TY - JOUR
AB - The multimeric matrix (M) protein of clinically relevant paramyxoviruses orchestrates assembly and budding activity of viral particles at the plasma membrane (PM). We identified within the canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein two microdomains, potentially assuming α-helix structures, which are essential for membrane budding activity. Remarkably, while two rationally designed microdomain M mutants (E89R, microdomain 1 and L239D, microdomain 2) preserved proper folding, dimerization, interaction with the nucleocapsid protein, localization at and deformation of the PM, the virus-like particle formation, as well as production of infectious virions (as monitored using a membrane budding-complementation system), were, in sharp contrast, strongly impaired. Of major importance, raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) revealed that both microdomains contributed to finely tune M protein mobility specifically at the PM. Collectively, our data highlighted the cornerstone membrane budding-priming activity of two spatially discrete M microdomains, potentially by coordinating the assembly of productive higher oligomers at the PM.
AU - Gast, Matthieu
AU - Kadzioch, Nicole P.
AU - Milius, Doreen
AU - Origgi, Francesco
AU - Plattet, Philippe
ID - 9361
IS - 2
JF - mSphere
TI - Oligomerization and cell egress controlled by two microdomains of canine distemper virus matrix protein
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The quality control system for messenger RNA (mRNA) is fundamental for cellular activities in eukaryotes. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of 3'-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase1 (PDK1), a master regulator that is essential throughout eukaryotic growth and development, we employed a forward genetic approach to screen for suppressors of the loss-of-function T-DNA insertion double mutant pdk1.1 pdk1.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Notably, the severe growth attenuation of pdk1.1 pdk1.2 was rescued by sop21 (suppressor of pdk1.1 pdk1.2), which harbours a loss-of-function mutation in PELOTA1 (PEL1). PEL1 is a homologue of mammalian PELOTA and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) DOM34p, which each form a heterodimeric complex with the GTPase HBS1 (HSP70 SUBFAMILY B SUPPRESSOR1, also called SUPERKILLER PROTEIN7, SKI7), a protein that is responsible for ribosomal rescue and thereby assures the quality and fidelity of mRNA molecules during translation. Genetic analysis further revealed that a dysfunctional PEL1-HBS1 complex failed to degrade the T-DNA-disrupted PDK1 transcripts, which were truncated but functional, and thus rescued the growth and developmental defects of pdk1.1 pdk1.2. Our studies demonstrated the functionality of a homologous PELOTA-HBS1 complex and identified its essential regulatory role in plants, providing insights into the mechanism of mRNA quality control.
AU - Kong, W
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Zhao, Q
AU - Lin, DL
AU - Xu, ZH
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Xue, HW
ID - 9368
JF - Plant Physiology
SN - 0032-0889
TI - mRNA surveillance complex PELOTA-HBS1 eegulates phosphoinositide-sependent protein kinase1 and plant growth
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A central goal in systems neuroscience is to understand the functions performed by neural circuits. Previous top-down models addressed this question by comparing the behaviour of an ideal model circuit, optimised to perform a given function, with neural recordings. However, this requires guessing in advance what function is being performed, which may not be possible for many neural systems. To address this, we propose an inverse reinforcement learning (RL) framework for inferring the function performed by a neural network from data. We assume that the responses of each neuron in a network are optimised so as to drive the network towards ‘rewarded’ states, that are desirable for performing a given function. We then show how one can use inverse RL to infer the reward function optimised by the network from observing its responses. This inferred reward function can be used to predict how the neural network should adapt its dynamics to perform the same function when the external environment or network structure changes. This could lead to theoretical predictions about how neural network dynamics adapt to deal with cell death and/or varying sensory stimulus statistics.
AU - Chalk, Matthew J
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
AU - Marre, Olivier
ID - 9362
IS - 4 April
JF - PLoS ONE
TI - Inferring the function performed by a recurrent neural network
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we propose a new iterative method with alternated inertial step for solving split common null point problem in real Hilbert spaces. We obtain weak convergence of the proposed iterative algorithm. Furthermore, we introduce the notion of bounded linear regularity property for the split common null point problem and obtain the linear convergence property for the new algorithm under some mild assumptions. Finally, we provide some numerical examples to demonstrate the performance and efficiency of the proposed method.
AU - Ogbuisi, Ferdinard U.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Yao, Jen Chih
ID - 9365
JF - Optimization
SN - 02331934
TI - Convergence analysis of new inertial method for the split common null point problem
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove that the factorization homologies of a scheme with coefficients in truncated polynomial algebras compute the cohomologies of its generalized configuration spaces. Using Koszul duality between commutative algebras and Lie algebras, we obtain new expressions for the cohomologies of the latter. As a consequence, we obtain a uniform and conceptual approach for treating homological stability, homological densities, and arithmetic densities of generalized configuration spaces. Our results categorify, generalize, and in fact provide a conceptual understanding of the coincidences appearing in the work of Farb--Wolfson--Wood. Our computation of the stable homological densities also yields rational homotopy types, answering a question posed by Vakil--Wood. Our approach hinges on the study of homological stability of cohomological Chevalley complexes, which is of independent interest.
AU - Ho, Quoc P
ID - 9359
IS - 2
JF - Geometry & Topology
KW - Generalized configuration spaces
KW - homological stability
KW - homological densities
KW - chiral algebras
KW - chiral homology
KW - factorization algebras
KW - Koszul duality
KW - Ran space
SN - 1364-0380
TI - Homological stability and densities of generalized configuration spaces
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - If there are no constraints on the process of speciation, then the number of species might be expected to match the number of available niches and this number might be indefinitely large. One possible constraint is the opportunity for allopatric divergence. In 1981, Felsenstein used a simple and elegant model to ask if there might also be genetic constraints. He showed that progress towards speciation could be described by the build‐up of linkage disequilibrium among divergently selected loci and between these loci and those contributing to other forms of reproductive isolation. Therefore, speciation is opposed by recombination, because it tends to break down linkage disequilibria. Felsenstein then introduced a crucial distinction between “two‐allele” models, which are subject to this effect, and “one‐allele” models, which are free from the recombination constraint. These fundamentally important insights have been the foundation for both empirical and theoretical studies of speciation ever since.
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
AU - Servedio, Maria R.
AU - Smadja, Carole M.
AU - Bank, Claudia
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Flaxman, Samuel M.
AU - Giraud, Tatiana
AU - Hopkins, Robin
AU - Larson, Erica L.
AU - Maan, Martine E.
AU - Meier, Joana
AU - Merrill, Richard
AU - Noor, Mohamed A. F.
AU - Ortiz‐Barrientos, Daniel
AU - Qvarnström, Anna
ID - 9374
JF - Evolution
KW - Genetics
KW - Ecology
KW - Evolution
KW - Behavior and Systematics
KW - General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
SN - 0014-3820
TI - Homage to Felsenstein 1981, or why are there so few/many species?
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis, we consider several of the most classical and fundamental problems in static analysis and formal verification, including invariant generation, reachability analysis, termination analysis of probabilistic programs, data-flow analysis, quantitative analysis of Markov chains and Markov decision processes, and the problem of data packing in cache management.
We use techniques from parameterized complexity theory, polyhedral geometry, and real algebraic geometry to significantly improve the state-of-the-art, in terms of both scalability and completeness guarantees, for the mentioned problems. In some cases, our results are the first theoretical improvements for the respective problems in two or three decades.
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
ID - 8934
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Parameterized and algebro-geometric advances in static program analysis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.
AU - Pȩkalski, J.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.
ID - 7956
IS - 20
JF - The Journal of chemical physics
TI - Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E
AU - Schön, Hanna
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 7957
IS - 8
JF - Trends in Neurosciences
SN - 01662236
TI - Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways
VL - 43
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.
AU - Kalai, Gil
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7960
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Intersection patterns of planar sets
VL - 64
ER -