TY - GEN
AB - Efficiently handling time-triggered and possibly nondeterministic switches
for hybrid systems reachability is a challenging task. In this paper we present
an approach based on conservative set-based enclosure of the dynamics that can
handle systems with uncertain parameters and inputs, where the uncertainties
are bound to given intervals. The method is evaluated on the plant model of an
experimental electro-mechanical braking system with periodic controller. In
this model, the fast-switching controller dynamics requires simulation time
scales of the order of nanoseconds. Accurate set-based computations for
relatively large time horizons are known to be expensive. However, by
appropriately decoupling the time variable with respect to the spatial
variables, and enclosing the uncertain parameters using interval matrix maps
acting on zonotopes, we show that the computation time can be lowered to 5000
times faster with respect to previous works. This is a step forward in formal
verification of hybrid systems because reduced run-times allow engineers to
introduce more expressiveness in their models with a relatively inexpensive
computational cost.
AU - Forets, Marcelo
AU - Freire, Daniel
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 8750
T2 - arXiv
TI - Efficient reachability analysis of parametric linear hybrid systems with time-triggered transitions
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - In this work, we investigate how the critical driving amplitude at the Floquet MBL-to-ergodic phase transition differs between smooth and non-smooth driving over a wide range of driving frequencies. To this end, we study numerically a disordered spin-1/2 chain which is periodically driven by a sine or a square-wave drive, respectively. In both cases, the critical driving amplitude increases monotonically with the frequency, and at large frequencies, it is identical for the two drives in the appropriate normalization. However, at low and intermediate frequencies the critical amplitude of the square-wave drive depends strongly on the frequency, while the one of the cosine drive is almost constant in a wide frequency range. By analyzing the density of drive-induced resonance in a Fourier space perspective, we conclude that this difference is due to resonances induced by the higher harmonics which are present (absent) in the Fourier spectrum of the square-wave (sine) drive. Furthermore, we suggest a numerically efficient method to estimate the frequency dependence of the critical driving amplitudes for different drives, based on measuring the density of drive-induced resonances.
AU - Diringer, Asaf A.
AU - Gulden, Tobias
ID - 8198
T2 - arXiv
TI - Robustness of the Floquet many-body localized phase in the presence of a smooth and a non-smooth drive
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We study the problem of learning from multiple untrusted data sources, a
scenario of increasing practical relevance given the recent emergence of
crowdsourcing and collaborative learning paradigms. Specifically, we analyze
the situation in which a learning system obtains datasets from multiple
sources, some of which might be biased or even adversarially perturbed. It is
known that in the single-source case, an adversary with the power to corrupt a
fixed fraction of the training data can prevent PAC-learnability, that is, even
in the limit of infinitely much training data, no learning system can approach
the optimal test error. In this work we show that, surprisingly, the same is
not true in the multi-source setting, where the adversary can arbitrarily
corrupt a fixed fraction of the data sources. Our main results are a
generalization bound that provides finite-sample guarantees for this learning
setting, as well as corresponding lower bounds. Besides establishing
PAC-learnability our results also show that in a cooperative learning setting
sharing data with other parties has provable benefits, even if some
participants are malicious.
AU - Konstantinov, Nikola H
AU - Frantar, Elias
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 8724
T2 - arXiv
TI - On the sample complexity of adversarial multi-source PAC learning
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The design and implementation of efficient concurrent data structures have
seen significant attention. However, most of this work has focused on
concurrent data structures providing good \emph{worst-case} guarantees. In real
workloads, objects are often accessed at different rates, since access
distributions may be non-uniform. Efficient distribution-adaptive data
structures are known in the sequential case, e.g. the splay-trees; however,
they often are hard to translate efficiently in the concurrent case.
In this paper, we investigate distribution-adaptive concurrent data
structures and propose a new design called the splay-list. At a high level, the
splay-list is similar to a standard skip-list, with the key distinction that
the height of each element adapts dynamically to its access rate: popular
elements ``move up,'' whereas rarely-accessed elements decrease in height. We
show that the splay-list provides order-optimal amortized complexity bounds for
a subset of operations while being amenable to efficient concurrent
implementation. Experimental results show that the splay-list can leverage
distribution-adaptivity to improve on the performance of classic concurrent
designs, and can outperform the only previously-known distribution-adaptive
design in certain settings.
AU - Aksenov, Vitaly
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Drozdova, Alexandra
AU - Mohtashami, Amirkeivan
ID - 8725
T2 - arXiv
TI - The splay-list: A distribution-adaptive concurrent skip-list
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the computation of the material properties of random alloys, the method of 'special quasirandom structures' attempts to approximate the properties of the alloy on a finite volume with higher accuracy by replicating certain statistics of the random atomic lattice in the finite volume as accurately as possible. In the present work, we provide a rigorous justification for a variant of this method in the framework of the Thomas–Fermi–von Weizsäcker (TFW) model. Our approach is based on a recent analysis of a related variance reduction method in stochastic homogenization of linear elliptic PDEs and the locality properties of the TFW model. Concerning the latter, we extend an exponential locality result by Nazar and Ortner to include point charges, a result that may be of independent interest.
AU - Fischer, Julian L
AU - Kniely, Michael
ID - 8697
IS - 11
JF - Nonlinearity
SN - 09517715
TI - Variance reduction for effective energies of random lattices in the Thomas-Fermi-von Weizsäcker model
VL - 33
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We derive rigorously the leading order of the correlation energy of a Fermi
gas in a scaling regime of high density and weak interaction. The result
verifies the prediction of the random-phase approximation. Our proof refines
the method of collective bosonization in three dimensions. We approximately
diagonalize an effective Hamiltonian describing approximately bosonic
collective excitations around the Hartree-Fock state, while showing that
gapless and non-collective excitations have only a negligible effect on the
ground state energy.
AU - Benedikter, Niels P
AU - Nam, Phan Thành
AU - Porta, Marcello
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 7901
TI - Correlation energy of a weakly interacting Fermi gas
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the following dynamic load-balancing process: given an underlying graph G with n nodes, in each step t≥ 0, one unit of load is created, and placed at a randomly chosen graph node. In the same step, the chosen node picks a random neighbor, and the two nodes balance their loads by averaging them. We are interested in the expected gap between the minimum and maximum loads at nodes as the process progresses, and its dependence on n and on the graph structure. Variants of the above graphical balanced allocation process have been studied previously by Peres, Talwar, and Wieder [Peres et al., 2015], and by Sauerwald and Sun [Sauerwald and Sun, 2015]. These authors left as open the question of characterizing the gap in the case of cycle graphs in the dynamic case, where weights are created during the algorithm’s execution. For this case, the only known upper bound is of 𝒪(n log n), following from a majorization argument due to [Peres et al., 2015], which analyzes a related graphical allocation process. In this paper, we provide an upper bound of 𝒪 (√n log n) on the expected gap of the above process for cycles of length n. We introduce a new potential analysis technique, which enables us to bound the difference in load between k-hop neighbors on the cycle, for any k ≤ n/2. We complement this with a "gap covering" argument, which bounds the maximum value of the gap by bounding its value across all possible subsets of a certain structure, and recursively bounding the gaps within each subset. We provide analytical and experimental evidence that our upper bound on the gap is tight up to a logarithmic factor.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Nadiradze, Giorgi
AU - Sabour, Amirmojtaba
ID - 8286
SN - 18688969
T2 - 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming
TI - Dynamic averaging load balancing on cycles
VL - 168
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.
AU - Arroyo Guevara, Alan M
AU - Bensmail, Julien
AU - Bruce Richter, R.
ID - 7994
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines
VL - 164
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the following setting: suppose that we are given a manifold M in Rd with positive reach. Moreover assume that we have an embedded simplical complex A without boundary, whose vertex set lies on the manifold, is sufficiently dense and such that all simplices in A have sufficient quality. We prove that if, locally, interiors of the projection of the simplices onto the tangent space do not intersect, then A is a triangulation of the manifold, that is, they are homeomorphic.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Dyer, Ramsay
AU - Ghosh, Arijit
AU - Lieutier, Andre
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 8248
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 0179-5376
TI - Local conditions for triangulating submanifolds of Euclidean space
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Game of Life is a simple and elegant model to study dynamical system over networks. The model consists of a graph where every vertex has one of two types, namely, dead or alive. A configuration is a mapping of the vertices to the types. An update rule describes how the type of a vertex is updated given the types of its neighbors. In every round, all vertices are updated synchronously, which leads to a configuration update. While in general, Game of Life allows a broad range of update rules, we focus on two simple families of update rules, namely, underpopulation and overpopulation, that model several interesting dynamics studied in the literature. In both settings, a dead vertex requires at least a desired number of live neighbors to become alive. For underpopulation (resp., overpopulation), a live vertex requires at least (resp. at most) a desired number of live neighbors to remain alive. We study the basic computation problems, e.g., configuration reachability, for these two families of rules. For underpopulation rules, we show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, whereas for overpopulation rules they are PSPACE-complete.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Svoboda, Jakub
ID - 8533
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Simplified game of life: Algorithms and complexity
VL - 170
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Union-Find (or Disjoint-Set Union) is one of the fundamental problems in computer science; it has been well-studied from both theoretical and practical perspectives in the sequential case. Recently, there has been mounting interest in analyzing this problem in the concurrent scenario, and several asymptotically-efficient algorithms have been proposed. Yet, to date, there is very little known about the practical performance of concurrent Union-Find. This work addresses this gap. We evaluate and analyze the performance of several concurrent Union-Find algorithms and optimization strategies across a wide range of platforms (Intel, AMD, and ARM) and workloads (social, random, and road networks, as well as integrations into more complex algorithms). We first observe that, due to the limited computational cost, the number of induced cache misses is the critical determining factor for the performance of existing algorithms. We introduce new techniques to reduce this cost by storing node priorities implicitly and by using plain reads and writes in a way that does not affect the correctness of the algorithms. Finally, we show that Union-Find implementations are an interesting application for Transactional Memory (TM): one of the fastest algorithm variants we discovered is a sequential one that uses coarse-grained locking with the lock elision optimization to reduce synchronization cost and increase scalability.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Fedorov, Alexander
AU - Koval, Nikita
ID - 7605
SN - 18688969
T2 - 23rd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems
TI - In search of the fastest concurrent union-find algorithm
VL - 153
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
AU - Nivasch, Gabriel
ID - 7991
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A regular language L of finite words is composite if there are regular languages L₁,L₂,…,L_t such that L = ⋂_{i = 1}^t L_i and the index (number of states in a minimal DFA) of every language L_i is strictly smaller than the index of L. Otherwise, L is prime. Primality of regular languages was introduced and studied in [O. Kupferman and J. Mosheiff, 2015], where the complexity of deciding the primality of the language of a given DFA was left open, with a doubly-exponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. We study primality for unary regular languages, namely regular languages with a singleton alphabet. A unary language corresponds to a subset of ℕ, making the study of unary prime languages closer to that of primality in number theory. We show that the setting of languages is richer. In particular, while every composite number is the product of two smaller numbers, the number t of languages necessary to decompose a composite unary language induces a strict hierarchy. In addition, a primality witness for a unary language L, namely a word that is not in L but is in all products of languages that contain L and have an index smaller than L’s, may be of exponential length. Still, we are able to characterize compositionality by structural properties of a DFA for L, leading to a LogSpace algorithm for primality checking of unary DFAs.
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Mazzocchi, Nicolas
ID - 8534
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Unary prime languages
VL - 170
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Isomanifolds are the generalization of isosurfaces to arbitrary dimension and codimension, i.e. manifolds defined as the zero set of some multivariate vector-valued smooth function f: ℝ^d → ℝ^(d-n). A natural (and efficient) way to approximate an isomanifold is to consider its Piecewise-Linear (PL) approximation based on a triangulation 𝒯 of the ambient space ℝ^d. In this paper, we give conditions under which the PL-approximation of an isomanifold is topologically equivalent to the isomanifold. The conditions are easy to satisfy in the sense that they can always be met by taking a sufficiently fine triangulation 𝒯. This contrasts with previous results on the triangulation of manifolds where, in arbitrary dimensions, delicate perturbations are needed to guarantee topological correctness, which leads to strong limitations in practice. We further give a bound on the Fréchet distance between the original isomanifold and its PL-approximation. Finally we show analogous results for the PL-approximation of an isomanifold with boundary.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 7952
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - The topological correctness of PL-approximations of isomanifolds
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7989
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Bounding radon number via Betti numbers
VL - 164
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Resting-state brain activity is characterized by the presence of neuronal avalanches showing absence of characteristic size. Such evidence has been interpreted in the context of criticality and associated with the normal functioning of the brain. At criticality, a crucial role is played by long-range power-law correlations. Thus, to verify the hypothesis that the brain operates close to a critical point and consequently assess deviations from criticality for diagnostic purposes, it is of primary importance to robustly and reliably characterize correlations in resting-state brain activity. Recent works focused on the analysis of narrow band electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal amplitude envelope, showing evidence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) in neural oscillations. However, this approach is not suitable for assessing long-range correlations in broadband resting-state cortical signals. To overcome such limitation, here we propose to characterize the correlations in the broadband brain activity through the lens of neuronal avalanches. To this end, we consider resting-state EEG and long-term MEG recordings, extract the corresponding neuronal avalanche sequences, and study their temporal correlations. We demonstrate that the broadband resting-state brain activity consistently exhibits long-range power-law correlations in both EEG and MEG recordings, with similar values of the scaling exponents. Importantly, although we observe that avalanche size distribution depends on scale parameters, scaling exponents characterizing long-range correlations are quite robust. In particular, they are independent of the temporal binning (scale of analysis), indicating that our analysis captures intrinsic characteristics of the underlying dynamics. Because neuronal avalanches constitute a fundamental feature of neural systems with universal characteristics, the proposed approach may serve as a general, systems- and experiment-independent procedure to infer the existence of underlying long-range correlations in extended neural systems, and identify pathological behaviors in the complex spatio-temporal interplay of cortical rhythms.
AU - Lombardi, Fabrizio
AU - Shriki, Oren
AU - Herrmann, Hans J
AU - de Arcangelis, Lucilla
ID - 7463
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Long-range temporal correlations in the broadband resting state activity of the human brain revealed by neuronal avalanches
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Plasmodesmata (PD) are crucial structures for intercellular communication in multicellular plants with remorins being their crucial plant-specific structural and functional constituents. The PD biogenesis is an intriguing but poorly understood process. By expressing an Arabidopsis remorin protein in mammalian cells, we have reconstituted a PD-like filamentous structure, termed remorin filament (RF), connecting neighboring cells physically and physiologically. Notably, RFs are capable of transporting macromolecules intercellularly, in a way similar to plant PD. With further super-resolution microscopic analysis and biochemical characterization, we found that RFs are also composed of actin filaments, forming the core skeleton structure, aligned with the remorin protein. This unique heterologous filamentous structure might explain the molecular mechanism for remorin function as well as PD construction. Furthermore, remorin protein exhibits a specific distribution manner in the plasma membrane in mammalian cells, representing a lipid nanodomain, depending on its lipid modification status. Our studies not only provide crucial insights into the mechanism of PD biogenesis, but also uncovers unsuspected fundamental mechanistic and evolutionary links between intercellular communication systems of plants and animals.
AU - Wei, Zhuang
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Liu, Tao
AU - Wu, Yuan
AU - Lei, Ji-Gang
AU - Chen, ZhengJun
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Xue, Hong-Wei
AU - Liao, Kan
ID - 7601
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Plasmodesmata-like intercellular connections by plant remorin in animal cells
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Normative theories and statistical inference provide complementary approaches for the study of biological systems. A normative theory postulates that organisms have adapted to efficiently solve essential tasks, and proceeds to mathematically work out testable consequences of such optimality; parameters that maximize the hypothesized organismal function can be derived ab initio, without reference to experimental data. In contrast, statistical inference focuses on efficient utilization of data to learn model parameters, without reference to any a priori notion of biological function, utility, or fitness. Traditionally, these two approaches were developed independently and applied separately. Here we unify them in a coherent Bayesian framework that embeds a normative theory into a family of maximum-entropy “optimization priors.” This family defines a smooth interpolation between a data-rich inference regime (characteristic of “bottom-up” statistical models), and a data-limited ab inito prediction regime (characteristic of “top-down” normative theory). We demonstrate the applicability of our framework using data from the visual cortex, and argue that the flexibility it affords is essential to address a number of fundamental challenges relating to inference and prediction in complex, high-dimensional biological problems.
AU - Mlynarski, Wiktor F
AU - Hledik, Michal
AU - Sokolowski, Thomas R
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
ID - 7553
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Statistical analysis and optimality of biological systems
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Synthesis of proteins – translation – is a fundamental process of life. Quantitative studies anchor translation into the context of bacterial physiology and reveal several mathematical relationships, called “growth laws,” which capture physiological feedbacks between protein synthesis and cell growth. Growth laws describe the dependency of the ribosome abundance as a function of growth rate, which can change depending on the growth conditions. Perturbations of translation reveal that bacteria employ a compensatory strategy in which the reduced translation capability results in increased expression of the translation machinery.
Perturbations of translation are achieved in various ways; clinically interesting is the application of translation-targeting antibiotics – translation inhibitors. The antibiotic effects on bacterial physiology are often poorly understood. Bacterial responses to two or more simultaneously applied antibiotics are even more puzzling. The combined antibiotic effect determines the type of drug interaction, which ranges from synergy (the effect is stronger than expected) to antagonism (the effect is weaker) and suppression (one of the drugs loses its potency).
In the first part of this work, we systematically measure the pairwise interaction network for translation inhibitors that interfere with different steps in translation. We find that the interactions are surprisingly diverse and tend to be more antagonistic. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we begin with a minimal biophysical model of combined antibiotic action. We base this model on the kinetics of antibiotic uptake and binding together with the physiological response described by the growth laws. The biophysical model explains some drug interactions, but not all; it specifically fails to predict suppression.
In the second part of this work, we hypothesize that elusive suppressive drug interactions result from the interplay between ribosomes halted in different stages of translation. To elucidate this putative mechanism of drug interactions between translation inhibitors, we generate translation bottlenecks genetically using in- ducible control of translation factors that regulate well-defined translation cycle steps. These perturbations accurately mimic antibiotic action and drug interactions, supporting that the interplay of different translation bottlenecks partially causes these interactions.
We extend this approach by varying two translation bottlenecks simultaneously. This approach reveals the suppression of translocation inhibition by inhibited translation. We rationalize this effect by modeling dense traffic of ribosomes that move on transcripts in a translation factor-mediated manner. This model predicts a dissolution of traffic jams caused by inhibited translocation when the density of ribosome traffic is reduced by lowered initiation. We base this model on the growth laws and quantitative relationships between different translation and growth parameters.
In the final part of this work, we describe a set of tools aimed at quantification of physiological and translation parameters. We further develop a simple model that directly connects the abundance of a translation factor with the growth rate, which allows us to extract physiological parameters describing initiation. We demonstrate the development of tools for measuring translation rate.
This thesis showcases how a combination of high-throughput growth rate mea- surements, genetics, and modeling can reveal mechanisms of drug interactions. Furthermore, by a gradual transition from combinations of antibiotics to precise genetic interventions, we demonstrated the equivalency between genetic and chemi- cal perturbations of translation. These findings tile the path for quantitative studies of antibiotic combinations and illustrate future approaches towards the quantitative description of translation.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
ID - 8657
SN - 978-3-99078-011-4
TI - Perturbations of protein synthesis: from antibiotics to genetics and physiology
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The infiltration of immune cells into tissues underlies the establishment of tissue resident macrophages, and responses to infections and tumors. Yet the mechanisms immune cells utilize to negotiate tissue barriers in living organisms are not well understood, and a role for cortical actin has not been examined. Here we find that the tissue invasion of Drosophila macrophages, also known as plasmatocytes or hemocytes, utilizes enhanced cortical F-actin levels stimulated by the Drosophila member of the fos proto oncogene transcription factor family (Dfos, Kayak). RNA sequencing analysis and live imaging show that Dfos enhances F-actin levels around the entire macrophage surface by increasing mRNA levels of the membrane spanning molecular scaffold tetraspanin TM4SF, and the actin cross-linking filamin Cheerio which are themselves required for invasion. Cortical F-actin levels are critical as expressing a dominant active form of Diaphanous, a actin polymerizing Formin, can rescue the Dfos Dominant Negative macrophage invasion defect. In vivo imaging shows that Dfos is required to enhance the efficiency of the initial phases of macrophage tissue entry. Genetic evidence argues that this Dfos-induced program in macrophages counteracts the constraint produced by the tension of surrounding tissues and buffers the mechanical properties of the macrophage nucleus from affecting tissue entry. We thus identify tuning the cortical actin cytoskeleton through Dfos as a key process allowing efficient forward movement of an immune cell into surrounding tissues.
AU - Belyaeva, Vera
AU - Wachner, Stephanie
AU - Gridchyn, Igor
AU - Linder, Markus
AU - Emtenani, Shamsi
AU - György, Attila
AU - Sibilia, Maria
AU - Siekhaus, Daria E
ID - 8557
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Cortical actin properties controlled by Drosophila Fos aid macrophage infiltration against surrounding tissue resistance
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Combining drugs can improve the efficacy of treatments. However, predicting the effect of drug combinations is still challenging. The combined potency of drugs determines the drug interaction, which is classified as synergistic, additive, antagonistic, or suppressive. While probabilistic, non-mechanistic models exist, there is currently no biophysical model that can predict antibiotic interactions. Here, we present a physiologically relevant model of the combined action of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by targeting the ribosome. This model captures the kinetics of antibiotic binding and transport, and uses bacterial growth laws to predict growth in the presence of antibiotic combinations. We find that this biophysical model can produce all drug interaction types except suppression. We show analytically that antibiotics which cannot bind to the ribosome simultaneously generally act as substitutes for one another, leading to additive drug interactions. Previously proposed null expectations for higher-order drug interactions follow as a limiting case of our model. We further extend the model to include the effects of direct physical or allosteric interactions between individual drugs on the ribosome. Notably, such direct interactions profoundly change the combined drug effect, depending on the kinetic parameters of the drugs used. The model makes additional predictions for the effects of resistance genes on drug interactions and for interactions between ribosome-targeting antibiotics and antibiotics with other targets. These findings enhance our understanding of the interplay between drug action and cell physiology and are a key step toward a general framework for predicting drug interactions.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
AU - Bollenbach, Tobias
ID - 7673
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - A minimal biophysical model of combined antibiotic action
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - In prokaryotes, thermodynamic models of gene regulation provide a highly quantitative mapping from promoter sequences to gene expression levels that is compatible with in vivo and in vitro bio-physical measurements. Such concordance has not been achieved for models of enhancer function in eukaryotes. In equilibrium models, it is difficult to reconcile the reported short transcription factor (TF) residence times on the DNA with the high specificity of regulation. In non-equilibrium models, progress is difficult due to an explosion in the number of parameters. Here, we navigate this complexity by looking for minimal non-equilibrium enhancer models that yield desired regulatory phenotypes: low TF residence time, high specificity and tunable cooperativity. We find that a single extra parameter, interpretable as the “linking rate” by which bound TFs interact with Mediator components, enables our models to escape equilibrium bounds and access optimal regulatory phenotypes, while remaining consistent with the reported phenomenology and simple enough to be inferred from upcoming experiments. We further find that high specificity in non-equilibrium models is in a tradeoff with gene expression noise, predicting bursty dynamics — an experimentally-observed hallmark of eukaryotic transcription. By drastically reducing the vast parameter space to a much smaller subspace that optimally realizes biological function prior to inference from data, our normative approach holds promise for mathematical models in systems biology.
AU - Grah, Rok
AU - Zoller, Benjamin
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
ID - 7675
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Normative models of enhancer function
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Resources are rarely distributed uniformly within a population. Heterogeneity in the concentration of a drug, the quality of breeding sites, or wealth can all affect evolutionary dynamics. In this study, we represent a collection of properties affecting the fitness at a given location using a color. A green node is rich in resources while a red node is poorer. More colors can represent a broader spectrum of resource qualities. For a population evolving according to the birth-death Moran model, the first question we address is which structures, identified by graph connectivity and graph coloring, are evolutionarily equivalent. We prove that all properly two-colored, undirected, regular graphs are evolutionarily equivalent (where “properly colored” means that no two neighbors have the same color). We then compare the effects of background heterogeneity on properly two-colored graphs to those with alternative schemes in which the colors are permuted. Finally, we discuss dynamic coloring as a model for spatiotemporal resource fluctuations, and we illustrate that random dynamic colorings often diminish the effects of background heterogeneity relative to a proper two-coloring.
AU - Kaveh, Kamran
AU - McAvoy, Alex
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin A.
ID - 8767
IS - 11
JF - PLOS Computational Biology
KW - Ecology
KW - Modelling and Simulation
KW - Computational Theory and Mathematics
KW - Genetics
KW - Ecology
KW - Evolution
KW - Behavior and Systematics
KW - Molecular Biology
KW - Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
SN - 1553-734X
TI - The Moran process on 2-chromatic graphs
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Aqueous iodine based electrochemical energy storage is considered a potential candidate to improve sustainability and performance of current battery and supercapacitor technology. It harnesses the redox activity of iodide, iodine, and polyiodide species in the confined geometry of nanoporous carbon electrodes. However, current descriptions of the electrochemical reaction mechanism to interconvert these species are elusive. Here we show that electrochemical oxidation of iodide in nanoporous carbons forms persistent solid iodine deposits. Confinement slows down dissolution into triiodide and pentaiodide, responsible for otherwise significant self-discharge via shuttling. The main tools for these insights are in situ Raman spectroscopy and in situ small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (in situ SAXS/WAXS). In situ Raman confirms the reversible formation of triiodide and pentaiodide. In situ SAXS/WAXS indicates remarkable amounts of solid iodine deposited in the carbon nanopores. Combined with stochastic modeling, in situ SAXS allows quantifying the solid iodine volume fraction and visualizing the iodine structure on 3D lattice models at the sub-nanometer scale. Based on the derived mechanism, we demonstrate strategies for improved iodine pore filling capacity and prevention of self-discharge, applicable to hybrid supercapacitors and batteries.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Fitzek, Harald
AU - Kothleitner, Gerald
AU - Presser, Volker
AU - Gollas, Bernhard
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Abbas, Qamar
ID - 8568
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Persistent and reversible solid iodine electrodeposition in nanoporous carbons
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - One of the hallmarks of quantum statistics, tightly entwined with the concept of topological phases of matter, is the prediction of anyons. Although anyons are predicted to be realized in certain fractional quantum Hall systems, they have not yet been unambiguously detected in experiment. Here we introduce a simple quantum impurity model, where bosonic or fermionic impurities turn into anyons as a consequence of their interaction with the surrounding many-particle bath. A cloud of phonons dresses each impurity in such a way that it effectively attaches fluxes or vortices to it and thereby converts it into an Abelian anyon. The corresponding quantum impurity model, first, provides a different approach to the numerical solution of the many-anyon problem, along with a concrete perspective of anyons as emergent quasiparticles built from composite bosons or fermions. More importantly, the model paves the way toward realizing anyons using impurities in crystal lattices as well as ultracold gases. In particular, we consider two heavy electrons interacting with a two-dimensional lattice crystal in a magnetic field, and show that when the impurity-bath system is rotated at the cyclotron frequency, impurities behave as anyons as a consequence of the angular momentum exchange between the impurities and the bath. A possible experimental realization is proposed by identifying the statistics parameter in terms of the mean-square distance of the impurities and the magnetization of the impurity-bath system, both of which are accessible to experiment. Another proposed application is impurities immersed in a two-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gas.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Lundholm, D.
AU - Rougerie, N.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 8769
IS - 14
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Quantum impurity model for anyons
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For complex Wigner-type matrices, i.e. Hermitian random matrices with independent, not necessarily identically distributed entries above the diagonal, we show that at any cusp singularity of the limiting eigenvalue distribution the local eigenvalue statistics are universal and form a Pearcey process. Since the density of states typically exhibits only square root or cubic root cusp singularities, our work complements previous results on the bulk and edge universality and it thus completes the resolution of the Wigner–Dyson–Mehta universality conjecture for the last remaining universality type in the complex Hermitian class. Our analysis holds not only for exact cusps, but approximate cusps as well, where an extended Pearcey process emerges. As a main technical ingredient we prove an optimal local law at the cusp for both symmetry classes. This result is also the key input in the companion paper (Cipolloni et al. in Pure Appl Anal, 2018. arXiv:1811.04055) where the cusp universality for real symmetric Wigner-type matrices is proven. The novel cusp fluctuation mechanism is also essential for the recent results on the spectral radius of non-Hermitian random matrices (Alt et al. in Spectral radius of random matrices with independent entries, 2019. arXiv:1907.13631), and the non-Hermitian edge universality (Cipolloni et al. in Edge universality for non-Hermitian random matrices, 2019. arXiv:1908.00969).
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Schröder, Dominik J
ID - 6185
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cusp universality for random matrices I: Local law and the complex Hermitian case
VL - 378
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The superconducting circuit community has recently discovered the promising potential of superinductors. These circuit elements have a characteristic impedance exceeding the resistance quantum RQ ≈ 6.45 kΩ which leads to a suppression of ground state charge fluctuations. Applications include the realization of hardware protected qubits for fault tolerant quantum computing, improved coupling to small dipole moment objects and defining a new quantum metrology standard for the ampere. In this work we refute the widespread notion that superinductors can only be implemented based on kinetic inductance, i.e. using disordered superconductors or Josephson junction arrays. We present modeling, fabrication and characterization of 104 planar aluminum coil resonators with a characteristic impedance up to 30.9 kΩ at 5.6 GHz and a capacitance down to ≤ 1 fF, with lowloss and a power handling reaching 108 intra-cavity photons. Geometric superinductors are free of uncontrolled tunneling events and offer high reproducibility, linearity and the ability to couple magnetically - properties that significantly broaden the scope of future quantum circuits.
AU - Peruzzo, Matilda
AU - Trioni, Andrea
AU - Hassani, Farid
AU - Zemlicka, Martin
AU - Fink, Johannes M
ID - 8755
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review Applied
TI - Surpassing the resistance quantum with a geometric superinductor
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider various modeling levels for spatially homogeneous chemical reaction systems, namely the chemical master equation, the chemical Langevin dynamics, and the reaction-rate equation. Throughout we restrict our study to the case where the microscopic system satisfies the detailed-balance condition. The latter allows us to enrich the systems with a gradient structure, i.e. the evolution is given by a gradient-flow equation. We present the arising links between the associated gradient structures that are driven by the relative entropy of the detailed-balance steady state. The limit of large volumes is studied in the sense of evolutionary Γ-convergence of gradient flows. Moreover, we use the gradient structures to derive hybrid models for coupling different modeling levels.
AU - Maas, Jan
AU - Mielke, Alexander
ID - 8758
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Modeling of chemical reaction systems with detailed balance using gradient structures
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An asymptotic formula is established for the number of rational points of bounded anticanonical height which lie on a certain Zariski dense subset of the biprojective hypersurface x1y21+⋯+x4y24=0 in ℙ3×ℙ3. This confirms the modified Manin conjecture for this variety, in which the removal of a thin set of rational points is allowed.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Heath Brown, Roger
ID - 179
IS - 16
JF - Duke Mathematical Journal
TI - Density of rational points on a quadric bundle in ℙ3×ℙ3
VL - 169
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We develop a geometric version of the circle method and use it to compute the compactly supported cohomology of the space of rational curves through a point on a smooth affine hypersurface of sufficiently low degree.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Sawin, Will
ID - 177
IS - 3
JF - Annals of Mathematics
TI - A geometric version of the circle method
VL - 191
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Traditional scientific conferences and seminar events have been hugely disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, paving the way for virtual forms of scientific communication to take hold and be put to the test.
AU - Bozelos, Panagiotis
AU - Vogels, Tim P
ID - 8757
JF - Nature Reviews Neuroscience
SN - 1471003X
TI - Talking science, online
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a unified framework tackling two problems: class-specific 3D reconstruction from a single image, and generation of new 3D shape samples. These tasks have received considerable attention recently; however, most existing approaches rely on 3D supervision, annotation of 2D images with keypoints or poses, and/or training with multiple views of each object instance. Our framework is very general: it can be trained in similar settings to existing approaches, while also supporting weaker supervision. Importantly, it can be trained purely from 2D images, without pose annotations, and with only a single view per instance. We employ meshes as an output representation, instead of voxels used in most prior work. This allows us to reason over lighting parameters and exploit shading information during training, which previous 2D-supervised methods cannot. Thus, our method can learn to generate and reconstruct concave object classes. We evaluate our approach in various settings, showing that: (i) it learns to disentangle shape from pose and lighting; (ii) using shading in the loss improves performance compared to just silhouettes; (iii) when using a standard single white light, our model outperforms state-of-the-art 2D-supervised methods, both with and without pose supervision, thanks to exploiting shading cues; (iv) performance improves further when using multiple coloured lights, even approaching that of state-of-the-art 3D-supervised methods; (v) shapes produced by our model capture smooth surfaces and fine details better than voxel-based approaches; and (vi) our approach supports concave classes such as bathtubs and sofas, which methods based on silhouettes cannot learn.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Ferrari, Vittorio
ID - 6952
JF - International Journal of Computer Vision
SN - 0920-5691
TI - Learning single-image 3D reconstruction by generative modelling of shape, pose and shading
VL - 128
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 6997
IS - 3
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028-646x
TI - Auxin guides roots to avoid obstacles during gravitropic growth
VL - 225
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the classic problem of Network Reliability. A network is given together with a source vertex, one or more target vertices, and probabilities assigned to each of the edges. Each edge of the network is operable with its associated probability and the problem is to determine the probability of having at least one source-to-target path that is entirely composed of operable edges. This problem is known to be NP-hard.
We provide a novel scalable algorithm to solve the Network Reliability problem when the treewidth of the underlying network is small. We also show our algorithm’s applicability for real-world transit networks that have small treewidth, including the metro networks of major cities, such as London and Tokyo. Our algorithm leverages tree decompositions to shrink the original graph into much smaller graphs, for which reliability can be efficiently and exactly computed using a brute force method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first exact algorithm for Network Reliability that can scale to handle real-world instances of the problem.
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
AU - Mohammadi, Fatemeh
ID - 6918
JF - Reliability Engineering and System Safety
SN - 09518320
TI - An efficient algorithm for computing network reliability in small treewidth
VL - 193
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We define an action of the (double of) Cohomological Hall algebra of Kontsevich and Soibelman on the cohomology of the moduli space of spiked instantons of Nekrasov. We identify this action with the one of the affine Yangian of gl(1). Based on that we derive the vertex algebra at the corner Wr1,r2,r3 of Gaiotto and Rapčák. We conjecture that our approach works for a big class of Calabi–Yau categories, including those associated with toric Calabi–Yau 3-folds.
AU - Rapcak, Miroslav
AU - Soibelman, Yan
AU - Yang, Yaping
AU - Zhao, Gufang
ID - 7004
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cohomological Hall algebras, vertex algebras and instantons
VL - 376
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - We study the Gromov waist in the sense of t-neighborhoods for measures in the Euclidean space, motivated by the famous theorem of Gromov about the waist of radially symmetric Gaussian measures. In particular, it turns our possible to extend Gromov’s original result to the case of not necessarily radially symmetric Gaussian measure. We also provide examples of measures having no t-neighborhood waist property, including a rather wide class
of compactly supported radially symmetric measures and their maps into the Euclidean space of dimension at least 2.
We use a simpler form of Gromov’s pancake argument to produce some estimates of t-neighborhoods of (weighted) volume-critical submanifolds in the spirit of the waist theorems, including neighborhoods of algebraic manifolds in the complex projective space. In the appendix of this paper we provide for reader’s convenience a more detailed explanation of the Caffarelli theorem that we use to handle not necessarily radially symmetric Gaussian
measures.
AU - Akopyan, Arseniy
AU - Karasev, Roman
ED - Klartag, Bo'az
ED - Milman, Emanuel
ID - 74
SN - 00758434
T2 - Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis
TI - Gromov's waist of non-radial Gaussian measures and radial non-Gaussian measures
VL - 2256
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neuronal responses to complex stimuli and tasks can encompass a wide range of time scales. Understanding these responses requires measures that characterize how the information on these response patterns are represented across multiple temporal resolutions. In this paper we propose a metric – which we call multiscale relevance (MSR) – to capture the dynamical variability of the activity of single neurons across different time scales. The MSR is a non-parametric, fully featureless indicator in that it uses only the time stamps of the firing activity without resorting to any a priori covariate or invoking any specific structure in the tuning curve for neural activity. When applied to neural data from the mEC and from the ADn and PoS regions of freely-behaving rodents, we found that neurons having low MSR tend to have low mutual information and low firing sparsity across the correlates that are believed to be encoded by the region of the brain where the recordings were made. In addition, neurons with high MSR contain significant information on spatial navigation and allow to decode spatial position or head direction as efficiently as those neurons whose firing activity has high mutual information with the covariate to be decoded and significantly better than the set of neurons with high local variations in their interspike intervals. Given these results, we propose that the MSR can be used as a measure to rank and select neurons for their information content without the need to appeal to any a priori covariate.
AU - Cubero, Ryan J
AU - Marsili, Matteo
AU - Roudi, Yasser
ID - 7369
JF - Journal of Computational Neuroscience
KW - Time series analysis
KW - Multiple time scale analysis
KW - Spike train data
KW - Information theory
KW - Bayesian decoding
SN - 0929-5313
TI - Multiscale relevance and informative encoding in neuronal spike trains
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - T lymphocytes utilize amoeboid migration to navigate effectively within complex microenvironments. The precise rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton required for cellular forward propulsion is mediated by actin regulators, including the actin‐related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, a macromolecular machine that nucleates branched actin filaments at the leading edge. The consequences of modulating Arp2/3 activity on the biophysical properties of the actomyosin cortex and downstream T cell function are incompletely understood. We report that even a moderate decrease of Arp3 levels in T cells profoundly affects actin cortex integrity. Reduction in total F‐actin content leads to reduced cortical tension and disrupted lamellipodia formation. Instead, in Arp3‐knockdown cells, the motility mode is dominated by blebbing migration characterized by transient, balloon‐like protrusions at the leading edge. Although this migration mode seems to be compatible with interstitial migration in three‐dimensional environments, diminished locomotion kinetics and impaired cytotoxicity interfere with optimal T cell function. These findings define the importance of finely tuned, Arp2/3‐dependent mechanophysical membrane integrity in cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte activities.
AU - Obeidy, Peyman
AU - Ju, Lining A.
AU - Oehlers, Stefan H.
AU - Zulkhernain, Nursafwana S.
AU - Lee, Quintin
AU - Galeano Niño, Jorge L.
AU - Kwan, Rain Y.Q.
AU - Tikoo, Shweta
AU - Cavanagh, Lois L.
AU - Mrass, Paulus
AU - Cook, Adam J.L.
AU - Jackson, Shaun P.
AU - Biro, Maté
AU - Roediger, Ben
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Weninger, Wolfgang
ID - 7234
IS - 2
JF - Immunology and Cell Biology
SN - 08189641
TI - Partial loss of actin nucleator actin-related protein 2/3 activity triggers blebbing in primary T lymphocytes
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Coinfections with multiple pathogens can result in complex within‐host dynamics affecting virulence and transmission. While multiple infections are intensively studied in solitary hosts, it is so far unresolved how social host interactions interfere with pathogen competition, and if this depends on coinfection diversity. We studied how the collective disease defences of ants – their social immunity – influence pathogen competition in coinfections of same or different fungal pathogen species. Social immunity reduced virulence for all pathogen combinations, but interfered with spore production only in different‐species coinfections. Here, it decreased overall pathogen sporulation success while increasing co‐sporulation on individual cadavers and maintaining a higher pathogen diversity at the community level. Mathematical modelling revealed that host sanitary care alone can modulate competitive outcomes between pathogens, giving advantage to fast‐germinating, thus less grooming‐sensitive ones. Host social interactions can hence modulate infection dynamics in coinfected group members, thereby altering pathogen communities at the host level and population level.
AU - Milutinovic, Barbara
AU - Stock, Miriam
AU - Grasse, Anna V
AU - Naderlinger, Elisabeth
AU - Hilbe, Christian
AU - Cremer, Sylvia
ID - 7343
IS - 3
JF - Ecology Letters
SN - 1461-023X
TI - Social immunity modulates competition between coinfecting pathogens
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the Fröhlich model of a polaron, and show that its effective mass diverges in thestrong coupling limit.
AU - Lieb, Elliott H.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 7235
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 0022-4715
TI - Divergence of the effective mass of a polaron in the strong coupling limit
VL - 180
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. We give a classification of contravariant forms on the nondegenerate Whittaker g-modules Y(χ,η) introduced by Kostant. We prove that the set of all contravariant forms on Y(χ,η) forms a vector space whose dimension is given by the cardinality of the Weyl group of g. We also describe a procedure for parabolically inducing contravariant forms. As a corollary, we deduce the existence of the Shapovalov form on a Verma module, and provide a formula for the dimension of the space of contravariant forms on the degenerate Whittaker modules M(χ,η) introduced by McDowell.
AU - Brown, Adam
AU - Romanov, Anna
ID - 8773
JF - Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0002-9939
TI - Contravariant forms on Whittaker modules
VL - 149
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We give a Wong-Zakai type characterisation of the solutions of quasilinear heat equations driven by space-time white noise in 1 + 1 dimensions. In order to show that the renormalisation counterterms are local in the solution, a careful arrangement of a few hundred terms is required. The main tool in this computation is a general ‘integration by parts’ formula that provides a number of linear identities for the renormalisation constants.
AU - Gerencser, Mate
ID - 7388
IS - 3
JF - Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
SN - 0294-1449
TI - Nondivergence form quasilinear heat equations driven by space-time white noise
VL - 37
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - How structural and functional properties of synapses relate to each other is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Electrophysiology has elucidated mechanisms of synaptic transmission, and electron microscopy (EM) has provided insight into morphological properties of synapses. Here we describe an enhanced method for functional EM (“flash and freeze”), combining optogenetic stimulation with high-pressure freezing. We demonstrate that the improved method can be applied to intact networks in acute brain slices and organotypic slice cultures from mice. As a proof of concept, we probed vesicle pool changes during synaptic transmission at the hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapse. Our findings show overlap of the docked vesicle pool and the functionally defined readily releasable pool and provide evidence of fast endocytosis at this synapse. Functional EM with acute slices and slice cultures has the potential to reveal the structural and functional mechanisms of transmission in intact, genetically perturbed, and disease-affected synapses.
AU - Borges Merjane, Carolina
AU - Kim, Olena
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 7473
JF - Neuron
SN - 0896-6273
TI - Functional electron microscopy (“Flash and Freeze”) of identified cortical synapses in acute brain slices
VL - 105
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the present work, we consider the evolution of two fluids separated by a sharp interface in the presence of surface tension—like, for example, the evolution of oil bubbles in water. Our main result is a weak–strong uniqueness principle for the corresponding free boundary problem for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation: as long as a strong solution exists, any varifold solution must coincide with it. In particular, in the absence of physical singularities, the concept of varifold solutions—whose global in time existence has been shown by Abels (Interfaces Free Bound 9(1):31–65, 2007) for general initial data—does not introduce a mechanism for non-uniqueness. The key ingredient of our approach is the construction of a relative entropy functional capable of controlling the interface error. If the viscosities of the two fluids do not coincide, even for classical (strong) solutions the gradient of the velocity field becomes discontinuous at the interface, introducing the need for a careful additional adaption of the relative entropy.
AU - Fischer, Julian L
AU - Hensel, Sebastian
ID - 7489
JF - Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
SN - 00039527
TI - Weak–strong uniqueness for the Navier–Stokes equation for two fluids with surface tension
VL - 236
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nanomaterials produced from the bottom-up assembly of nanocrystals may incorporate ∼1020–1021 cm–3 not fully coordinated surface atoms, i.e., ∼1020–1021 cm–3 potential donor or acceptor states that can strongly affect transport properties. Therefore, to exploit the full potential of nanocrystal building blocks to produce functional nanomaterials and thin films, a proper control of their surface chemistry is required. Here, we analyze how the ligand stripping procedure influences the charge and heat transport properties of sintered PbSe nanomaterials produced from the bottom-up assembly of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals. First, we show that the removal of the native organic ligands by thermal decomposition in an inert atmosphere leaves relatively large amounts of carbon at the crystal interfaces. This carbon blocks crystal growth during consolidation and at the same time hampers charge and heat transport through the final nanomaterial. Second, we demonstrate that, by stripping ligands from the nanocrystal surface before consolidation, nanomaterials with larger crystal domains, lower porosity, and higher charge carrier concentrations are obtained, thus resulting in nanomaterials with higher electrical and thermal conductivities. In addition, the ligand displacement leaves the nanocrystal surface unprotected, facilitating oxidation and chalcogen evaporation. The influence of the ligand displacement on the nanomaterial charge transport properties is rationalized here using a two-band model based on the standard Boltzmann transport equation with the relaxation time approximation. Finally, we present an application of the produced functional nanomaterials by modeling, fabricating, and testing a simple PbSe-based thermoelectric device with a ring geometry.
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ortega, Silvia
AU - Illera, Sergio
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - López, Antonio M.
AU - Noriega, Germán
AU - Durá, Oscar Juan
AU - López De La Torre, M. A.
AU - Prades, Joan Daniel
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 7467
IS - 3
JF - ACS Applied Energy Materials
TI - Influence of the ligand stripping on the transport properties of nanoparticle-based PbSe nanomaterials
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider general self-adjoint polynomials in several independent random matrices whose entries are centered and have the same variance. We show that under certain conditions the local law holds up to the optimal scale, i.e., the eigenvalue density on scales just above the eigenvalue spacing follows the global density of states which is determined by free probability theory. We prove that these conditions hold for general homogeneous polynomials of degree two and for symmetrized products of independent matrices with i.i.d. entries, thus establishing the optimal bulk local law for these classes of ensembles. In particular, we generalize a similar result of Anderson for anticommutator. For more general polynomials our conditions are effectively checkable numerically.
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Nemish, Yuriy
ID - 7512
IS - 12
JF - Journal of Functional Analysis
SN - 00221236
TI - Local laws for polynomials of Wigner matrices
VL - 278
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Semiconductor nanowires have been playing a crucial role in the development of nanoscale devices for the realization of spin qubits, Majorana fermions, single photon emitters, nanoprocessors, etc. The monolithic growth of site‐controlled nanowires is a prerequisite toward the next generation of devices that will require addressability and scalability. Here, combining top‐down nanofabrication and bottom‐up self‐assembly, the growth of Ge wires on prepatterned Si (001) substrates with controllable position, distance, length, and structure is reported. This is achieved by a novel growth process that uses a SiGe strain‐relaxation template and can be potentially generalized to other material combinations. Transport measurements show an electrically tunable spin–orbit coupling, with a spin–orbit length similar to that of III–V materials. Also, charge sensing between quantum dots in closely spaced wires is observed, which underlines their potential for the realization of advanced quantum devices. The reported results open a path toward scalable qubit devices using nanowires on silicon.
AU - Gao, Fei
AU - Wang, Jian-Huan
AU - Watzinger, Hannes
AU - Hu, Hao
AU - Rančić, Marko J.
AU - Zhang, Jie-Yin
AU - Wang, Ting
AU - Yao, Yuan
AU - Wang, Gui-Lei
AU - Kukucka, Josip
AU - Vukušić, Lada
AU - Kloeffel, Christoph
AU - Loss, Daniel
AU - Liu, Feng
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
AU - Zhang, Jian-Jun
ID - 7541
IS - 16
JF - Advanced Materials
SN - 0935-9648
TI - Site-controlled uniform Ge/Si hut wires with electrically tunable spin-orbit coupling
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant survival depends on vascular tissues, which originate in a self‐organizing manner as strands of cells co‐directionally transporting the plant hormone auxin. The latter phenomenon (also known as auxin canalization) is classically hypothesized to be regulated by auxin itself via the effect of this hormone on the polarity of its own intercellular transport. Correlative observations supported this concept, but molecular insights remain limited.
In the current study, we established an experimental system based on the model Arabidopsis thaliana, which exhibits auxin transport channels and formation of vasculature strands in response to local auxin application.
Our methodology permits the genetic analysis of auxin canalization under controllable experimental conditions. By utilizing this opportunity, we confirmed the dependence of auxin canalization on a PIN‐dependent auxin transport and nuclear, TIR1/AFB‐mediated auxin signaling. We also show that leaf venation and auxin‐mediated PIN repolarization in the root require TIR1/AFB signaling.
Further studies based on this experimental system are likely to yield better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auxin transport polarization in other developmental contexts.
AU - Mazur, E
AU - Kulik, Ivan
AU - Hajny, Jakub
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7500
IS - 5
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028-646x
TI - Auxin canalization and vascular tissue formation by TIR1/AFB-mediated auxin signaling in arabidopsis
VL - 226
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.
AU - Kukucka, Josip
ID - 7996
TI - Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we introduce a novel method for deriving higher order corrections to the mean-field description of the dynamics of interacting bosons. More precisely, we consider the dynamics of N d-dimensional bosons for large N. The bosons initially form a Bose–Einstein condensate and interact with each other via a pair potential of the form (N−1)−1Ndβv(Nβ·)forβ∈[0,14d). We derive a sequence of N-body functions which approximate the true many-body dynamics in L2(RdN)-norm to arbitrary precision in powers of N−1. The approximating functions are constructed as Duhamel expansions of finite order in terms of the first quantised analogue of a Bogoliubov time evolution.
AU - Bossmann, Lea
AU - Pavlović, Nataša
AU - Pickl, Peter
AU - Soffer, Avy
ID - 7508
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 0022-4715
TI - Higher order corrections to the mean-field description of the dynamics of interacting bosons
VL - 178
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Coxeter triangulations are triangulations of Euclidean space based on a single simplex. By this we mean that given an individual simplex we can recover the entire triangulation of Euclidean space by inductively reflecting in the faces of the simplex. In this paper we establish that the quality of the simplices in all Coxeter triangulations is O(1/d−−√) of the quality of regular simplex. We further investigate the Delaunay property for these triangulations. Moreover, we consider an extension of the Delaunay property, namely protection, which is a measure of non-degeneracy of a Delaunay triangulation. In particular, one family of Coxeter triangulations achieves the protection O(1/d2). We conjecture that both bounds are optimal for triangulations in Euclidean space.
AU - Choudhary, Aruni
AU - Kachanovich, Siargey
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 7567
JF - Mathematics in Computer Science
SN - 1661-8270
TI - Coxeter triangulations have good quality
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Endophytic fungi can be beneficial to plant growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying colonization of Acremonium spp. remain unclear. In this study, a novel endophytic Acremonium strain was isolated from the buds of Panax notoginseng and named Acremonium sp. D212. The Acremonium sp. D212 could colonize the roots of P. notoginseng, enhance the resistance of P. notoginseng to root rot disease, and promote root growth and saponin biosynthesis in P. notoginseng. Acremonium sp. D212 could secrete indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and inoculation with the fungus increased the endogenous levels of IAA and JA in P. notoginseng. Colonization of the Acremonium sp. D212 in the roots of the rice line Nipponbare was dependent on the concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (2 to 15 μM) and 1‐naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) (10 to 20 μM). Moreover, the roots of the JA signalling‐defective coi1‐18 mutant were colonized by Acremonium sp. D212 to a lesser degree than those of the wild‐type Nipponbare and miR393b‐overexpressing lines, and the colonization was rescued by MeJA but not by NAA. It suggests that the cross‐talk between JA signalling and the auxin biosynthetic pathway plays a crucial role in the colonization of Acremonium sp. D212 in host plants.
AU - Han, L
AU - Zhou, X
AU - Zhao, Y
AU - Zhu, S
AU - Wu, L
AU - He, Y
AU - Ping, X
AU - Lu, X
AU - Huang, W
AU - Qian, J
AU - Zhang, L
AU - Jiang, X
AU - Zhu, D
AU - Luo, C
AU - Li, S
AU - Dong, Q
AU - Fu, Q
AU - Deng, K
AU - Wang, X
AU - Wang, L
AU - Peng, S
AU - Wu, J
AU - Li, W
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Zhu, Y
AU - He, X
AU - Du, Y
ID - 7497
IS - 9
JF - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
SN - 1672-9072
TI - Colonization of endophyte Acremonium sp. D212 in Panax notoginseng and rice mediated by auxin and jasmonic acid
VL - 62
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper deals with dynamical optimal transport metrics defined by spatial discretisation of the Benamou–Benamou formula for the Kantorovich metric . Such metrics appear naturally in discretisations of -gradient flow formulations for dissipative PDE. However, it has recently been shown that these metrics do not in general converge to , unless strong geometric constraints are imposed on the discrete mesh. In this paper we prove that, in a 1-dimensional periodic setting, discrete transport metrics converge to a limiting transport metric with a non-trivial effective mobility. This mobility depends sensitively on the geometry of the mesh and on the non-local mobility at the discrete level. Our result quantifies to what extent discrete transport can make use of microstructure in the mesh to reduce the cost of transport.
AU - Gladbach, Peter
AU - Kopfer, Eva
AU - Maas, Jan
AU - Portinale, Lorenzo
ID - 7573
IS - 7
JF - Journal de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees
SN - 00217824
TI - Homogenisation of one-dimensional discrete optimal transport
VL - 139
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper we study the joint convexity/concavity of the trace functions Ψp,q,s(A,B)=Tr(Bq2K∗ApKBq2)s, p,q,s∈R,
where A and B are positive definite matrices and K is any fixed invertible matrix. We will give full range of (p,q,s)∈R3 for Ψp,q,s to be jointly convex/concave for all K. As a consequence, we confirm a conjecture of Carlen, Frank and Lieb. In particular, we confirm a weaker conjecture of Audenaert and Datta and obtain the full range of (α,z) for α-z Rényi relative entropies to be monotone under completely positive trace preserving maps. We also give simpler proofs of many known results, including the concavity of Ψp,0,1/p for 02b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.
AU - Kalai, Gil
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7960
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Intersection patterns of planar sets
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is an attractive candidate mechanism for hippocampus-dependent short-term memory. Although PTP has a uniquely large magnitude at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses, it is unclear whether it can be induced by natural activity and whether its lifetime is sufficient to support short-term memory. We combined in vivo recordings from granule cells (GCs), in vitro paired recordings from mossy fiber terminals and postsynaptic CA3 neurons, and “flash and freeze” electron microscopy. PTP was induced at single synapses and showed a low induction threshold adapted to sparse GC activity in vivo. PTP was mainly generated by enlargement of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles, allowing multiplicative interaction with other plasticity forms. PTP was associated with an increase in the docked vesicle pool, suggesting formation of structural “pool engrams.” Absence of presynaptic activity extended the lifetime of the potentiation, enabling prolonged information storage in the hippocampal network.
AU - Vandael, David H
AU - Borges Merjane, Carolina
AU - Zhang, Xiaomin
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 8001
IS - 3
JF - Neuron
SN - 0896-6273
TI - Short-term plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is induced by natural activity patterns and associated with vesicle pool engram formation
VL - 107
ER -