TY - JOUR
AB - The distance between Ca^2+ channels and release sensors determines the speed and efficacy of synaptic transmission. Tight "nanodomain" channel-sensor coupling initiates transmitter release at synapses in the mature brain, whereas loose "microdomain" coupling appears restricted to early developmental stages. To probe the coupling configuration at a plastic synapse in the mature central nervous system, we performed paired recordings between mossy fiber terminals and CA3 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus. Millimolar concentrations of both the fast Ca^2+ chelator BAPTA [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N, N′,N′-tetraacetic acid] and the slow chelator EGTA efficiently suppressed transmitter release, indicating loose coupling between Ca^2+ channels and release sensors. Loose coupling enabled the control of initial release probability by fast endogenous Ca^2+ buffers and the generation of facilitation by buffer saturation. Thus, loose coupling provides the molecular framework for presynaptic plasticity.
AU - Vyleta, Nicholas
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 2229
IS - 6171
JF - Science
SN - 00368075
TI - Loose coupling between Ca^2+ channels and release sensors at a plastic hippocampal synapse
VL - 343
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals.
AU - Guzmán, José
AU - Schlögl, Alois
AU - Schmidt Hieber, Christoph
ID - 2230
IS - FEB
JF - Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
SN - 16625196
TI - Stimfit: Quantifying electrophysiological data with Python
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Based on the measurements of noise in gene expression performed during the past decade, it has become customary to think of gene regulation in terms of a two-state model, where the promoter of a gene can stochastically switch between an ON and an OFF state. As experiments are becoming increasingly precise and the deviations from the two-state model start to be observable, we ask about the experimental signatures of complex multistate promoters, as well as the functional consequences of this additional complexity. In detail, we i), extend the calculations for noise in gene expression to promoters described by state transition diagrams with multiple states, ii), systematically compute the experimentally accessible noise characteristics for these complex promoters, and iii), use information theory to evaluate the channel capacities of complex promoter architectures and compare them with the baseline provided by the two-state model. We find that adding internal states to the promoter generically decreases channel capacity, except in certain cases, three of which (cooperativity, dual-role regulation, promoter cycling) we analyze in detail.
AU - Rieckh, Georg
AU - Tkacik, Gasper
ID - 2231
IS - 5
JF - Biophysical Journal
SN - 00063495
TI - Noise and information transmission in promoters with multiple internal states
VL - 106
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The purpose of this contribution is to summarize and discuss recent advances regarding the onset of turbulence in shear flows. The absence of a clear-cut instability mechanism, the spatio-temporal intermittent character and extremely long lived transients are some of the major difficulties encountered in these flows and have hindered progress towards understanding the transition process. We will show for the case of pipe flow that concepts from nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics can help to explain the onset of turbulence. In particular, the turbulent structures (puffs) observed close to onset are spatially localized chaotic transients and their lifetimes increase super-exponentially with Reynolds number. At the same time fluctuations of individual turbulent puffs can (although very rarely) lead to the nucleation of new puffs. The competition between these two stochastic processes gives rise to a non-equilibrium phase transition where turbulence changes from a super-transient to a sustained state.
AU - Song, Baofang
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 2232
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment
SN - 17425468
TI - Deterministic and stochastic aspects of the transition to turbulence
VL - 2014
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A discounted-sum automaton (NDA) is a nondeterministic finite automaton with edge weights, valuing a run by the discounted sum of visited edge weights. More precisely, the weight in the i-th position of the run is divided by λi, where the discount factor λ is a fixed rational number greater than 1. The value of a word is the minimal value of the automaton runs on it. Discounted summation is a common and useful measuring scheme, especially for infinite sequences, reflecting the assumption that earlier weights are more important than later weights. Unfortunately, determinization of NDAs, which is often essential in formal verification, is, in general, not possible. We provide positive news, showing that every NDA with an integral discount factor is determinizable. We complete the picture by proving that the integers characterize exactly the discount factors that guarantee determinizability: for every nonintegral rational discount factor λ, there is a nondeterminizable λ-NDA. We also prove that the class of NDAs with integral discount factors enjoys closure under the algebraic operations min, max, addition, and subtraction, which is not the case for general NDAs nor for deterministic NDAs. For general NDAs, we look into approximate determinization, which is always possible as the influence of a word's suffix decays. We show that the naive approach, of unfolding the automaton computations up to a sufficient level, is doubly exponential in the discount factor. We provide an alternative construction for approximate determinization, which is singly exponential in the discount factor, in the precision, and in the number of states. We also prove matching lower bounds, showing that the exponential dependency on each of these three parameters cannot be avoided. All our results hold equally for automata over finite words and for automata over infinite words.
AU - Boker, Udi
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 2233
IS - 1
JF - Logical Methods in Computer Science
SN - 18605974
TI - Exact and approximate determinization of discounted-sum automata
VL - 10
ER -