TY - JOUR
AB - The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle.
AU - Novak, Sebastian
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 2817
JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology
TI - Density games
VL - 334
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Models of neural responses to stimuli with complex spatiotemporal correlation structure often assume that neurons are selective for only a small number of linear projections of a potentially high-dimensional input. In this review, we explore recent modeling approaches where the neural response depends on the quadratic form of the input rather than on its linear projection, that is, the neuron is sensitive to the local covariance structure of the signal preceding the spike. To infer this quadratic dependence in the presence of arbitrary (e.g., naturalistic) stimulus distribution, we review several inference methods, focusing in particular on two information theory–based approaches (maximization of stimulus energy and of noise entropy) and two likelihood-based approaches (Bayesian spike-triggered covariance and extensions of generalized linear models). We analyze the formal relationship between the likelihood-based and information-based approaches to demonstrate how they lead to consistent inference. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of these procedures by using model neurons responding to a flickering variance stimulus.
AU - Rajan, Kanaka
AU - Marre, Olivier
AU - Tkacik, Gasper
ID - 2818
IS - 7
JF - Neural Computation
TI - Learning quadratic receptive fields from neural responses to natural stimuli
VL - 25
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We introduce quantatitive timed refinement metrics and quantitative timed simulation functions, incorporating zenoness checks, for timed systems. These functions assign positive real numbers between zero and infinity which quantify the timing mismatches between two timed systems, amongst non-zeno runs. We quantify timing mismatches in three ways: (1) the maximum timing mismatch that can arise, (2) the "steady-state" maximum timing mismatches, where initial transient timing mismatches are ignored; and (3) the (long-run) average timing mismatches amongst two systems. These three kinds of mismatches constitute three important types of timing differences. Our event times are the global times, measured from the start of the system execution, not just the time durations of individual steps. We present algorithms over timed automata for computing the three quantitative simulation functions to within any desired degree of accuracy. In order to compute the values of the quantitative simulation functions, we use a game theoretic formulation. We introduce two new kinds of objectives for two player games on finite state game graphs: (1) eventual debit-sum level objectives, and (2) average debit-sum level objectives. We present algorithms for computing the optimal values for these objectives for player 1, and then use these algorithms to compute the values of the quantitative timed simulation functions.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Prabhu, Vinayak
ID - 2819
T2 - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control
TI - Quantitative timed simulation functions and refinement metrics for real-time systems
VL - 1
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this paper, we introduce the powerful framework of graph games for the analysis of real-time scheduling with firm deadlines. We introduce a novel instance of a partial-observation game that is suitable for this purpose, and prove decidability of all the involved decision problems. We derive a graph game that allows the automated computation of the competitive ratio (along with an optimal witness algorithm for the competitive ratio) and establish an NP-completeness proof for the graph game problem. For a given on-line algorithm, we present polynomial time solution for computing (i) the worst-case utility; (ii) the worst-case utility ratio w.r.t. a clairvoyant off-line algorithm; and (iii) the competitive ratio. A major strength of the proposed approach lies in its flexibility w.r.t. incorporating additional constraints on the adversary and/or the algorithm, including limited maximum or average load, finiteness of periods of overload, etc., which are easily added by means of additional instances of standard objective functions for graph games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kößler, Alexander
AU - Schmid, Ulrich
ID - 2820
SN - 978-1-4503-1567-8
T2 - Proceedings of the 16th International conference on Hybrid systems: Computation and control
TI - Automated analysis of real-time scheduling using graph games
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many key aspects of plant development are regulated by the polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin. Cellular auxin efflux, the rate-limiting step in this process, has been shown to rely on the coordinated action of PIN-formed (PIN) and B-type ATP binding cassette (ABCB) carriers. Here, we report that polar auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana root also requires the action of a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 1 (ZIFL1). Sequencing, promoter-reporter, and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the full-length ZIFL1.1 protein and a truncated splice isoform, ZIFL1.3, localize to the tonoplast of root cells and the plasma membrane of leaf stomatal guard cells, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we show that the ZIFL1.1 transporter regulates various root auxin-related processes, while the ZIFL1.3 isoform mediates drought tolerance by regulating stomatal closure. Auxin transport and immunolocalization assays demonstrate that ZIFL1.1 indirectly modulates cellular auxin efflux during shootward auxin transport at the root tip, likely by regulating plasma membrane PIN2 abundance. Finally, heterologous expression in yeast revealed that ZIFL1.1 and ZIFL1.3 share H+-coupled K+ transport activity. Thus, by determining the subcellular and tissue distribution of two isoforms, alternative splicing dictates a dual function for the ZIFL1 transporter. We propose that this MFS carrier regulates stomatal movements and polar auxin transport by modulating potassium and proton fluxes in Arabidopsis cells.
AU - Remy, Estelle
AU - Cabrito, Tânia
AU - Baster, Pawel
AU - Batista, Rita
AU - Teixeira, Miguel
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Sá Correia, Isabel
AU - Duque, Paula
ID - 2821
IS - 3
JF - Plant Cell
TI - A major facilitator superfamily transporter plays a dual role in polar auxin transport and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala x Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r2 = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops.
AU - Topp, Christopher
AU - Iyer Pascuzzi, Anjali
AU - Anderson, Jill
AU - Lee, Cheng
AU - Zurek, Paul
AU - Symonova, Olga
AU - Zheng, Ying
AU - Bucksch, Alexander
AU - Mileyko, Yuriy
AU - Galkovskyi, Taras
AU - Moore, Brad
AU - Harer, John
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Mitchell Olds, Thomas
AU - Weitz, Joshua
AU - Benfey, Philip
ID - 2822
IS - 18
JF - PNAS
TI - 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture
VL - 110
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The primary goal of restoration is to create self-sustaining ecological communities that are resilient to periodic disturbance. Currently, little is known about how restored communities respond to disturbance events such as fire and how this response compares to remnant vegetation. Following the 2003 fires in south-eastern Australia we examined the post-fire response of revegetation plantings and compared this to remnant vegetation. Ten burnt and 10 unburnt (control) sites were assessed for each of three types of vegetation (direct seeding revegetation, revegetation using nursery seedlings (tubestock) and remnant woodland). Sixty sampling sites were surveyed 6months after fire to quantify the initial survival of mid- and overstorey plant species in each type of vegetation. Three and 5years after fire all sites were resurveyed to assess vegetation structure, species diversity and vigour, as well as indicators of soil function. Overall, revegetation showed high (>60%) post-fire survival, but this varied among species depending on regeneration strategy (obligate seeder or resprouter). The native ground cover, mid- and overstorey in both types of plantings showed rapid recovery of vegetation structure and cover within 3years of fire. This recovery was similar to the burnt remnant woodlands. Non-native (exotic) ground cover initially increased after fire, but was no different in burnt and unburnt sites 5years after fire. Fire had no effect on species richness, but burnt direct seeding sites had reduced species diversity (Simpson's Diversity Index) while diversity was higher in burnt remnant woodlands. Indices of soil function in all types of vegetation had recovered to levels found in unburnt sites 5years after fire. These results indicate that even young revegetation (stands <10years old) showed substantial recovery from disturbance by fire. This suggests that revegetation can provide an important basis for restoring woodland communities in the fire-prone Australian environment.
AU - Pickup, Melinda
AU - Wilson, Susie
AU - Freudenberger, David
AU - Nicholls, Nick
AU - Gould, Lori
AU - Hnatiuk, Sarah
AU - Delandre, Jeni
ID - 2823
IS - 3
JF - Austral Ecology
TI - Post-fire recovery of revegetated woodland communities in south-eastern Australia
VL - 38
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study synthesis of controllers for real-time systems, where the objective is to stay in a given safe set. The problem is solved by obtaining winning strategies in the setting of concurrent two player timed automaton games with safety objectives. To prevent a player from winning by blocking time, we restrict each player to strategies that ensure that the player cannot be responsible for causing a Zeno run. We construct winning strategies for the controller which require access only to (1) the system clocks (thus, controllers which require their own internal infinitely precise clocks are not necessary), and (2) a logarithmic (in the number of clocks) number of memory bits (i.e. a linear number of memory states). Precisely, we show that for safety objectives, a memory of size (3 + lg (| C | + 1)) bits suffices for winning controller strategies, where C is the set of clocks of the timed automaton game, significantly improving the previous known exponential memory states bound. We also settle the open question of whether winning region-based strategies require memory for safety objectives by showing with an example the necessity of memory for such strategies to win for safety objectives. Finally, we show that the decision problem of determining if there exists a receptive player-1 winning strategy for safety objectives is EXPTIME-complete over timed automaton games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Prabhu, Vinayak
ID - 2824
JF - Information and Computation
TI - Synthesis of memory-efficient, clock-memory free, and non-Zeno safety controllers for timed systems
VL - 228-229
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology.
AU - Du, Yunlong
AU - Tejos, Ricardo
AU - Beck, Martina
AU - Himschoot, Ellie
AU - Li, Hongjiang
AU - Robatzek, Silke
AU - Vanneste, Steffen
AU - Friml, Jirí
ID - 2827
IS - 19
JF - PNAS
TI - Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking
VL - 110
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSPs) parametrized by a constraint language, a fixed set of cost functions over a finite domain. An instance of the problem is specified by a sum of cost functions from the language and the goal is to minimize the sum. Under the unique games conjecture, the approximability of finite-valued VCSPs is well understood, see Raghavendra [2008]. However, there is no characterization of finite-valued VCSPs, let alone general-valued VCSPs, that can be solved exactly in polynomial time, thus giving insights from a combinatorial optimization perspective. We consider the case of languages containing all possible unary cost functions. In the case of languages consisting of only {0, ∞}-valued cost functions (i.e., relations), such languages have been called conservative and studied by Bulatov [2003, 2011] and recently by Barto [2011]. Since we study valued languages, we call a language conservative if it contains all finite-valued unary cost functions. The computational complexity of conservative valued languages has been studied by Cohen et al. [2006] for languages over Boolean domains, by Deineko et al. [2008] for {0, 1}-valued languages (a.k.a Max-CSP), and by Takhanov [2010a] for {0, ∞}-valued languages containing all finite-valued unary cost functions (a.k.a. Min-Cost-Hom). We prove a Schaefer-like dichotomy theorem for conservative valued languages: if all cost functions in the language satisfy a certain condition (specified by a complementary combination of STP and MJN multimor-phisms), then any instance can be solved in polynomial time (via a new algorithm developed in this article), otherwise the language is NP-hard. This is the first complete complexity classification of general-valued constraint languages over non-Boolean domains. It is a common phenomenon that complexity classifications of problems over non-Boolean domains are significantly harder than the Boolean cases. The polynomial-time algorithm we present for the tractable cases is a generalization of the submodular minimization problem and a result of Cohen et al. [2008]. Our results generalize previous results by Takhanov [2010a] and (a subset of results) by Cohen et al. [2006] and Deineko et al. [2008]. Moreover, our results do not rely on any computer-assisted search as in Deineko et al. [2008], and provide a powerful tool for proving hardness of finite-valued and general-valued languages.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Živný, Stanislav
ID - 2828
IS - 2
JF - Journal of the ACM
TI - The complexity of conservative valued CSPs
VL - 60
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Laminar-turbulent intermittency is intrinsic to the transitional regime of a wide range of fluid flows including pipe, channel, boundary layer, and Couette flow. In the latter turbulent spots can grow and form continuous stripes, yet in the stripe-normal direction they remain interspersed by laminar fluid. We carry out direct numerical simulations in a long narrow domain and observe that individual turbulent stripes are transient. In agreement with recent observations in pipe flow, we find that turbulence becomes sustained at a distinct critical point once the spatial proliferation outweighs the inherent decaying process. By resolving the asymptotic size distributions close to criticality we can for the first time demonstrate scale invariance at the onset of turbulence.
AU - Shi, Liang
AU - Avila, Marc
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 2829
IS - 20
JF - Physical Review Letters
TI - Scale invariance at the onset of turbulence in couette flow
VL - 110
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Moussion, Christine
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 2830
IS - 5
JF - Immunity
TI - A conduit to amplify innate immunity
VL - 38
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) with Büchi (liveness) objectives. We consider the problem of computing the set of almost-sure winning states from where the objective can be ensured with probability 1. Our contributions are as follows: First, we present the first subquadratic symbolic algorithm to compute the almost-sure winning set for MDPs with Büchi objectives; our algorithm takes O(n · √ m) symbolic steps as compared to the previous known algorithm that takes O(n 2) symbolic steps, where n is the number of states and m is the number of edges of the MDP. In practice MDPs have constant out-degree, and then our symbolic algorithm takes O(n · √ n) symbolic steps, as compared to the previous known O(n 2) symbolic steps algorithm. Second, we present a new algorithm, namely win-lose algorithm, with the following two properties: (a) the algorithm iteratively computes subsets of the almost-sure winning set and its complement, as compared to all previous algorithms that discover the almost-sure winning set upon termination; and (b) requires O(n · √ K) symbolic steps, where K is the maximal number of edges of strongly connected components (scc's) of the MDP. The win-lose algorithm requires symbolic computation of scc's. Third, we improve the algorithm for symbolic scc computation; the previous known algorithm takes linear symbolic steps, and our new algorithm improves the constants associated with the linear number of steps. In the worst case the previous known algorithm takes 5×n symbolic steps, whereas our new algorithm takes 4×n symbolic steps.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Joglekar, Manas
AU - Shah, Nisarg
ID - 2831
IS - 3
JF - Formal Methods in System Design
TI - Symbolic algorithms for qualitative analysis of Markov decision processes with Büchi objectives
VL - 42
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.
AU - Tanaka, Hirokazu
AU - Kitakura, Saeko
AU - Rakusová, Hana
AU - Uemura, Tomohiro
AU - Feraru, Mugurel
AU - De Rycke, Riet
AU - Robert, Stéphanie
AU - Kakimoto, Tatsuo
AU - Friml, Jirí
ID - 2832
IS - 5
JF - PLoS Genetics
TI - Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in arabidopsis thaliana
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - During development, mechanical forces cause changes in size, shape, number, position, and gene expression of cells. They are therefore integral to any morphogenetic processes. Force generation by actin-myosin networks and force transmission through adhesive complexes are two self-organizing phenomena driving tissue morphogenesis. Coordination and integration of forces by long-range force transmission and mechanosensing of cells within tissues produce large-scale tissue shape changes. Extrinsic mechanical forces also control tissue patterning by modulating cell fate specification and differentiation. Thus, the interplay between tissue mechanics and biochemical signaling orchestrates tissue morphogenesis and patterning in development.
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
AU - Bellaïche, Yohanns
ID - 2833
IS - 5
JF - Cell
TI - Forces in tissue morphogenesis and patterning
VL - 153
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. A recent proposition is that in analogy to low dimensional chaotic systems, turbulence is organized around unstable solutions of the governing equations which provide the building blocks of the disordered dynamics. We report the discovery of periodic solutions which just like intermittent turbulence are spatially localized and show that turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch.
AU - Avila, Marc
AU - Mellibovsky, Fernando
AU - Roland, Nicolas
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 2834
IS - 22
JF - Physical Review Letters
TI - Streamwise-localized solutions at the onset of turbulence in pipe flow
VL - 110
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant development. To identify new genes involved in auxin activity, a genetic screen was performed for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with altered expression of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5rev:GFP. One of the mutants recovered in the screen, designated as weak auxin response3 (wxr3), exhibits much lower DR5rev:GFP expression when treated with the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and displays severe defects in root development. The wxr3 mutant decreases polar auxin transport and results in a disruption of the asymmetric auxin distribution. The levels of the auxin transporters AUXIN1 and PIN-FORMED are dramatically reduced in the wxr3 root tip. Molecular analyses demonstrate that WXR3 is ROOT ULTRAVIOLET B-SENSITIVE1 (RUS1), a member of the conserved Domain of Unknown Function647 protein family found in diverse eukaryotic organisms. Our data suggest that RUS1/WXR3 plays an essential role in the regulation of polar auxin transport by maintaining the proper level of auxin transporters on the plasma membrane.
AU - Yu, Hong
AU - Karampelias, Michael
AU - Robert, Stéphanie
AU - Peer, Wendy
AU - Swarup, Ranjan
AU - Ye, Songqing
AU - Ge, Lei
AU - Cohen, Jerry
AU - Murphy, Angus
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Estelle, Mark
ID - 2835
IS - 2
JF - Plant Physiology
TI - Root ultraviolet b-sensitive1/weak auxin response3 is essential for polar auxin transport in arabidopsis
VL - 162
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the automatic synthesis of fair non-repudiation protocols, a class of fair exchange protocols, used for digital contract signing. First, we show how to specify the objectives of the participating agents and the trusted third party as path formulas in linear temporal logic and prove that the satisfaction of these objectives imply fairness; a property required of fair exchange protocols. We then show that weak (co-operative) co-synthesis and classical (strictly competitive) co-synthesis fail, whereas assume-guarantee synthesis (AGS) succeeds. We demonstrate the success of AGS as follows: (a) any solution of AGS is attack-free; no subset of participants can violate the objectives of the other participants; (b) the Asokan-Shoup-Waidner certified mail protocol that has known vulnerabilities is not a solution of AGS; (c) the Kremer-Markowitch non-repudiation protocol is a solution of AGS; and (d) AGS presents a new and symmetric fair non-repudiation protocol that is attack-free. To our knowledge this is the first application of synthesis to fair non-repudiation protocols, and our results show how synthesis can both automatically discover vulnerabilities in protocols and generate correct protocols. The solution to AGS can be computed efficiently as the secure equilibrium solution of three-player graph games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Raman, Vishwanath
ID - 2836
IS - 4
JF - Formal Aspects of Computing
TI - Assume-guarantee synthesis for digital contract signing
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a general class of N × N random matrices whose entries hij are independent up to a symmetry constraint, but not necessarily identically distributed. Our main result is a local semicircle law which improves previous results [17] both in the bulk and at the edge. The error bounds are given in terms of the basic small parameter of the model, maxi,j E|hij|2. As a consequence, we prove the universality of the local n-point correlation functions in the bulk spectrum for a class of matrices whose entries do not have comparable variances, including random band matrices with band width W ≫N1-εn with some εn > 0 and with a negligible mean-field component. In addition, we provide a coherent and pedagogical proof of the local semicircle law, streamlining and strengthening previous arguments from [17, 19, 6].
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Knowles, Antti
AU - Yau, Horng
AU - Yin, Jun
ID - 2837
IS - 59
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
TI - The local semicircle law for a general class of random matrices
VL - 18
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present important motor deficits that derive from altered motor development of infants and young children. DYRK1A, a candidate gene for DS abnormalities has been implicated in motor function due to its expression in motor nuclei in the adult brain, and its overexpression in DS mouse models leads to hyperactivity and altered motor learning. However, its precise role in the adult motor system, or its possible involvement in postnatal locomotor development has not yet been clarified. During the postnatal period we observed time-specific expression of Dyrk1A in discrete subsets of brainstem nuclei and spinal cord motor neurons. Interestingly, we describe for the first time the presence of Dyrk1A in the presynaptic terminal of the neuromuscular junctions and its axonal transport from the facial nucleus, suggesting a function for Dyrk1A in these structures. Relevant to DS, Dyrk1A overexpression in transgenic mice (TgDyrk1A) produces motor developmental alterations possibly contributing to DS motor phenotypes and modifies the numbers of motor cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the kinase may have a role in the development of the brainstem and spinal cord motor system.
AU - Arquè Fuste, Gloria
AU - Casanovas, Anna
AU - Dierssen, Mara
ID - 2838
IS - 1
JF - PLoS One
TI - Dyrk1A is dynamically expressed on subsets of motor neurons and in the neuromuscular junction: Possible role in Down syndrome
VL - 8
ER -