TY - JOUR
AB - It is well known that special Kubo-Ando operator means admit divergence center interpretations, moreover, they are also mean squared error estimators for certain metrics on positive definite operators. In this paper we give a divergence center interpretation for every symmetric Kubo-Ando mean. This characterization of the symmetric means naturally leads to a definition of weighted and multivariate versions of a large class of symmetric Kubo-Ando means. We study elementary properties of these weighted multivariate means, and note in particular that in the special case of the geometric mean we recover the weighted A#H-mean introduced by Kim, Lawson, and Lim.
AU - Pitrik, József
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 8373
JF - Linear Algebra and its Applications
KW - Kubo-Ando mean
KW - weighted multivariate mean
KW - barycenter
SN - 0024-3795
TI - A divergence center interpretation of general symmetric Kubo-Ando means, and related weighted multivariate operator means
VL - 609
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The differentiation of cells depends on a precise control of their internal organization, which is the result of a complex dynamic interplay between the cytoskeleton, molecular motors, signaling molecules, and membranes. For example, in the developing neuron, the protein ADAP1 (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein [ArfGAP] with dual pleckstrin homology [PH] domains 1) has been suggested to control dendrite branching by regulating the small GTPase ARF6. Together with the motor protein KIF13B, ADAP1 is also thought to mediate delivery of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) to the axon tip, thus contributing to PIP3 polarity. However, what defines the function of ADAP1 and how its different roles are coordinated are still not clear. Here, we studied ADAP1’s functions using in vitro reconstitutions. We found that KIF13B transports ADAP1 along microtubules, but that PIP3 as well as PI(3,4)P2 act as stop signals for this transport instead of being transported. We also demonstrate that these phosphoinositides activate ADAP1’s enzymatic activity to catalyze GTP hydrolysis by ARF6. Together, our results support a model for the cellular function of ADAP1, where KIF13B transports ADAP1 until it encounters high PIP3/PI(3,4)P2 concentrations in the plasma membrane. Here, ADAP1 disassociates from the motor to inactivate ARF6, promoting dendrite branching.
AU - Düllberg, Christian F
AU - Auer, Albert
AU - Canigova, Nikola
AU - Loibl, Katrin
AU - Loose, Martin
ID - 8988
IS - 1
JF - PNAS
SN - 00278424
TI - In vitro reconstitution reveals phosphoinositides as cargo-release factors and activators of the ARF6 GAP ADAP1
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in shaping plant growth and development. With decades of genetic and biochemical studies, numerous core molecular components and their networks, underlying auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling, have been identified. Notably, protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by kinases and oppositely hydrolyzed by phosphatases, has been emerging to be a crucial type of post-translational modification, regulating physiological and developmental auxin output at all levels. In this review, we comprehensively discuss earlier and recent advances in our understanding of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology of the kinases and phosphatases participating in auxin action. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which reversible protein phosphorylation defines developmental auxin responses, discuss current challenges, and provide our perspectives on future directions involving the integration of the control of protein phosphorylation into the molecular auxin network.
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Luschnig, Christian
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8992
IS - 1
JF - Molecular Plant
SN - 16742052
TI - Pho-view of auxin: Reversible protein phosphorylation in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a key inhibitor of directional (polar) transport of the hormone auxin in plants. For decades, it has been a pivotal tool in elucidating the unique polar auxin transport-based processes underlying plant growth and development. Its exact mode of action has long been sought after and is still being debated, with prevailing mechanistic schemes describing only indirect connections between NPA and the main transporters responsible for directional transport, namely PIN auxin exporters. Here we present data supporting a model in which NPA associates with PINs in a more direct manner than hitherto postulated. We show that NPA inhibits PIN activity in a heterologous oocyte system and that expression of NPA-sensitive PINs in plant, yeast, and oocyte membranes leads to specific saturable NPA binding. We thus propose that PINs are a bona fide NPA target. This offers a straightforward molecular basis for NPA inhibition of PIN-dependent auxin transport and a logical parsimonious explanation for the known physiological effects of NPA on plant growth, as well as an alternative hypothesis to interpret past and future results. We also introduce PIN dimerization and describe an effect of NPA on this, suggesting that NPA binding could be exploited to gain insights into structural aspects of PINs related to their transport mechanism.
AU - Abas, Lindy
AU - Kolb, Martina
AU - Stadlmann, Johannes
AU - Janacek, Dorina P.
AU - Lukic, Kristina
AU - Schwechheimer, Claus
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
AU - Mach, Lukas
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Hammes, Ulrich Z.
ID - 8993
IS - 1
JF - PNAS
SN - 00278424
TI - Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and inhibits PIN auxin transporters
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Phenomenological relations such as Ohm’s or Fourier’s law have a venerable history in physics but are still scarce in biology. This situation restrains predictive theory. Here, we build on bacterial “growth laws,” which capture physiological feedback between translation and cell growth, to construct a minimal biophysical model for the combined action of ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Our model predicts drug interactions like antagonism or synergy solely from responses to individual drugs. We provide analytical results for limiting cases, which agree well with numerical results. We systematically refine the model by including direct physical interactions of different antibiotics on the ribosome. In a limiting case, our model provides a mechanistic underpinning for recent predictions of higher-order interactions that were derived using entropy maximization. We further refine the model to include the effects of antibiotics that mimic starvation and the presence of resistance genes. We describe the impact of a starvation-mimicking antibiotic on drug interactions analytically and verify it experimentally. Our extended model suggests a change in the type of drug interaction that depends on the strength of resistance, which challenges established rescaling paradigms. We experimentally show that the presence of unregulated resistance genes can lead to altered drug interaction, which agrees with the prediction of the model. While minimal, the model is readily adaptable and opens the door to predicting interactions of second and higher-order in a broad range of biological systems.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
AU - Bollenbach, Tobias
ID - 8997
IS - 1
JF - PLOS Computational Biology
KW - Modelling and Simulation
KW - Genetics
KW - Molecular Biology
KW - Antibiotics
KW - Drug interactions
SN - 1553-7358
TI - Minimal biophysical model of combined antibiotic action
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In many basic shear flows, such as pipe, Couette, and channel flow, turbulence does not
arise from an instability of the laminar state, and both dynamical states co-exist. With decreasing flow speed (i.e., decreasing Reynolds number) the fraction of fluid in laminar motion increases while turbulence recedes and eventually the entire flow relaminarizes. The first step towards understanding the nature of this transition is to determine if the phase change is of either first or second order. In the former case, the turbulent fraction would drop discontinuously to zero as the Reynolds number decreases while in the latter the process would be continuous. For Couette flow, the flow between two parallel plates, earlier studies suggest a discontinuous scenario. In the present study we realize a Couette flow between two concentric cylinders which allows studies to be carried out in large aspect ratios and for extensive observation times. The presented measurements show that the transition in this circular Couette geometry is continuous suggesting that former studies were limited by finite size effects. A further characterization of this transition, in particular its relation to the directed percolation universality class, requires even larger system sizes than presently available.
AU - Avila, Kerstin
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 8999
IS - 1
JF - Entropy
TI - Second-order phase transition in counter-rotating taylor-couette flow experiment
VL - 23
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis, we consider several of the most classical and fundamental problems in static analysis and formal verification, including invariant generation, reachability analysis, termination analysis of probabilistic programs, data-flow analysis, quantitative analysis of Markov chains and Markov decision processes, and the problem of data packing in cache management.
We use techniques from parameterized complexity theory, polyhedral geometry, and real algebraic geometry to significantly improve the state-of-the-art, in terms of both scalability and completeness guarantees, for the mentioned problems. In some cases, our results are the first theoretical improvements for the respective problems in two or three decades.
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
ID - 8934
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Parameterized and algebro-geometric advances in static program analysis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Studies on the experimental realization of two-dimensional anyons in terms of quasiparticles have been restricted, so far, to only anyons on the plane. It is known, however, that the geometry and topology of space can have significant effects on quantum statistics for particles moving on it. Here, we have undertaken the first step toward realizing the emerging fractional statistics for particles restricted to move on the sphere instead of on the plane. We show that such a model arises naturally in the context of quantum impurity problems. In particular, we demonstrate a setup in which the lowest-energy spectrum of two linear bosonic or fermionic molecules immersed in a quantum many-particle environment can coincide with the anyonic spectrum on the sphere. This paves the way toward the experimental realization of anyons on the sphere using molecular impurities. Furthermore, since a change in the alignment of the molecules corresponds to the exchange of the particles on the sphere, such a realization reveals a novel type of exclusion principle for molecular impurities, which could also be of use as a powerful technique to measure the statistics parameter. Finally, our approach opens up a simple numerical route to investigate the spectra of many anyons on the sphere. Accordingly, we present the spectrum of two anyons on the sphere in the presence of a Dirac monopole field.
AU - Brooks, Morris
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Lundholm, D.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
ID - 9005
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Molecular impurities as a realization of anyons on the two-sphere
VL - 126
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Availability of the essential macronutrient nitrogen in soil plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and impacts agricultural productivity. Plants have evolved different strategies for sensing and responding to heterogeneous nitrogen distribution. Modulation of root system architecture, including primary root growth and branching, is among the most essential plant adaptions to ensure adequate nitrogen acquisition. However, the immediate molecular pathways coordinating the adjustment of root growth in response to distinct nitrogen sources, such as nitrate or ammonium, are poorly understood. Here, we show that growth as manifested by cell division and elongation is synchronized by coordinated auxin flux between two adjacent outer tissue layers of the root. This coordination is achieved by nitrate‐dependent dephosphorylation of the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier at a previously uncharacterized phosphorylation site, leading to subsequent PIN2 lateralization and thereby regulating auxin flow between adjacent tissues. A dynamic computer model based on our experimental data successfully recapitulates experimental observations. Our study provides mechanistic insights broadening our understanding of root growth mechanisms in dynamic environments.
AU - Ötvös, Krisztina
AU - Marconi, Marco
AU - Vega, Andrea
AU - O’Brien, Jose
AU - Johnson, Alexander J
AU - Abualia, Rashed
AU - Antonielli, Livio
AU - Montesinos López, Juan C
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Cuesta, Candela
AU - Artner, Christina
AU - Bouguyon, Eleonore
AU - Gojon, Alain
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.
AU - Wabnik, Krzysztof T
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 9010
JF - EMBO Journal
SN - 02614189
TI - Modulation of plant root growth by nitrogen source-defined regulation of polar auxin transport
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recent advancements in live cell imaging technologies have identified the phenomenon of intracellular propagation of late apoptotic events, such as cytochrome c release and caspase activation. The mechanism, prevalence, and speed of apoptosis propagation remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have demonstrated propagation of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAX. To evaluate the role of BAX in intracellular apoptotic propagation, we used high speed live-cell imaging to visualize fluorescently tagged-BAX recruitment to mitochondria in four immortalized cell lines. We show that propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment occurs in parallel to cytochrome c and SMAC/Diablo release and is affected by cellular morphology, such that cells with processes are more likely to exhibit propagation. The initiation of propagation events is most prevalent in the distal tips of processes, while the rate of propagation is influenced by the 2-dimensional width of the process. Propagation was rarely observed in the cell soma, which exhibited near synchronous recruitment of BAX. Propagation velocity is not affected by mitochondrial volume in segments of processes, but is negatively affected by mitochondrial density. There was no evidence of a propagating wave of increased levels of intracellular calcium ions. Alternatively, we did observe a uniform increase in superoxide build-up in cellular mitochondria, which was released as a propagating wave simultaneously with the propagating recruitment of BAX to the mitochondrial outer membrane.
AU - Grosser, Joshua A.
AU - Maes, Margaret E
AU - Nickells, Robert W.
ID - 9009
JF - Apoptosis
SN - 1360-8185
TI - Characteristics of intracellular propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment during apoptosis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamics and thermodynamics of ion transport in narrow, water-filled channels, considered as effective 1D Coulomb systems. The long range nature of the inter-ion interactions comes about due to the dielectric constants mismatch between the water and the surrounding medium, confining the electric filed to stay mostly within the water-filled channel. Statistical mechanics of such Coulomb systems is dominated by entropic effects which may be accurately accounted for by mapping onto an effective quantum mechanics. In presence of multivalent ions the corresponding quantum mechanics appears to be non-Hermitian. In this review we discuss a framework for semiclassical calculations for the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Non-Hermiticity elevates WKB action integrals from the real line to closed cycles on a complex Riemann surfaces where direct calculations are not attainable. We circumvent this issue by applying tools from algebraic topology, such as the Picard-Fuchs equation. We discuss how its solutions relate to the thermodynamics and correlation functions of multivalent solutions within narrow, water-filled channels.
AU - Gulden, Tobias
AU - Kamenev, Alex
ID - 9020
IS - 1
JF - Entropy
TI - Dynamics of ion channels via non-hermitian quantum mechanics
VL - 23
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We determine an asymptotic formula for the number of integral points of bounded height on a blow-up of $\mathbb{P}^3$ outside certain planes using universal torsors.
AU - Wilsch, Florian Alexander
ID - 9034
T2 - arXiv
TI - Integral points of bounded height on a log Fano threefold
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Layered materials in which individual atomic layers are bonded by weak van der Waals forces (vdW materials) constitute one of the most prominent platforms for materials research. Particularly, polar vdW crystals, such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), alpha-molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) or alpha-vanadium pentoxide (α-V2O5), have received significant attention in nano-optics, since they support phonon polaritons (PhPs)―light coupled to lattice vibrations― with strong electromagnetic confinement and low optical losses. Recently, correlative far- and near-field studies of α-MoO3 have been demonstrated as an effective strategy to accurately extract the permittivity of this material. Here, we use this accurately characterized and low-loss polaritonic material to sense its local dielectric environment, namely silica (SiO2), one of the most widespread substrates in nanotechnology. By studying the propagation of PhPs on α-MoO3 flakes with different thicknesses laying on SiO2 substrates via near-field microscopy (s-SNOM), we extract locally the infrared permittivity of SiO2. Our work reveals PhPs nanoimaging as a versatile method for the quantitative characterization of the local optical properties of dielectric substrates, crucial for understanding and predicting the response of nanomaterials and for the future scalability of integrated nanophotonic devices.
AU - Aguilar-Merino, Patricia
AU - Álvarez-Pérez, Gonzalo
AU - Taboada-Gutiérrez, Javier
AU - Duan, Jiahua
AU - Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan
AU - Álvarez-Prado, Luis Manuel
AU - Nikitin, Alexey Y.
AU - Martín-Sánchez, Javier
AU - Alonso-González, Pablo
ID - 9038
IS - 1
JF - Nanomaterials
TI - Extracting the infrared permittivity of SiO2 substrates locally by near-field imaging of phonon polaritons in a van der Waals crystal
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We continue our study of ‘no‐dimension’ analogues of basic theorems in combinatorial and convex geometry in Banach spaces. We generalize some results of the paper (Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa, ‘Theorems of Carathéodory, Helly, and Tverberg without dimension’, Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual ACM‐SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, San Diego, California, 2019) 2350–2360) and prove no‐dimension versions of the colored Tverberg theorem, the selection lemma and the weak 𝜀 ‐net theorem in Banach spaces of type 𝑝>1 . To prove these results, we use the original ideas of Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa for the Euclidean case, our no‐dimension version of the Radon theorem and slightly modified version of the celebrated Maurey lemma.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
ID - 9037
JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
SN - 00246093
TI - No-dimension Tverberg's theorem and its corollaries in Banach spaces of type p
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this short note, we prove that the square root of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence is a true metric on the cone of positive matrices, and hence in particular on the quantum state space.
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 9036
IS - 3
JF - Advances in Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0001-8708
TI - The metric property of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence
VL - 380
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We develop a geometric version of the circle method and use it to compute the compactly supported cohomology of the space of rational curves through a point on a smooth affine hypersurface of sufficiently low degree.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Sawin, Will
ID - 177
IS - 3
JF - Annals of Mathematics
TI - A geometric version of the circle method
VL - 191
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An asymptotic formula is established for the number of rational points of bounded anticanonical height which lie on a certain Zariski dense subset of the biprojective hypersurface x1y21+⋯+x4y24=0 in ℙ3×ℙ3. This confirms the modified Manin conjecture for this variety, in which the removal of a thin set of rational points is allowed.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Heath Brown, Roger
ID - 179
IS - 16
JF - Duke Mathematical Journal
TI - Density of rational points on a quadric bundle in ℙ3×ℙ3
VL - 169
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce dynamically warping grids for adaptive liquid simulation. Our primary contributions are a strategy for dynamically deforming regular grids over the course of a simulation and a method for efficiently utilizing these deforming grids for liquid simulation. Prior work has shown that unstructured grids are very effective for adaptive fluid simulations. However, unstructured grids often lead to complicated implementations and a poor cache hit rate due to inconsistent memory access. Regular grids, on the other hand, provide a fast, fixed memory access pattern and straightforward implementation. Our method combines the advantages of both: we leverage the simplicity of regular grids while still achieving practical and controllable spatial adaptivity. We demonstrate that our method enables adaptive simulations that are fast, flexible, and robust to null-space issues. At the same time, our method is simple to implement and takes advantage of existing highly-tuned algorithms.
AU - Hikaru, Ibayashi
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Igarashi, Takeo
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
ID - 5681
IS - 6
JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
SN - 10772626
TI - Simulating liquids on dynamically warping grids
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For complex Wigner-type matrices, i.e. Hermitian random matrices with independent, not necessarily identically distributed entries above the diagonal, we show that at any cusp singularity of the limiting eigenvalue distribution the local eigenvalue statistics are universal and form a Pearcey process. Since the density of states typically exhibits only square root or cubic root cusp singularities, our work complements previous results on the bulk and edge universality and it thus completes the resolution of the Wigner–Dyson–Mehta universality conjecture for the last remaining universality type in the complex Hermitian class. Our analysis holds not only for exact cusps, but approximate cusps as well, where an extended Pearcey process emerges. As a main technical ingredient we prove an optimal local law at the cusp for both symmetry classes. This result is also the key input in the companion paper (Cipolloni et al. in Pure Appl Anal, 2018. arXiv:1811.04055) where the cusp universality for real symmetric Wigner-type matrices is proven. The novel cusp fluctuation mechanism is also essential for the recent results on the spectral radius of non-Hermitian random matrices (Alt et al. in Spectral radius of random matrices with independent entries, 2019. arXiv:1907.13631), and the non-Hermitian edge universality (Cipolloni et al. in Edge universality for non-Hermitian random matrices, 2019. arXiv:1908.00969).
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Schröder, Dominik J
ID - 6185
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cusp universality for random matrices I: Local law and the complex Hermitian case
VL - 378
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove edge universality for a general class of correlated real symmetric or complex Hermitian Wigner matrices with arbitrary expectation. Our theorem also applies to internal edges of the self-consistent density of states. In particular, we establish a strong form of band rigidity which excludes mismatches between location and label of eigenvalues close to internal edges in these general models.
AU - Alt, Johannes
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Schröder, Dominik J
ID - 6184
IS - 2
JF - Annals of Probability
TI - Correlated random matrices: Band rigidity and edge universality
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamical optimal transport metrics between density matricesassociated to symmetric Dirichlet forms on finite-dimensional C∗-algebras. Our settingcovers arbitrary skew-derivations and it provides a unified framework that simultaneously generalizes recently constructed transport metrics for Markov chains, Lindblad equations, and the Fermi Ornstein–Uhlenbeck semigroup. We develop a non-nommutative differential calculus that allows us to obtain non-commutative Ricci curvature bounds, logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, transport-entropy inequalities, andspectral gap estimates.
AU - Carlen, Eric A.
AU - Maas, Jan
ID - 6358
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Non-commutative calculus, optimal transport and functional inequalities in dissipative quantum systems
VL - 178
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The strong rate of convergence of the Euler-Maruyama scheme for nondegenerate SDEs with irregular drift coefficients is considered. In the case of α-Hölder drift in the recent literature the rate α/2 was proved in many related situations. By exploiting the regularising effect of the noise more efficiently, we show that the rate is in fact arbitrarily close to 1/2 for all α>0. The result extends to Dini continuous coefficients, while in d=1 also to all bounded measurable coefficients.
AU - Dareiotis, Konstantinos
AU - Gerencser, Mate
ID - 6359
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
TI - On the regularisation of the noise for the Euler-Maruyama scheme with irregular drift
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove a central limit theorem for the difference of linear eigenvalue statistics of a sample covariance matrix W˜ and its minor W. We find that the fluctuation of this difference is much smaller than those of the individual linear statistics, as a consequence of the strong correlation between the eigenvalues of W˜ and W. Our result identifies the fluctuation of the spatial derivative of the approximate Gaussian field in the recent paper by Dumitru and Paquette. Unlike in a similar result for Wigner matrices, for sample covariance matrices, the fluctuation may entirely vanish.
AU - Cipolloni, Giorgio
AU - Erdös, László
ID - 6488
IS - 3
JF - Random Matrices: Theory and Application
SN - 20103263
TI - Fluctuations for differences of linear eigenvalue statistics for sample covariance matrices
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents two algorithms. The first decides the existence of a pointed homotopy between given simplicial maps 𝑓,𝑔:𝑋→𝑌, and the second computes the group [𝛴𝑋,𝑌]∗ of pointed homotopy classes of maps from a suspension; in both cases, the target Y is assumed simply connected. More generally, these algorithms work relative to 𝐴⊆𝑋.
AU - Filakovský, Marek
AU - Vokřínek, Lukas
ID - 6563
JF - Foundations of Computational Mathematics
SN - 16153375
TI - Are two given maps homotopic? An algorithmic viewpoint
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the monotone variational inequality problem in a Hilbert space and describe a projection-type method with inertial terms under the following properties: (a) The method generates a strongly convergent iteration sequence; (b) The method requires, at each iteration, only one projection onto the feasible set and two evaluations of the operator; (c) The method is designed for variational inequality for which the underline operator is monotone and uniformly continuous; (d) The method includes an inertial term. The latter is also shown to speed up the convergence in our numerical results. A comparison with some related methods is given and indicates that the new method is promising.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Li, Xiao-Huan
AU - Dong, Qiao-Li
ID - 6593
JF - Numerical Algorithms
SN - 1017-1398
TI - An efficient projection-type method for monotone variational inequalities in Hilbert spaces
VL - 84
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - While Hartree–Fock theory is well established as a fundamental approximation for interacting fermions, it has been unclear how to describe corrections to it due to many-body correlations. In this paper we start from the Hartree–Fock state given by plane waves and introduce collective particle–hole pair excitations. These pairs can be approximately described by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. We use Bogoliubov theory to construct a trial state yielding a rigorous Gell-Mann–Brueckner–type upper bound to the ground state energy. Our result justifies the random-phase approximation in the mean-field scaling regime, for repulsive, regular interaction potentials.
AU - Benedikter, Niels P
AU - Nam, Phan Thành
AU - Porta, Marcello
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 6649
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Optimal upper bound for the correlation energy of a Fermi gas in the mean-field regime
VL - 374
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Fitting a function by using linear combinations of a large number N of `simple' components is one of the most fruitful ideas in statistical learning. This idea lies at the core of a variety of methods, from two-layer neural networks to kernel regression, to boosting. In general, the resulting risk minimization problem is non-convex and is solved by gradient descent or its variants. Unfortunately, little is known about global convergence properties of these approaches.
Here we consider the problem of learning a concave function f on a compact convex domain Ω⊆ℝd, using linear combinations of `bump-like' components (neurons). The parameters to be fitted are the centers of N bumps, and the resulting empirical risk minimization problem is highly non-convex. We prove that, in the limit in which the number of neurons diverges, the evolution of gradient descent converges to a Wasserstein gradient flow in the space of probability distributions over Ω. Further, when the bump width δ tends to 0, this gradient flow has a limit which is a viscous porous medium equation. Remarkably, the cost function optimized by this gradient flow exhibits a special property known as displacement convexity, which implies exponential convergence rates for N→∞, δ→0. Surprisingly, this asymptotic theory appears to capture well the behavior for moderate values of δ,N. Explaining this phenomenon, and understanding the dependence on δ,N in a quantitative manner remains an outstanding challenge.
AU - Javanmard, Adel
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Montanari, Andrea
ID - 6748
IS - 6
JF - Annals of Statistics
TI - Analysis of a two-layer neural network via displacement convexity
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nearby grid cells have been observed to express a remarkable degree of long-rangeorder, which is often idealized as extending potentially to infinity. Yet their strict peri-odic firing and ensemble coherence are theoretically possible only in flat environments, much unlike the burrows which rodents usually live in. Are the symmetrical, coherent grid maps inferred in the lab relevant to chart their way in their natural habitat? We consider spheres as simple models of curved environments and waiting for the appropriate experiments to be performed, we use our adaptation model to predict what grid maps would emerge in a network with the same type of recurrent connections, which on the plane produce coherence among the units. We find that on the sphere such connections distort the maps that single grid units would express on their own, and aggregate them into clusters. When remapping to a different spherical environment, units in each cluster maintain only partial coherence, similar to what is observed in disordered materials, such as spin glasses.
AU - Stella, Federico
AU - Urdapilleta, Eugenio
AU - Luo, Yifan
AU - Treves, Alessandro
ID - 6796
IS - 4
JF - Hippocampus
SN - 10509631
TI - Partial coherence and frustration in self-organizing spherical grids
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become an important catalyst for discovery in the life sciences. In STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy, a pattern of light drives fluorophores from a signal-emitting on-state to a non-signalling off-state. Only emitters residing in a sub-diffraction volume around an intensity minimum are allowed to fluoresce, rendering them distinguishable from the nearby, but dark fluorophores. STED routinely achieves resolution in the few tens of nanometers range in biological samples and is suitable for live imaging. Here, we review the working principle of STED and provide general guidelines for successful STED imaging. The strive for ever higher resolution comes at the cost of increased light burden. We discuss techniques to reduce light exposure and mitigate its detrimental effects on the specimen. These include specialized illumination strategies as well as protecting fluorophores from photobleaching mediated by high-intensity STED light. This opens up the prospect of volumetric imaging in living cells and tissues with diffraction-unlimited resolution in all three spatial dimensions.
AU - Jahr, Wiebke
AU - Velicky, Philipp
AU - Danzl, Johann G
ID - 6808
IS - 3
JF - Methods
SN - 1046-2023
TI - Strategies to maximize performance in STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy of biological specimens
VL - 174
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In resource allocation games, selfish players share resources that are needed in order to fulfill their objectives. The cost of using a resource depends on the load on it. In the traditional setting, the players make their choices concurrently and in one-shot. That is, a strategy for a player is a subset of the resources. We introduce and study dynamic resource allocation games. In this setting, the game proceeds in phases. In each phase each player chooses one resource. A scheduler dictates the order in which the players proceed in a phase, possibly scheduling several players to proceed concurrently. The game ends when each player has collected a set of resources that fulfills his objective. The cost for each player then depends on this set as well as on the load on the resources in it – we consider both congestion and cost-sharing games. We argue that the dynamic setting is the suitable setting for many applications in practice. We study the stability of dynamic resource allocation games, where the appropriate notion of stability is that of subgame perfect equilibrium, study the inefficiency incurred due to selfish behavior, and also study problems that are particular to the dynamic setting, like constraints on the order in which resources can be chosen or the problem of finding a scheduler that achieves stability.
AU - Avni, Guy
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Kupferman, Orna
ID - 6761
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
SN - 03043975
TI - Dynamic resource allocation games
VL - 807
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a unified framework tackling two problems: class-specific 3D reconstruction from a single image, and generation of new 3D shape samples. These tasks have received considerable attention recently; however, most existing approaches rely on 3D supervision, annotation of 2D images with keypoints or poses, and/or training with multiple views of each object instance. Our framework is very general: it can be trained in similar settings to existing approaches, while also supporting weaker supervision. Importantly, it can be trained purely from 2D images, without pose annotations, and with only a single view per instance. We employ meshes as an output representation, instead of voxels used in most prior work. This allows us to reason over lighting parameters and exploit shading information during training, which previous 2D-supervised methods cannot. Thus, our method can learn to generate and reconstruct concave object classes. We evaluate our approach in various settings, showing that: (i) it learns to disentangle shape from pose and lighting; (ii) using shading in the loss improves performance compared to just silhouettes; (iii) when using a standard single white light, our model outperforms state-of-the-art 2D-supervised methods, both with and without pose supervision, thanks to exploiting shading cues; (iv) performance improves further when using multiple coloured lights, even approaching that of state-of-the-art 3D-supervised methods; (v) shapes produced by our model capture smooth surfaces and fine details better than voxel-based approaches; and (vi) our approach supports concave classes such as bathtubs and sofas, which methods based on silhouettes cannot learn.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Ferrari, Vittorio
ID - 6952
JF - International Journal of Computer Vision
SN - 0920-5691
TI - Learning single-image 3D reconstruction by generative modelling of shape, pose and shading
VL - 128
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 6997
IS - 3
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028-646x
TI - Auxin guides roots to avoid obstacles during gravitropic growth
VL - 225
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The central object of investigation of this paper is the Hirzebruch class, a deformation of the Todd class, given by Hirzebruch (for smooth varieties). The generalization for singular varieties is due to Brasselet–Schürmann–Yokura. Following the work of Weber, we investigate its equivariant version for (possibly singular) toric varieties. The local decomposition of the Hirzebruch class to the fixed points of the torus action and a formula for the local class in terms of the defining fan are recalled. After this review part, we prove the positivity of local Hirzebruch classes for all toric varieties, thus proving false the alleged counterexample given by Weber.
AU - Rychlewicz, Kamil P
ID - 6965
JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
SN - 0024-6093
TI - The positivity of local equivariant Hirzebruch class for toric varieties
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We define an action of the (double of) Cohomological Hall algebra of Kontsevich and Soibelman on the cohomology of the moduli space of spiked instantons of Nekrasov. We identify this action with the one of the affine Yangian of gl(1). Based on that we derive the vertex algebra at the corner Wr1,r2,r3 of Gaiotto and Rapčák. We conjecture that our approach works for a big class of Calabi–Yau categories, including those associated with toric Calabi–Yau 3-folds.
AU - Rapcak, Miroslav
AU - Soibelman, Yan
AU - Yang, Yaping
AU - Zhao, Gufang
ID - 7004
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cohomological Hall algebras, vertex algebras and instantons
VL - 376
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Removal of the Bax gene from mice completely protects the somas of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis following optic nerve injury. This makes BAX a promising therapeutic target to prevent neurodegeneration. In this study, Bax+/− mice were used to test the hypothesis that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs would delay apoptosis following optic nerve injury. RGCs were damaged by performing optic nerve crush (ONC) and then immunostaining for phospho-cJUN, and quantitative PCR were used to monitor the status of the BAX activation mechanism in the months following injury. The apoptotic susceptibility of injured cells was directly tested by virally introducing GFP-BAX into Bax−/− RGCs after injury. The competency of quiescent RGCs to reactivate their BAX activation mechanism was tested by intravitreal injection of the JNK pathway agonist, anisomycin. Twenty-four weeks after ONC, Bax+/− mice had significantly less cell loss in their RGC layer than Bax+/+ mice 3 weeks after ONC. Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs exhibited similar patterns of nuclear phospho-cJUN accumulation immediately after ONC, which persisted in Bax+/− RGCs for up to 7 weeks before abating. The transcriptional activation of BAX-activating genes was similar in Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs following ONC. Intriguingly, cells deactivated their BAX activation mechanism between 7 and 12 weeks after crush. Introduction of GFP-BAX into Bax−/− cells at 4 weeks after ONC showed that these cells had a nearly normal capacity to activate this protein, but this capacity was lost 8 weeks after crush. Collectively, these data suggest that 8–12 weeks after crush, damaged cells no longer displayed increased susceptibility to BAX activation relative to their naïve counterparts. In this same timeframe, retinal glial activation and the signaling of the pro-apoptotic JNK pathway also abated. Quiescent RGCs did not show a timely reactivation of their JNK pathway following intravitreal injection with anisomycin. These findings demonstrate that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs is neuroprotective after acute injury. Damaged RGCs enter a quiescent state months after injury and are no longer responsive to an apoptotic stimulus. Quiescent RGCs will require rejuvenation to reacquire functionality.
AU - Donahue, RJ
AU - Maes, Margaret E
AU - Grosser, JA
AU - Nickells, RW
ID - 7033
IS - 2
JF - Molecular Neurobiology
SN - 0893-7648
TI - BAX-depleted retinal ganglion cells survive and become quiescent following optic nerve damage
VL - 57
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin acts as an amazingly versatile coordinator of plant growth and development. With its morphogen-like properties, auxin controls sites and timing of differentiation and/or growth responses both, in quantitative and qualitative terms. Specificity in the auxin response depends largely on distinct modes of signal transmission, by which individual cells perceive and convert auxin signals into a remarkable diversity of responses. The best understood, or so-called canonical mechanism of auxin perception ultimately results in variable adjustments of the cellular transcriptome, via a short, nuclear signal transduction pathway. Additional findings that accumulated over decades implied that an additional, presumably, cell surface-based auxin perception mechanism mediates very rapid cellular responses and decisively contributes to the cell's overall hormonal response. Recent investigations into both, nuclear and cell surface auxin signalling challenged this assumed partition of roles for different auxin signalling pathways and revealed an unexpected complexity in transcriptional and non-transcriptional cellular responses mediated by auxin.
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Luschnig, C
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7142
IS - 2
JF - Current Opinion in Plant Biology
SN - 1369-5266
TI - Auxin signalling in growth: Schrödinger's cat out of the bag
VL - 53
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the cerebellum, GluD2 is exclusively expressed in Purkinje cells, where it regulates synapse formation and regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and motor learning. Delayed cognitive development in humans with GluD2 gene mutations suggests extracerebellar functions of GluD2. However, extracerebellar expression of GluD2 and its relationship with that of GluD1 are poorly understood. GluD2 mRNA and protein were widely detected, with relatively high levels observed in the olfactory glomerular layer, medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, olfactory tubercle, subiculum, striatum, lateral septum, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus. These regions were also enriched for GluD1, and many individual neurons coexpressed the two GluDs. In the retrosplenial granular cortex, GluD1 and GluD2 were selectively expressed at PSD‐95‐expressing glutamatergic synapses, and their coexpression on the same synapses was shown by SDS‐digested freeze‐fracture replica labeling. Biochemically, GluD1 and GluD2 formed coimmunoprecipitable complex formation in HEK293T cells and in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. We further estimated the relative protein amount by quantitative immunoblotting using GluA2/GluD2 and GluA2/GluD1 chimeric proteins as standards for titration of GluD1 and GluD2 antibodies. Intriguingly, the relative amount of GluD2 was almost comparable to that of GluD1 in the postsynaptic density fraction prepared from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In contrast, GluD2 was overwhelmingly predominant in the cerebellum. Thus, we have determined the relative extracerebellar expression of GluD1 and GluD2 at regional, neuronal, and synaptic levels. These data provide a molecular–anatomical basis for possible competitive and cooperative interactions of GluD family members at synapses in various brain regions.
AU - Nakamoto, Chihiro
AU - Konno, Kohtarou
AU - Miyazaki, Taisuke
AU - Nakatsukasa, Ena
AU - Natsume, Rie
AU - Abe, Manabu
AU - Kawamura, Meiko
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Yamasaki, Miwako
AU - Sakimura, Kenji
AU - Watanabe, Masahiko
ID - 7148
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology
SN - 0021-9967
TI - Expression mapping, quantification, and complex formation of GluD1 and GluD2 glutamate receptors in adult mouse brain
VL - 528
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In recent years, many genes have been associated with chromatinopathies classified as “Cornelia de Lange Syndrome‐like.” It is known that the phenotype of these patients becomes less recognizable, overlapping to features characteristic of other syndromes caused by genetic variants affecting different regulators of chromatin structure and function. Therefore, Cornelia de Lange syndrome diagnosis might be arduous due to the seldom discordance between unexpected molecular diagnosis and clinical evaluation. Here, we review the molecular features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, supporting the hypothesis that “CdLS‐like syndromes” are part of a larger “rare disease family” sharing multiple clinical features and common disrupted molecular pathways.
AU - Avagliano, Laura
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Grazioli, Paolo
AU - Di Fede, Elisabetta
AU - Parodi, Chiara
AU - Mariani, Milena
AU - Kaiser, Frank J.
AU - Selicorni, Angelo
AU - Gervasini, Cristina
AU - Massa, Valentina
ID - 7149
IS - 1
JF - Clinical Genetics
SN - 0009-9163
TI - Chromatinopathies: A focus on Cornelia de Lange syndrome
VL - 97
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider dynamical transport metrics for probability measures on discretisations of a bounded convex domain in ℝd. These metrics are natural discrete counterparts to the Kantorovich metric 𝕎2, defined using a Benamou-Brenier type formula. Under mild assumptions we prove an asymptotic upper bound for the discrete transport metric Wt in terms of 𝕎2, as the size of the mesh T tends to 0. However, we show that the corresponding lower bound may fail in general, even on certain one-dimensional and symmetric two-dimensional meshes. In addition, we show that the asymptotic lower bound holds under an isotropy assumption on the mesh, which turns out to be essentially necessary. This assumption is satisfied, e.g., for tilings by convex regular polygons, and it implies Gromov-Hausdorff convergence of the transport metric.
AU - Gladbach, Peter
AU - Kopfer, Eva
AU - Maas, Jan
ID - 71
IS - 3
JF - SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis
SN - 00361410
TI - Scaling limits of discrete optimal transport
VL - 52
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we introduce an inertial projection-type method with different updating strategies for solving quasi-variational inequalities with strongly monotone and Lipschitz continuous operators in real Hilbert spaces. Under standard assumptions, we establish different strong convergence results for the proposed algorithm. Primary numerical experiments demonstrate the potential applicability of our scheme compared with some related methods in the literature.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Gibali, Aviv
AU - Sagratella, Simone
ID - 7161
JF - Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications
SN - 0022-3239
TI - Inertial projection-type methods for solving quasi-variational inequalities in real Hilbert spaces
VL - 184
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the living cell, we encounter a large variety of motile processes such as organelle transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. These processes are driven by motor proteins that generate force by transducing chemical free energy into mechanical work. In many cases, the molecular motors work in teams to collectively generate larger forces. Recent optical trapping experiments on small teams of cytoskeletal motors indicated that the collectively generated force increases with the size of the motor team but that this increase depends on the motor type and on whether the motors are studied in vitro or in vivo. Here, we use the theory of stochastic processes to describe the motion of N motors in a stationary optical trap and to compute the N-dependence of the collectively generated forces. We consider six distinct motor types, two kinesins, two dyneins, and two myosins. We show that the force increases always linearly with N but with a prefactor that depends on the performance of the single motor. Surprisingly, this prefactor increases for weaker motors with a lower stall force. This counter-intuitive behavior reflects the increased probability with which stronger motors detach from the filament during strain generation. Our theoretical results are in quantitative agreement with experimental data on small teams of kinesin-1 motors.
AU - Ucar, Mehmet C
AU - Lipowsky, Reinhard
ID - 7166
IS - 1
JF - Nano Letters
SN - 1530-6984
TI - Collective force generation by molecular motors is determined by strain-induced unbinding
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant root architecture dynamically adapts to various environmental conditions, such as salt‐containing soil. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved among others also in these developmental adaptations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, a novel branch of the ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis involving PYR/PYL/RCAR (abbreviated as PYLs) receptor‐protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex that acts in parallel to the canonical PYLs‐protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) mechanism is identified. The PYLs‐PP2A signaling modulates root gravitropism and lateral root formation through regulating phytohormone auxin transport. In optimal conditions, PYLs ABA receptor interacts with the catalytic subunits of PP2A, increasing their phosphatase activity and thus counteracting PINOID (PID) kinase‐mediated phosphorylation of PIN‐FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. By contrast, in salt and osmotic stress conditions, ABA binds to PYLs, inhibiting the PP2A activity, which leads to increased PIN phosphorylation and consequently modulated directional auxin transport leading to adapted root architecture. This work reveals an adaptive mechanism that may flexibly adjust plant root growth to withstand saline and osmotic stresses. It occurs via the cross‐talk between the stress hormone ABA and the versatile developmental regulator auxin.
AU - Li, Yang
AU - Wang, Yaping
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Li, Zhen
AU - Yuan, Zhi
AU - Glanc, Matous
AU - Domjan, David
AU - Wang, Kai
AU - Xuan, Wei
AU - Guo, Yan
AU - Gong, Zhizhong
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Zhang, Jing
ID - 7204
IS - 3
JF - Advanced Science
TI - Root growth adaptation is mediated by PYLs ABA receptor-PP2A protein phosphatase complex
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic incompatibilities contribute to reproductive isolation between many diverging populations, but it is still unclear to what extent they play a role if divergence happens with gene flow. In contact zones between the "Crab" and "Wave" ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis, divergent selection forms strong barriers to gene flow, while the role of post‐zygotic barriers due to selection against hybrids remains unclear. High embryo abortion rates in this species could indicate the presence of such barriers. Post‐zygotic barriers might include genetic incompatibilities (e.g. Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities) but also maladaptation, both expected to be most pronounced in contact zones. In addition, embryo abortion might reflect physiological stress on females and embryos independent of any genetic stress. We examined all embryos of >500 females sampled outside and inside contact zones of three populations in Sweden. Females' clutch size ranged from 0 to 1,011 embryos (mean 130 ± 123), and abortion rates varied between 0% and 100% (mean 12%). We described female genotypes by using a hybrid index based on hundreds of SNPs differentiated between ecotypes with which we characterized female genotypes. We also calculated female SNP heterozygosity and inversion karyotype. Clutch size did not vary with female hybrid index, and abortion rates were only weakly related to hybrid index in two sites but not at all in a third site. No additional variation in abortion rate was explained by female SNP heterozygosity, but increased female inversion heterozygosity added slightly to increased abortion. Our results show only weak and probably biologically insignificant post‐zygotic barriers contributing to ecotype divergence, and the high and variable abortion rates were marginally, if at all, explained by hybrid index of females.
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Zagrodzka, Zuzanna
AU - Faria, Rui
AU - Westram, Anja M
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
ID - 7205
IS - 3
JF - Journal of Evolutionary Biology
SN - 1010061X
TI - Is embryo abortion a post-zygotic barrier to gene flow between Littorina ecotypes?
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hippocampus plays key roles in learning and memory and is a main target of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which causes progressive memory impairments. Despite numerous investigations about the processes required for the normal hippocampal functions, the neurotransmitter receptors involved in the synaptic deficits by which AD disables the hippocampus are not yet characterized. By combining histoblots, western blots, immunohistochemistry and high‐resolution immunoelectron microscopic methods for GABAB receptors, this study provides a quantitative description of the expression and the subcellular localization of GABAB1 in the hippocampus in a mouse model of AD at 1, 6 and 12 months of age. Western blots and histoblots showed that the total amount of protein and the laminar expression pattern of GABAB1 were similar in APP/PS1 mice and in age‐matched wild‐type mice. In contrast, immunoelectron microscopic techniques showed that the subcellular localization of GABAB1 subunit did not change significantly in APP/PS1 mice at 1 month of age, was significantly reduced in the stratum lacunosum‐moleculare of CA1 pyramidal cells at 6 months of age and significantly reduced at the membrane surface of CA1 pyramidal cells at 12 months of age. This reduction of plasma membrane GABAB1 was paralleled by a significant increase of the subunit at the intracellular sites. We further observed a decrease of membrane‐targeted GABAB receptors in axon terminals contacting CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate compartment‐ and age‐dependent reduction of plasma membrane‐targeted GABAB receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, suggesting that this decrease might be enough to alter the GABAB‐mediated synaptic transmission taking place in AD.
AU - Martín-Belmonte, Alejandro
AU - Aguado, Carolina
AU - Alfaro-Ruíz, Rocío
AU - Moreno-Martínez, Ana Esther
AU - De La Ossa, Luis
AU - Martínez-Hernández, José
AU - Buisson, Alain
AU - Früh, Simon
AU - Bettler, Bernhard
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Luján, Rafael
ID - 7207
IS - 3
JF - Brain Pathology
SN - 10156305
TI - Reduction in the neuronal surface of post and presynaptic GABA>B< receptors in the hippocampus in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
VL - 30
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis we study certain mathematical aspects of evolution. The two primary forces that drive an evolutionary process are mutation and selection. Mutation generates new variants in a population. Selection chooses among the variants depending on the reproductive rates of individuals. Evolutionary processes are intrinsically random – a new mutation that is initially present in the population at low frequency can go extinct, even if it confers a reproductive advantage. The overall rate of evolution is largely determined by two quantities: the probability that an invading advantageous mutation spreads through the population (called fixation probability) and the time until it does so (called fixation time). Both those quantities crucially depend not only on the strength of the invading mutation but also on the population structure. In this thesis, we aim to understand how the underlying population structure affects the overall rate of evolution. Specifically, we study population structures that increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants (called amplifiers of selection). Broadly speaking, our results are of three different types: We present various strong amplifiers, we identify regimes under which only limited amplification is feasible, and we propose population structures that provide different tradeoffs between high fixation probability and short fixation time.
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
ID - 7196
TI - A role of graphs in evolutionary processes
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many systems rely on optimistic concurrent search trees for multi-core scalability. In principle, optimistic trees have a simple performance story: searches are read-only and so run in parallel, with writes to shared memory occurring only when modifying the data structure. However, this paper shows that in practice, obtaining the full performance benefits of optimistic search trees is not so simple.
We focus on optimistic binary search trees (BSTs) and perform a detailed performance analysis of 10 state-of-the-art BSTs on large scale x86-64 hardware, using both microbenchmarks and an in-memory database system. We find and explain significant unexpected performance differences between BSTs with similar tree structure and search implementations, which we trace to subtle performance-degrading interactions of BSTs with systems software and hardware subsystems. We further derive a prescriptive approach to avoid this performance degradation, as well as algorithmic insights on optimistic BST design. Our work underlines the gap between the theory and practice of multi-core performance, and calls for further research to help bridge this gap.
AU - Arbel-Raviv, Maya
AU - Brown, Trevor A
AU - Morrison, Adam
ID - 7272
SN - 9781939133021
T2 - Proceedings of the 2018 USENIX Annual Technical Conference
TI - Getting to the root of concurrent binary search tree performance
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The fixation probability of a single mutant invading a population of residents is among the most widely-studied quantities in evolutionary dynamics. Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures that increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, compared to well-mixed populations. Extensive studies have shown that many amplifiers exist for the Birth-death Moran process, some of them substantially increasing the fixation probability or even guaranteeing fixation in the limit of large population size. On the other hand, no amplifiers are known for the death-Birth Moran process, and computer-assisted exhaustive searches have failed to discover amplification. In this work we resolve this disparity, by showing that any amplification under death-Birth updating is necessarily bounded and transient. Our boundedness result states that even if a population structure does amplify selection, the resulting fixation probability is close to that of the well-mixed population. Our transience result states that for any population structure there exists a threshold r⋆ such that the population structure ceases to amplify selection if the mutant fitness advantage r is larger than r⋆. Finally, we also extend the above results to δ-death-Birth updating, which is a combination of Birth-death and death-Birth updating. On the positive side, we identify population structures that maintain amplification for a wide range of values r and δ. These results demonstrate that amplification of natural selection depends on the specific mechanisms of the evolutionary process.
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin A.
ID - 7212
JF - PLoS computational biology
TI - Limits on amplifiers of natural selection under death-Birth updating
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The combined resection of skull-infiltrating tumours and immediate cranioplastic reconstruction predominantly relies on freehand-moulded solutions. Techniques that enable this procedure to be performed easily in routine clinical practice would be useful. A cadaveric study was developed in which a new software tool was used to perform single-stage reconstructions with prefabricated implants after the resection of skull-infiltrating pathologies. A novel 3D visualization and interaction framework was developed to create 10 virtual craniotomies in five cadaveric specimens. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implants were manufactured according to the bone defects. The image-guided craniotomy was reconstructed with PEEK and compared to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Navigational accuracy and surgical precision were assessed. The PEEK workflow resulted in up to 10-fold shorter reconstruction times than the standard technique. Surgical precision was reflected by the mean 1.1 ± 0.29 mm distance between the virtual and real craniotomy, with submillimetre precision in 50%. Assessment of the global offset between virtual and actual craniotomy revealed an average shift of 4.5 ± 3.6 mm. The results validated the ‘elective single-stage cranioplasty’ technique as a state-of-the-art virtual planning method and surgical workflow. This patient-tailored workflow could significantly reduce surgical times compared to the traditional, intraoperative acrylic moulding method and may be an option for the reconstruction of bone defects in the craniofacial region.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Mallouhi, Ammar
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Wolfsberger, Stefan
AU - Reissig, Lukas
AU - Hammadi, Firas
AU - Matula, Christian
AU - Baumann, Arnulf
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7218
IS - 8
JF - International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
SN - 09015027
TI - Single-stage bone resection and cranioplastic reconstruction: Comparison of a novel software-derived PEEK workflow with the standard reconstructive method
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Root system architecture (RSA), governed by the phytohormone auxin, endows plants with an adaptive advantage in particular environments. Using geographically representative arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions as a resource for GWA mapping, Waidmann et al. and Ogura et al. recently identified two novel components involved in modulating auxin-mediated RSA and conferring plant fitness in particular habitats.
AU - Xiao, Guanghui
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
ID - 7219
IS - 2
JF - Trends in Plant Science
SN - 13601385
TI - Adaptive growth: Shaping auxin-mediated root system architecture
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - BACKGROUND:The introduction of image-guided methods to bypass surgery has resulted in optimized preoperative identification of the recipients and excellent patency rates. However, the recently presented methods have also been resource-consuming. In the present study, we have reported a cost-efficient planning workflow for extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) revascularization combined with transdural indocyanine green videoangiography (tICG-VA). METHODS:We performed a retrospective review at a single tertiary referral center from 2011 to 2018. A novel software-derived workflow was applied for 25 of 92 bypass procedures during the study period. The precision and accuracy were assessed using tICG-VA identification of the cortical recipients and a comparison of the virtual and actual data. The data from a control group of 25 traditionally planned procedures were also matched. RESULTS:The intraoperative transfer time of the calculated coordinates averaged 0.8 minute (range, 0.4-1.9 minutes). The definitive recipients matched the targeted branches in 80%, and a neighboring branch was used in 16%. Our workflow led to a significant craniotomy size reduction in the study group compared with that in the control group (P = 0.005). tICG-VA was successfully applied in 19 cases. An average of 2 potential recipient arteries were identified transdurally, resulting in tailored durotomy and 3 craniotomy adjustments. Follow-up patency results were available for 49 bypass surgeries, comprising 54 grafts. The overall patency rate was 91% at a median follow-up period of 26 months. No significant difference was found in the patency rate between the study and control groups (P = 0.317). CONCLUSIONS:Our clinical results have validated the presented planning and surgical workflow and support the routine implementation of tICG-VA for recipient identification before durotomy.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Ferraz-Leite, Heber
AU - Gruber, Andreas
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Fischer, Gerrit
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7220
IS - 2
JF - World Neurosurgery
SN - 18788750
TI - Novel software-derived workflow in extracranial–intracranial bypass surgery validated by transdural indocyanine green videoangiography
VL - 134
ER -