming, Ming
AU - Wang, Tina
AU - Zhang, Jian Jun
AU - Watzinger, Hannes
AU - Kukucka, Josip
AU - Vukušić, Lada
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
AU - Wang, Ke
AU - Xu, Gang
AU - Li, Hai Ou
AU - Guo, Guo Ping
ID - 9464
SN - 9781728181769
T2 - 2021 5th IEEE Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing Conference, EDTM 2021
TI - Ge/Si quantum wires for quantum computing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we consider reflected three-operator splitting methods for monotone inclusion problems in real Hilbert spaces. To do this, we first obtain weak convergence analysis and nonasymptotic O(1/n) convergence rate of the reflected Krasnosel'skiĭ-Mann iteration for finding a fixed point of nonexpansive mapping in real Hilbert spaces under some seemingly easy to implement conditions on the iterative parameters. We then apply our results to three-operator splitting for the monotone inclusion problem and consequently obtain the corresponding convergence analysis. Furthermore, we derive reflected primal-dual algorithms for highly structured monotone inclusion problems. Some numerical implementations are drawn from splitting methods to support the theoretical analysis.
AU - Iyiola, Olaniyi S.
AU - Enyi, Cyril D.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
ID - 9469
JF - Optimization Methods and Software
SN - 10556788
TI - Reflected three-operator splitting method for monotone inclusion problem
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A key step in understanding the genetic basis of different evolutionary outcomes (e.g., adaptation) is to determine the roles played by different mutation types (e.g., SNPs, translocations and inversions). To do this we must simultaneously consider different mutation types in an evolutionary framework. Here, we propose a research framework that directly utilizes the most important characteristics of mutations, their population genetic effects, to determine their relative evolutionary significance in a given scenario. We review known population genetic effects of different mutation types and show how these may be connected to different evolutionary outcomes. We provide examples of how to implement this framework and pinpoint areas where more data, theory and synthesis are needed. Linking experimental and theoretical approaches to examine different mutation types simultaneously is a critical step towards understanding their evolutionary significance.
AU - Berdan, Emma L.
AU - Blanckaert, Alexandre
AU - Slotte, Tanja
AU - Suh, Alexander
AU - Westram, Anja M
AU - Fragata, Inês
ID - 9470
IS - 12
JF - Molecular Ecology
SN - 09621083
TI - Unboxing mutations: Connecting mutation types with evolutionary consequences
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Turbulence in the flow of fluid through a pipe can be suppressed by buoyancy forces. As the suppression of turbulence leads to severe heat transfer deterioration, this is an important and undesirable phenomenon in both heating and cooling applications. Vertical flow is often considered, as the axial buoyancy force can help drive the flow. With heating measured by the buoyancy parameter 𝐶, our direct numerical simulations show that shear-driven turbulence may either be completely laminarised or it transitions to a relatively quiescent convection-driven state. Buoyancy forces cause a flattening of the base flow profile, which in isothermal pipe flow has recently been linked to complete suppression of turbulence (Kühnen et al., Nat. Phys., vol. 14, 2018, pp. 386–390), and the flattened laminar base profile has enhanced nonlinear stability (Marensi et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 863, 2019, pp. 50–875). In agreement with these findings, the nonlinear lower-branch travelling-wave solution analysed here, which is believed to mediate transition to turbulence in isothermal pipe flow, is shown to be suppressed by buoyancy. A linear instability of the laminar base flow is responsible for the appearance of the relatively quiescent convection driven state for 𝐶≳4 across the range of Reynolds numbers considered. In the suppression of turbulence, however, i.e. in the transition from turbulence, we find clearer association with the analysis of He et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 809, 2016, pp. 31–71) than with the above dynamical systems approach, which describes better the transition to turbulence. The laminarisation criterion He et al. propose, based on an apparent Reynolds number of the flow as measured by its driving pressure gradient, is found to capture the critical 𝐶=𝐶𝑐𝑟(𝑅𝑒) above which the flow will be laminarised or switch to the convection-driven type. Our analysis suggests that it is the weakened rolls, rather than the streaks, which appear to be critical for laminarisation.
AU - Marensi, Elena
AU - He, Shuisheng
AU - Willis, Ashley P.
ID - 9467
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Suppression of turbulence and travelling waves in a vertical heated pipe
VL - 919
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Brain neurons arise from relatively few progenitors generating an enormous diversity of neuronal types. Nonetheless, a cardinal feature of mammalian brain neurogenesis is thought to be that excitatory and inhibitory neurons derive from separate, spatially segregated progenitors. Whether bi-potential progenitors with an intrinsic capacity to generate both lineages exist and how such a fate decision may be regulated are unknown. Using cerebellar development as a model, we discover that individual progenitors can give rise to both inhibitory and excitatory lineages. Gradations of Notch activity determine the fates of the progenitors and their daughters. Daughters with the highest levels of Notch activity retain the progenitor fate, while intermediate levels of Notch activity generate inhibitory neurons, and daughters with very low levels of Notch signaling adopt the excitatory fate. Therefore, Notch-mediated binary cell fate choice is a mechanism for regulating the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory neurons from common progenitors.
AU - Zhang, Tingting
AU - Liu, Tengyuan
AU - Mora, Natalia
AU - Guegan, Justine
AU - Bertrand, Mathilde
AU - Contreras, Ximena
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Streicher, Carmen
AU - Anderle, Marica
AU - Danda, Natasha
AU - Tiberi, Luca
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Hassan, Bassem A.
ID - 8546
IS - 10
JF - Cell Reports
TI - Generation of excitatory and inhibitory neurons from common progenitors via Notch signaling in the cerebellum
VL - 35
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove that the energy of any eigenvector of a sum of several independent large Wigner matrices is equally distributed among these matrices with very high precision. This shows a particularly strong microcanonical form of the equipartition principle for quantum systems whose components are modelled by Wigner matrices.
AU - Bao, Zhigang
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 9550
JF - Forum of Mathematics, Sigma
TI - Equipartition principle for Wigner matrices
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We extend the notion of the minimal volume ellipsoid containing a convex body in Rd to the setting of logarithmically concave functions. We consider a vast class of logarithmically concave functions whose superlevel sets are concentric ellipsoids. For a fixed function from this class, we consider the set of all its “affine” positions. For any log-concave function f on Rd, we consider functions belonging to this set of “affine” positions, and find the one with the minimal integral under the condition that it is pointwise greater than or equal to f. We study the properties of existence and uniqueness of the solution to this problem. For any s∈[0,+∞), we consider the construction dual to the recently defined John s-function (Ivanov and Naszódi in Functional John ellipsoids. arXiv preprint: arXiv:2006.09934, 2020). We prove that such a construction determines a unique function and call it the Löwner s-function of f. We study the Löwner s-functions as s tends to zero and to infinity. Finally, extending the notion of the outer volume ratio, we define the outer integral ratio of a log-concave function and give an asymptotically tight bound on it.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
AU - Tsiutsiurupa, Igor
ID - 9548
JF - Journal of Geometric Analysis
SN - 10506926
TI - Functional Löwner ellipsoids
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - De novo loss of function mutations in the ubiquitin ligase-encoding gene Cullin3 lead to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In mouse, constitutive haploinsufficiency leads to motor coordination deficits as well as ASD-relevant social and cognitive impairments. However, induction of Cul3 haploinsufficiency later in life does not lead to ASD-relevant behaviors, pointing to an important role of Cul3 during a critical developmental window. Here we show that Cul3 is essential to regulate neuronal migration and, therefore, constitutive Cul3 heterozygous mutant mice display cortical lamination abnormalities. At the molecular level, we found that Cul3 controls neuronal migration by tightly regulating the amount of Plastin3 (Pls3), a previously unrecognized player of neural migration. Furthermore, we found that Pls3 cell-autonomously regulates cell migration by regulating actin cytoskeleton organization, and its levels are inversely proportional to neural migration speed. Finally, we provide evidence that cellular phenotypes associated with autism-linked gene haploinsufficiency can be rescued by transcriptional activation of the intact allele in vitro, offering a proof of concept for a potential therapeutic approach for ASDs.
AU - Morandell, Jasmin
AU - Schwarz, Lena A
AU - Basilico, Bernadette
AU - Tasciyan, Saren
AU - Dimchev, Georgi A
AU - Nicolas, Armel
AU - Sommer, Christoph M
AU - Kreuzinger, Caroline
AU - Dotter, Christoph
AU - Knaus, Lisa
AU - Dobler, Zoe
AU - Cacci, Emanuele
AU - Schur, Florian KM
AU - Danzl, Johann G
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 9429
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
TI - Cul3 regulates cytoskeleton protein homeostasis and cell migration during a critical window of brain development
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is an assembly cofactor for HIV-1. We report here that IP6 is also used for assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a retrovirus from a different genus. IP6 is ~100-fold more potent at promoting RSV mature capsid protein (CA) assembly than observed for HIV-1 and removal of IP6 in cells reduces infectivity by 100-fold. Here, visualized by cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, mature capsid-like particles show an IP6-like density in the CA hexamer, coordinated by rings of six lysines and six arginines. Phosphate and IP6 have opposing effects on CA in vitro assembly, inducing formation of T = 1 icosahedrons and tubes, respectively, implying that phosphate promotes pentamer and IP6 hexamer formation. Subtomogram averaging and classification optimized for analysis of pleomorphic retrovirus particles reveal that the heterogeneity of mature RSV CA polyhedrons results from an unexpected, intrinsic CA hexamer flexibility. In contrast, the CA pentamer forms rigid units organizing the local architecture. These different features of hexamers and pentamers determine the structural mechanism to form CA polyhedrons of variable shape in mature RSV particles.
AU - Obr, Martin
AU - Ricana, Clifton L.
AU - Nikulin, Nadia
AU - Feathers, Jon-Philip R.
AU - Klanschnig, Marco
AU - Thader, Andreas
AU - Johnson, Marc C.
AU - Vogt, Volker M.
AU - Schur, Florian KM
AU - Dick, Robert A.
ID - 9431
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
TI - Structure of the mature Rous sarcoma virus lattice reveals a role for IP6 in the formation of the capsid hexamer
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hexameric AAA-ATPase Drg1 is a key factor in eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis and initiates cytoplasmic maturation of the large ribosomal subunit by releasing the shuttling maturation factor Rlp24. Drg1 monomers contain two AAA-domains (D1 and D2) that act in a concerted manner. Rlp24 release is inhibited by the drug diazaborine which blocks ATP hydrolysis in D2. The mode of inhibition was unknown. Here we show the first cryo-EM structure of Drg1 revealing the inhibitory mechanism. Diazaborine forms a covalent bond to the 2′-OH of the nucleotide in D2, explaining its specificity for this site. As a consequence, the D2 domain is locked in a rigid, inactive state, stalling the whole Drg1 hexamer. Resistance mechanisms identified include abolished drug binding and altered positioning of the nucleotide. Our results suggest nucleotide-modifying compounds as potential novel inhibitors for AAA-ATPases.
AU - Prattes, Michael
AU - Grishkovskaya, Irina
AU - Hodirnau, Victor-Valentin
AU - Rössler, Ingrid
AU - Klein, Isabella
AU - Hetzmannseder, Christina
AU - Zisser, Gertrude
AU - Gruber, Christian C.
AU - Gruber, Karl
AU - Haselbach, David
AU - Bergler, Helmut
ID - 9540
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
TI - Structural basis for inhibition of the AAA-ATPase Drg1 by diazaborine
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - High impact epidemics constitute one of the largest threats humanity is facing in the 21st century. In the absence of pharmaceutical interventions, physical distancing together with testing, contact tracing and quarantining are crucial in slowing down epidemic dynamics. Yet, here we show that if testing capacities are limited, containment may fail dramatically because such combined countermeasures drastically change the rules of the epidemic transition: Instead of continuous, the response to countermeasures becomes discontinuous. Rather than following the conventional exponential growth, the outbreak that is initially strongly suppressed eventually accelerates and scales faster than exponential during an explosive growth period. As a consequence, containment measures either suffice to stop the outbreak at low total case numbers or fail catastrophically if marginally too weak, thus implying large uncertainties in reliably estimating overall epidemic dynamics, both during initial phases and during second wave scenarios.
AU - Scarselli, Davide
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Timme, Marc
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 9407
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Discontinuous epidemic transition due to limited testing
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of excitatory transmission in the brain and enable the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning1. A diverse array of AMPAR signalling complexes are established by receptor auxiliary subunits, which associate with the AMPAR in various combinations to modulate trafficking, gating and synaptic strength2. However, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here we determine cryo-electron microscopy structures of the heteromeric GluA1–GluA2 receptor assembled with both TARP-γ8 and CNIH2, the predominant AMPAR complex in the forebrain, in both resting and active states. Two TARP-γ8 and two CNIH2 subunits insert at distinct sites beneath the ligand-binding domains of the receptor, with site-specific lipids shaping each interaction and affecting the gating regulation of the AMPARs. Activation of the receptor leads to asymmetry between GluA1 and GluA2 along the ion conduction path and an outward expansion of the channel triggers counter-rotations of both auxiliary subunit pairs, promoting the active-state conformation. In addition, both TARP-γ8 and CNIH2 pivot towards the pore exit upon activation, extending their reach for cytoplasmic receptor elements. CNIH2 achieves this through its uniquely extended M2 helix, which has transformed this endoplasmic reticulum-export factor into a powerful AMPAR modulator that is capable of providing hippocampal pyramidal neurons with their integrative synaptic properties.
AU - Zhang, Danyang
AU - Watson, Jake
AU - Matthews, Peter M.
AU - Cais, Ondrej
AU - Greger, Ingo H.
ID - 9549
JF - Nature
SN - 00280836
TI - Gating and modulation of a hetero-octameric AMPA glutamate receptor
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Thermalization is the inevitable fate of many complex quantum systems, whose dynamics allow them to fully explore the vast configuration space regardless of the initial state---the behaviour known as quantum ergodicity. In a quest for experimental realizations of coherent long-time dynamics, efforts have focused on ergodicity-breaking mechanisms, such as integrability and localization. The recent discovery of persistent revivals in quantum simulators based on Rydberg atoms have pointed to the existence of a new type of behaviour where the system rapidly relaxes for most initial conditions, while certain initial states give rise to non-ergodic dynamics. This collective effect has been named ”quantum many-body scarring’by analogy with a related form of weak ergodicity breaking that occurs for a single particle inside a stadium billiard potential. In this Review, we provide a pedagogical introduction to quantum many-body scars and highlight the emerging connections with the semiclassical quantization of many-body systems. We discuss the relation between scars and more general routes towards weak violations of ergodicity due to embedded algebras and non-thermal eigenstates, and highlight possible applications of scars in quantum technology.
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
AU - Abanin, Dmitry A.
AU - Papić, Zlatko
ID - 9428
IS - 6
JF - Nature Physics
TI - Quantum many-body scars and weak breaking of ergodicity
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a system of N trapped bosons with repulsive interactions in a combined semiclassical mean-field limit at positive temperature. We show that the free energy is well approximated by the minimum of the Hartree free energy functional – a natural extension of the Hartree energy functional to positive temperatures. The Hartree free energy functional converges in the same limit to a semiclassical free energy functional, and we show that the system displays Bose–Einstein condensation if and only if it occurs in the semiclassical free energy functional. This allows us to show that for weak coupling the critical temperature decreases due to the repulsive interactions.
AU - Deuchert, Andreas
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 9462
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Functional Analysis
SN - 00221236
TI - Semiclassical approximation and critical temperature shift for weakly interacting trapped bosons
VL - 281
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - With the wider availability of full-color 3D printers, color-accurate 3D-print preparation has received increased attention. A key challenge lies in the inherent translucency of commonly used print materials that blurs out details of the color texture. Previous work tries to compensate for these scattering effects through strategic assignment of colored primary materials to printer voxels. To date, the highest-quality approach uses iterative optimization that relies on computationally expensive Monte Carlo light transport simulation to predict the surface appearance from subsurface scattering within a given print material distribution; that optimization, however, takes in the order of days on a single machine. In our work, we dramatically speed up the process by replacing the light transport simulation with a data-driven approach. Leveraging a deep neural network to predict the scattering within a highly heterogeneous medium, our method performs around two orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo rendering while yielding optimization results of similar quality level. The network is based on an established method from atmospheric cloud rendering, adapted to our domain and extended by a physically motivated weight sharing scheme that substantially reduces the network size. We analyze its performance in an end-to-end print preparation pipeline and compare quality and runtime to alternative approaches, and demonstrate its generalization to unseen geometry and material values. This for the first time enables full heterogenous material optimization for 3D-print preparation within time frames in the order of the actual printing time.
AU - Rittig, Tobias
AU - Sumin, Denis
AU - Babaei, Vahid
AU - Didyk, Piotr
AU - Voloboy, Alexey
AU - Wilkie, Alexander
AU - Bickel, Bernd
AU - Myszkowski, Karol
AU - Weyrich, Tim
AU - Křivánek, Jaroslav
ID - 9547
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
SN - 01677055
TI - Neural acceleration of scattering-aware color 3D printing
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model is an emerging model that distills core aspects of distributed and parallel computation, developed as a tool to solve combinatorial (typically graph) problems in systems of many machines with limited space. Recent work has focused on the regime in which machines have sublinear (in n, the number of nodes in the input graph) space, with randomized algorithms presented for the fundamental problems of Maximal Matching and Maximal Independent Set. However, there have been no prior corresponding deterministic algorithms. A major challenge underlying the sublinear space setting is that the local space of each machine might be too small to store all edges incident to a single node. This poses a considerable obstacle compared to classical models in which each node is assumed to know and have easy access to its incident edges. To overcome this barrier, we introduce a new graph sparsification technique that deterministically computes a low-degree subgraph, with the additional property that solving the problem on this subgraph provides significant progress towards solving the problem for the original input graph. Using this framework to derandomize the well-known algorithm of Luby [SICOMP’86], we obtain O(log Δ + log log n)-round deterministic MPC algorithms for solving the problems of Maximal Matching and Maximal Independent Set with O(nɛ) space on each machine for any constant ɛ > 0. These algorithms also run in O(log Δ) rounds in the closely related model of CONGESTED CLIQUE, improving upon the state-of-the-art bound of O(log 2Δ) rounds by Censor-Hillel et al. [DISC’17].
AU - Czumaj, Artur
AU - Davies, Peter
AU - Parter, Merav
ID - 9541
IS - 2
JF - ACM Transactions on Algorithms
SN - 1549-6325
TI - Graph sparsification for derandomizing massively parallel computation with low space
VL - 17
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Deep learning is best known for its empirical success across a wide range of applications
spanning computer vision, natural language processing and speech. Of equal significance,
though perhaps less known, are its ramifications for learning theory: deep networks have
been observed to perform surprisingly well in the high-capacity regime, aka the overfitting
or underspecified regime. Classically, this regime on the far right of the bias-variance curve
is associated with poor generalisation; however, recent experiments with deep networks
challenge this view.
This thesis is devoted to investigating various aspects of underspecification in deep learning.
First, we argue that deep learning models are underspecified on two levels: a) any given
training dataset can be fit by many different functions, and b) any given function can be
expressed by many different parameter configurations. We refer to the second kind of
underspecification as parameterisation redundancy and we precisely characterise its extent.
Second, we characterise the implicit criteria (the inductive bias) that guide learning in the
underspecified regime. Specifically, we consider a nonlinear but tractable classification
setting, and show that given the choice, neural networks learn classifiers with a large margin.
Third, we consider learning scenarios where the inductive bias is not by itself sufficient to
deal with underspecification. We then study different ways of ‘tightening the specification’: i)
In the setting of representation learning with variational autoencoders, we propose a hand-
crafted regulariser based on mutual information. ii) In the setting of binary classification, we
consider soft-label (real-valued) supervision. We derive a generalisation bound for linear
networks supervised in this way and verify that soft labels facilitate fast learning. Finally, we
explore an application of soft-label supervision to the training of multi-exit models.
AU - Bui Thi Mai, Phuong
ID - 9418
TI - Underspecification in Deep Learning
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem ofdistributed mean estimation (DME), in which n machines are each given a local d-dimensional vector xv∈Rd, and must cooperate to estimate the mean of their inputs μ=1n∑nv=1xv, while minimizing total communication cost. DME is a fundamental construct in distributed machine learning, and there has been considerable work on variants of this problem, especially in the context of distributed variance reduction for stochastic gradients in parallel SGD. Previous work typically assumes an upper bound on the norm of the input vectors, and achieves an error bound in terms of this norm. However, in many real applications, the input vectors are concentrated around the correct output μ, but μ itself has large norm. In such cases, previous output error bounds perform poorly. In this paper, we show that output error bounds need not depend on input norm. We provide a method of quantization which allows distributed mean estimation to be performed with solution quality dependent only on the distance between inputs, not on input norm, and show an analogous result for distributed variance reduction. The technique is based on a new connection with lattice theory. We also provide lower bounds showing that the communication to error trade-off of our algorithms is asymptotically optimal. As the lattices achieving optimal bounds under l2-norm can be computationally impractical, we also present an extension which leverages easy-to-use cubic lattices, and is loose only up to a logarithmic factor ind. We show experimentally that our method yields practical improvements for common applications, relative to prior approaches.
AU - Davies, Peter
AU - Gurunanthan, Vijaykrishna
AU - Moshrefi, Niusha
AU - Ashkboos, Saleh
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
ID - 9543
T2 - 9th International Conference on Learning Representations
TI - New bounds for distributed mean estimation and variance reduction
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the inductive bias of two-layer ReLU networks trained by gradient flow. We identify a class of easy-to-learn (`orthogonally separable') datasets, and characterise the solution that ReLU networks trained on such datasets converge to. Irrespective of network width, the solution turns out to be a combination of two max-margin classifiers: one corresponding to the positive data subset and one corresponding to the negative data subset. The proof is based on the recently introduced concept of extremal sectors, for which we prove a number of properties in the context of orthogonal separability. In particular, we prove stationarity of activation patterns from some time onwards, which enables a reduction of the ReLU network to an ensemble of linear subnetworks.
AU - Bui Thi Mai, Phuong
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 9416
T2 - 9th International Conference on Learning Representations
TI - The inductive bias of ReLU networks on orthogonally separable data
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis, we consider several of the most classical and fundamental problems in static analysis and formal verification, including invariant generation, reachability analysis, termination analysis of probabilistic programs, data-flow analysis, quantitative analysis of Markov chains and Markov decision processes, and the problem of data packing in cache management.
We use techniques from parameterized complexity theory, polyhedral geometry, and real algebraic geometry to significantly improve the state-of-the-art, in terms of both scalability and completeness guarantees, for the mentioned problems. In some cases, our results are the first theoretical improvements for the respective problems in two or three decades.
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
ID - 8934
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Parameterized and algebro-geometric advances in static program analysis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.
AU - Pȩkalski, J.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.
ID - 7956
IS - 20
JF - The Journal of chemical physics
TI - Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E
AU - Schön, Hanna
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 7957
IS - 8
JF - Trends in Neurosciences
SN - 01662236
TI - Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways
VL - 43
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.
AU - Kalai, Gil
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7960
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Intersection patterns of planar sets
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.
AU - Pach, János
AU - Reed, Bruce
AU - Yuditsky, Yelena
ID - 7962
IS - 4
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets
VL - 63
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - For 1≤m≤n, we consider a natural m-out-of-n multi-instance scenario for a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme. An adversary, given n independent instances of PKE, wins if he breaks at least m out of the n instances. In this work, we are interested in the scaling factor of PKE schemes, SF, which measures how well the difficulty of breaking m out of the n instances scales in m. That is, a scaling factor SF=ℓ indicates that breaking m out of n instances is at least ℓ times more difficult than breaking one single instance. A PKE scheme with small scaling factor hence provides an ideal target for mass surveillance. In fact, the Logjam attack (CCS 2015) implicitly exploited, among other things, an almost constant scaling factor of ElGamal over finite fields (with shared group parameters).
For Hashed ElGamal over elliptic curves, we use the generic group model to argue that the scaling factor depends on the scheme's granularity. In low granularity, meaning each public key contains its independent group parameter, the scheme has optimal scaling factor SF=m; In medium and high granularity, meaning all public keys share the same group parameter, the scheme still has a reasonable scaling factor SF=√m. Our findings underline that instantiating ElGamal over elliptic curves should be preferred to finite fields in a multi-instance scenario.
As our main technical contribution, we derive new generic-group lower bounds of Ω(√(mp)) on the difficulty of solving both the m-out-of-n Gap Discrete Logarithm and the m-out-of-n Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem over groups of prime order p, extending a recent result by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). We establish the lower bound by studying the hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hypersurface problem.
AU - Auerbach, Benedikt
AU - Giacon, Federico
AU - Kiltz, Eike
ID - 7966
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020
TI - Everybody’s a target: Scalability in public-key encryption
VL - 12107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Paltiel, Yossi
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 7968
IS - 21
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
SN - 1932-7447
TI - Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity
VL - 124
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.
AU - Rao, Peng
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 7971
IS - 24
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene
VL - 101
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.
AU - Kwak, WJ
AU - Sharon, D
AU - Xia, C
AU - Kim, H
AU - Johnson, LR
AU - Bruce, PG
AU - Nazar, LF
AU - Sun, YK
AU - Frimer, AA
AU - Noked, M
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Aurbach, D
ID - 7985
IS - 14
JF - Chemical Reviews
SN - 0009-2665
TI - Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future
VL - 120
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7989
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Bounding radon number via Betti numbers
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Welzl, Emo
ID - 7990
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
AU - Nivasch, Gabriel
ID - 7991
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
AU - Tancer, Martin
AU - Wagner, Uli
ID - 7992
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Barycentric cuts through a convex body
VL - 164
ER -