TY - JOUR
AB - Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics involves upslope forcing of their range limits with global climate warming. However, limited climate data provides some support for an alternative model, where range limits are forced downslope with climate warming. Testing between these two models is challenging, due to the inherent limitations of climate and pollen records. We overcome this with an alternative source of historical information, testing between competing model predictions using genomic data and demographic analyses for a species of beetle tightly associated to an oceanic island cloud forest. Results unequivocally support the alternative model: populations that were isolated at higher elevation peaks during the Last Glacial Maximum are now in contact and hybridizing at lower elevations. Our results suggest that genomic data are a rich source of information to further understand how montane cloud forest biodiversity originates, and how it is likely to be impacted by ongoing climate change.
AU - Salces-Castellano, Antonia
AU - Stankowski, Sean
AU - Arribas, Paula
AU - Patino, Jairo
AU - Karger, Dirk N.
AU - Butlin, Roger
AU - Emerson, Brent C.
ID - 8743
IS - 22
JF - Evolution
SN - 00143820
TI - Long-term cloud forest response to climate warming revealed by insect speciation history
VL - 75
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Traditional scientific conferences and seminar events have been hugely disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, paving the way for virtual forms of scientific communication to take hold and be put to the test.
AU - Bozelos, Panagiotis
AU - Vogels, Tim P
ID - 8757
IS - 1
JF - Nature Reviews Neuroscience
SN - 1471003X
TI - Talking science, online
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. We give a classification of contravariant forms on the nondegenerate Whittaker g-modules Y(χ,η) introduced by Kostant. We prove that the set of all contravariant forms on Y(χ,η) forms a vector space whose dimension is given by the cardinality of the Weyl group of g. We also describe a procedure for parabolically inducing contravariant forms. As a corollary, we deduce the existence of the Shapovalov form on a Verma module, and provide a formula for the dimension of the space of contravariant forms on the degenerate Whittaker modules M(χ,η) introduced by McDowell.
AU - Brown, Adam
AU - Romanov, Anna
ID - 8773
IS - 1
JF - Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0002-9939
TI - Contravariant forms on Whittaker modules
VL - 149
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper is concerned with a non-isothermal Cahn-Hilliard model based on a microforce balance. The model was derived by A. Miranville and G. Schimperna starting from the two fundamental laws of Thermodynamics, following M. Gurtin's two-scale approach. The main working assumptions are made on the behaviour of the heat flux as the absolute temperature tends to zero and to infinity. A suitable Ginzburg-Landau free energy is considered. Global-in-time existence for the initial-boundary value problem associated to the entropy formulation and, in a subcase, also to the weak formulation of the model is proved by deriving suitable a priori estimates and by showing weak sequential stability of families of approximating solutions. At last, some highlights are given regarding a possible approximation scheme compatible with the a-priori estimates available for the system.
AU - Marveggio, Alice
AU - Schimperna, Giulio
ID - 8792
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Differential Equations
SN - 00220396
TI - On a non-isothermal Cahn-Hilliard model based on a microforce balance
VL - 274
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study optimal election sequences for repeatedly selecting a (very) small group of leaders among a set of participants (players) with publicly known unique ids. In every time slot, every player has to select exactly one player that it considers to be the current leader, oblivious to the selection of the other players, but with the overarching goal of maximizing a given parameterized global (“social”) payoff function in the limit. We consider a quite generic model, where the local payoff achieved by a given player depends, weighted by some arbitrary but fixed real parameter, on the number of different leaders chosen in a round, the number of players that choose the given player as the leader, and whether the chosen leader has changed w.r.t. the previous round or not. The social payoff can be the maximum, average or minimum local payoff of the players. Possible applications include quite diverse examples such as rotating coordinator-based distributed algorithms and long-haul formation flying of social birds. Depending on the weights and the particular social payoff, optimal sequences can be very different, from simple round-robin where all players chose the same leader alternatingly every time slot to very exotic patterns, where a small group of leaders (at most 2) is elected in every time slot. Moreover, we study the question if and when a single player would not benefit w.r.t. its local payoff when deviating from the given optimal sequence, i.e., when our optimal sequences are Nash equilibria in the restricted strategy space of oblivious strategies. As this is the case for many parameterizations of our model, our results reveal that no punishment is needed to make it rational for the players to optimize the social payoff.
AU - Zeiner, Martin
AU - Schmid, Ulrich
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 8793
IS - 1
JF - Discrete Applied Mathematics
SN - 0166218X
TI - Optimal strategies for selecting coordinators
VL - 289
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Area-dependent quantum field theory is a modification of two-dimensional topological quantum field theory, where one equips each connected component of a bordism with a positive real number—interpreted as area—which behaves additively under glueing. As opposed to topological theories, in area-dependent theories the state spaces can be infinite-dimensional. We introduce the notion of regularised Frobenius algebras in Hilbert spaces and show that area-dependent theories are in one-to-one correspondence to commutative regularised Frobenius algebras. We also provide a state sum construction for area-dependent theories. Our main example is two-dimensional Yang–Mills theory with compact gauge group, which we treat in detail.
AU - Runkel, Ingo
AU - Szegedy, Lorant
ID - 8816
IS - 1
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 00103616
TI - Area-dependent quantum field theory
VL - 381
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The paper introduces an inertial extragradient subgradient method with self-adaptive step sizes for solving equilibrium problems in real Hilbert spaces. Weak convergence of the proposed method is obtained under the condition that the bifunction is pseudomonotone and Lipchitz continuous. Linear convergence is also given when the bifunction is strongly pseudomonotone and Lipchitz continuous. Numerical implementations and comparisons with other related inertial methods are given using test problems including a real-world application to Nash–Cournot oligopolistic electricity market equilibrium model.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Iyiola, Olaniyi S.
AU - Thong, Duong Viet
AU - Van, Nguyen Thi Cam
ID - 8817
IS - 2
JF - Mathematical Methods of Operations Research
SN - 14322994
TI - An inertial subgradient extragradient algorithm extended to pseudomonotone equilibrium problems
VL - 93
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hippocampus has a major role in encoding and consolidating long-term memories, and undergoes plastic changes during sleep1. These changes require precise homeostatic control by subcortical neuromodulatory structures2. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, however, remain unknown. Here, using multi-structure recordings in macaque monkeys, we show that the brainstem transiently modulates hippocampal network events through phasic pontine waves known as pontogeniculooccipital waves (PGO waves). Two physiologically distinct types of PGO wave appear to occur sequentially, selectively influencing high-frequency ripples and low-frequency theta events, respectively. The two types of PGO wave are associated with opposite hippocampal spike-field coupling, prompting periods of high neural synchrony of neural populations during periods of ripple and theta instances. The coupling between PGO waves and ripples, classically associated with distinct sleep stages, supports the notion that a global coordination mechanism of hippocampal sleep dynamics by cholinergic pontine transients may promote systems and synaptic memory consolidation as well as synaptic homeostasis.
AU - Ramirez Villegas, Juan F
AU - Besserve, Michel
AU - Murayama, Yusuke
AU - Evrard, Henry C.
AU - Oeltermann, Axel
AU - Logothetis, Nikos K.
ID - 8818
IS - 7840
JF - Nature
SN - 00280836
TI - Coupling of hippocampal theta and ripples with pontogeniculooccipital waves
VL - 589
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plants are able to orient their growth according to gravity, which ultimately controls both shoot and root architecture.1 Gravitropism is a dynamic process whereby gravistimulation induces the asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin, leading to asymmetric growth, organ bending, and subsequent reset of auxin distribution back to the original pre-gravistimulation situation.1, 2, 3 Differential auxin accumulation during the gravitropic response depends on the activity of polarly localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin-efflux carriers.1, 2, 3, 4 In particular, the timing of this dynamic response is regulated by PIN2,5,6 but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED KINASE REGULATOR2 (MAKR2) controls the pace of the root gravitropic response. We found that MAKR2 is required for the PIN2 asymmetry during gravitropism by acting as a negative regulator of the cell-surface signaling mediated by the receptor-like kinase TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE1 (TMK1).2,7, 8, 9, 10 Furthermore, we show that the MAKR2 inhibitory effect on TMK1 signaling is antagonized by auxin itself, which triggers rapid MAKR2 membrane dissociation in a TMK1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the timing of the root gravitropic response is orchestrated by the reversible inhibition of the TMK1 signaling pathway at the cell surface.
AU - Marquès-Bueno, MM
AU - Armengot, L
AU - Noack, LC
AU - Bareille, J
AU - Rodriguez Solovey, Lesia
AU - Platre, MP
AU - Bayle, V
AU - Liu, M
AU - Opdenacker, D
AU - Vanneste, S
AU - Möller, BK
AU - Nimchuk, ZL
AU - Beeckman, T
AU - Caño-Delgado, AI
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Jaillais, Y
ID - 8824
IS - 1
JF - Current Biology
SN - 0960-9822
TI - Auxin-regulated reversible inhibition of TMK1 signaling by MAKR2 modulates the dynamics of root gravitropism
VL - 31
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Spin qubits are considered to be among the most promising candidates for building a quantum processor. Group IV hole spin qubits have moved into the focus of interest due to the ease of operation and compatibility with Si technology. In addition, Ge offers the option for monolithic superconductor-semiconductor integration. Here we demonstrate a hole spin qubit operating at fields below 10 mT, the critical field of Al, by exploiting the large out-of-plane hole g-factors in planar Ge and by encoding the qubit into the singlet-triplet states of a double quantum dot. We observe electrically controlled X and Z-rotations with tunable frequencies exceeding 100 MHz and dephasing times of 1μs which we extend beyond 15μs with echo techniques. These results show that Ge hole singlet triplet qubits outperform their electronic Si and GaAs based counterparts in speed and coherence, respectively. In addition, they are on par with Ge single spin qubits, but can be operated at much lower fields underlining their potential for on chip integration with superconducting technologies.
AU - Jirovec, Daniel
AU - Hofmann, Andrea C
AU - Ballabio, Andrea
AU - Mutter, Philipp M.
AU - Tavani, Giulio
AU - Botifoll, Marc
AU - Crippa, Alessandro
AU - Kukucka, Josip
AU - Sagi, Oliver
AU - Martins, Frederico
AU - Saez Mollejo, Jaime
AU - Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan
AU - Borovkov, Maksim
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Chrastina, Daniel
AU - Isella, Giovanni
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
ID - 8909
IS - 8
JF - Nature Materials
SN - 1476-1122
TI - A singlet triplet hole spin qubit in planar Ge
VL - 20
ER -