@article{6477,
abstract = {Thermalizing quantum systems are conventionallydescribed by statistical mechanics at equilib-rium. However, not all systems fall into this category, with many-body localization providinga generic mechanism for thermalization to fail in strongly disordered systems. Many-bodylocalized (MBL) systems remain perfect insulators at nonzero temperature, which do notthermalize and therefore cannot be describedusing statistical mechanics. This Colloquiumreviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in studies of MBL systems, focusing onthe new perspective provided by entanglement and nonequilibrium experimental probes suchas quantum quenches. Theoretically, MBL systems exhibit a new kind of robust integrability: anextensive set of quasilocal integrals of motion emerges, which provides an intuitive explanationof the breakdown of thermalization. A description based on quasilocal integrals of motion isused to predict dynamical properties of MBL systems, such as the spreading of quantumentanglement, the behavior of local observables, and the response to external dissipativeprocesses. Furthermore, MBL systems can exhibit eigenstate transitions and quantum ordersforbidden in thermodynamic equilibrium. An outline isgiven of the current theoretical under-standing of the quantum-to-classical transitionbetween many-body localized and ergodic phasesand anomalous transport in the vicinity of that transition. Experimentally, synthetic quantumsystems, which are well isolated from an external thermal reservoir, provide natural platforms forrealizing the MBL phase. Recent experiments with ultracold atoms, trapped ions, superconductingqubits, and quantum materials, in which different signatures of many-body localization have beenobserved, are reviewed. This Colloquium concludes by listing outstanding challenges andpromising future research directions.},
author = {Abanin, Dmitry A. and Altman, Ehud and Bloch, Immanuel and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {0034-6861},
journal = {Reviews of Modern Physics},
number = {2},
publisher = {APS Physics},
title = {{Colloquium: Many-body localization, thermalization, and entanglement}},
doi = {10.1103/revmodphys.91.021001},
volume = {91},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6650,
abstract = {We propose a novel technique for the automatic design of molds to cast highly complex shapes. The technique generates composite, two-piece molds. Each mold piece is made up of a hard plastic shell and a flexible silicone part. Thanks to the thin, soft, and smartly shaped silicone part, which is kept in place by a hard plastic shell, we can cast objects of unprecedented complexity. An innovative algorithm based on a volumetric analysis defines the layout of the internal cuts in the silicone mold part. Our approach can robustly handle thin protruding features and intertwined topologies that have caused previous methods to fail. We compare our results with state of the art techniques, and we demonstrate the casting of shapes with extremely complex geometry.},
author = {Alderighi, Thomas and Malomo, Luigi and Giorgi, Daniela and Bickel, Bernd and Cignoni, Paolo and Pietroni, Nico},
issn = {0730-0301},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {4},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Volume-aware design of composite molds}},
doi = {10.1145/3306346.3322981},
volume = {38},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6756,
abstract = {We study the topology generated by the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as quantified by the number of components and holes, formally given by the Betti numbers, in the growing excursion sets. We compare CMB maps observed by the Planck satellite with a thousand simulated maps generated according to the ΛCDM paradigm with Gaussian distributed fluctuations. The comparison is multi-scale, being performed on a sequence of degraded maps with mean pixel separation ranging from 0.05 to 7.33°. The survey of the CMB over 𝕊2 is incomplete due to obfuscation effects by bright point sources and other extended foreground objects like our own galaxy. To deal with such situations, where analysis in the presence of “masks” is of importance, we introduce the concept of relative homology. The parametric χ2-test shows differences between observations and simulations, yielding p-values at percent to less than permil levels roughly between 2 and 7°, with the difference in the number of components and holes peaking at more than 3σ sporadically at these scales. The highest observed deviation between the observations and simulations for b0 and b1 is approximately between 3σ and 4σ at scales of 3–7°. There are reports of mildly unusual behaviour of the Euler characteristic at 3.66° in the literature, computed from independent measurements of the CMB temperature fluctuations by Planck’s predecessor, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite. The mildly anomalous behaviour of the Euler characteristic is phenomenologically related to the strongly anomalous behaviour of components and holes, or the zeroth and first Betti numbers, respectively. Further, since these topological descriptors show consistent anomalous behaviour over independent measurements of Planck and WMAP, instrumental and systematic errors may be an unlikely source. These are also the scales at which the observed maps exhibit low variance compared to the simulations, and approximately the range of scales at which the power spectrum exhibits a dip with respect to the theoretical model. Non-parametric tests show even stronger differences at almost all scales. Crucially, Gaussian simulations based on power-spectrum matching the characteristics of the observed dipped power spectrum are not able to resolve the anomaly. Understanding the origin of the anomalies in the CMB, whether cosmological in nature or arising due to late-time effects, is an extremely challenging task. Regardless, beyond the trivial possibility that this may still be a manifestation of an extreme Gaussian case, these observations, along with the super-horizon scales involved, may motivate the study of primordial non-Gaussianity. Alternative scenarios worth exploring may be models with non-trivial topology, including topological defect models.},
author = {Pranav, Pratyush and Adler, Robert J. and Buchert, Thomas and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Jones, Bernard J.T. and Schwartzman, Armin and Wagner, Hubert and Van De Weygaert, Rien},
issn = {14320746},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {{Unexpected topology of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background}},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201834916},
volume = {627},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6763,
abstract = {When grape-sized aqueous dimers are irradiated in a microwave oven, an intense electromagnetic hotspot forms at their point of contact, often igniting a plasma. Here we show that this irradiation can result in the injection of mechanical energy. By examining irradiated hydrogel dimers through high-speed imaging, we find that they repeatedly bounce off of each other while irradiated. We determine that an average of 1 lJ of mechanical energy is injected into the pair during each collision. Furthermore, a characteristic high-pitched audio signal is found to accompany each collision.
We show that both the audio signal and the energy injection arise via an interplay between vaporization and elastic deformations in the region of contact, the so-called ‘elastic Liedenfrost effect’. Our results establish a novel, non-contact method of injecting mechanical energy into soft matter systems, suggesting application in fields such as soft robotics.},
author = {Khattak, Hamza K. and Waitukaitis, Scott R and Slepkov, Aaron D.},
issn = {17446848},
journal = {Soft Matter},
number = {29},
pages = {5804--5809},
publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry},
title = {{Microwave induced mechanical activation of hydrogel dimers}},
doi = {10.1039/c9sm00756c},
volume = {15},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6371,
abstract = {Decades of studies have revealed the mechanisms of gene regulation in molecular detail. We make use of such well-described regulatory systems to explore how the molecular mechanisms of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions shape the dynamics and evolution of gene regulation.
i) We uncover how the biophysics of protein-DNA binding determines the potential of regulatory networks to evolve and adapt, which can be captured using a simple mathematical model.
ii) The evolution of regulatory connections can lead to a significant amount of crosstalk between binding proteins. We explore the effect of crosstalk on gene expression from a target promoter, which seems to be modulated through binding competition at non-specific DNA sites.
iii) We investigate how the very same biophysical characteristics as in i) can generate significant fitness costs for cells through global crosstalk, meaning non-specific DNA binding across the genomic background.
iv) Binding competition between proteins at a target promoter is a prevailing regulatory feature due to the prevalence of co-regulation at bacterial promoters. However, the dynamics of these systems are not always straightforward to determine even if the molecular mechanisms of regulation are known. A detailed model of the biophysical interactions reveals that interference between the regulatory proteins can constitute a new, generic form of system memory that records the history of the input signals at the promoter.
We demonstrate how the biophysics of protein-DNA binding can be harnessed to investigate the principles that shape and ultimately limit cellular gene regulation. These results provide a basis for studies of higher-level functionality, which arises from the underlying regulation.
},
author = {Igler, Claudia},
issn = {2663-337X},
keyword = {gene regulation, biophysics, transcription factor binding, bacteria},
pages = {152},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{On the nature of gene regulatory design - The biophysics of transcription factor binding shapes gene regulation}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:6371},
year = {2019},
}
@article{5828,
abstract = {Hippocampus is needed for both spatial working and reference memories. Here, using a radial eight-arm maze, we examined how the combined demand on these memories influenced CA1 place cell assemblies while reference memories were partially updated. This was contrasted with control tasks requiring only working memory or the update of reference memory. Reference memory update led to the reward-directed place field shifts at newly rewarded arms and to the gradual strengthening of firing in passes between newly rewarded arms but not between those passes that included a familiar-rewarded arm. At the maze center, transient network synchronization periods preferentially replayed trajectories of the next chosen arm in reference memory tasks but the previously visited arm in the working memory task. Hence, reference memory demand was uniquely associated with a gradual, goal novelty-related reorganization of place cell assemblies and with trajectory replay that reflected the animal's decision of which arm to visit next.},
author = {Xu, Haibing and Baracskay, Peter and O'Neill, Joseph and Csicsvari, Jozsef L},
issn = {10974199},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {119--132.e4},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Assembly responses of hippocampal CA1 place cells predict learned behavior in goal-directed spatial tasks on the radial eight-arm maze}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2018.11.015},
volume = {101},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6821,
abstract = {To determine the visual sensitivities of an organism of interest, quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) is often used to quantify expression of the light‐sensitive opsins in the retina. While qRT–PCR is an affordable, high‐throughput method for measuring expression, it comes with inherent normalization issues that affect the interpretation of results, especially as opsin expression can vary greatly based on developmental stage, light environment or diurnal cycles. We tested for diurnal cycles of opsin expression over a period of 24 hr at 1‐hr increments and examined how normalization affects a data set with fluctuating expression levels using qRT–PCR and transcriptome data from the retinae of the cichlid Pelmatolapia mariae. We compared five methods of normalizing opsin expression relative to (a) the average of three stably expressed housekeeping genes (Ube2z, EF1‐α and β‐actin), (b) total RNA concentration, (c) GNAT2, (the cone‐specific subunit of transducin), (d) total opsin expression and (e) only opsins expressed in the same cone type. Normalizing by proportion of cone type produced the least variation and would be best for removing time‐of‐day variation. In contrast, normalizing by housekeeping genes produced the highest daily variation in expression and demonstrated that the peak of cone opsin expression was in the late afternoon. A weighted correlation network analysis showed that the expression of different cone opsins follows a very similar daily cycle. With the knowledge of how these normalization methods affect opsin expression data, we make recommendations for designing sampling approaches and quantification methods based upon the scientific question being examined.},
author = {Yourick, Miranda R. and Sandkam, Benjamin A. and Gammerdinger, William J and Escobar-Camacho, Daniel and Nandamuri, Sri Pratima and Clark, Frances E. and Joyce, Brendan and Conte, Matthew A. and Kocher, Thomas D. and Carleton, Karen L.},
journal = {Molecular Ecology Resources},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Diurnal variation in opsin expression and common housekeeping genes necessitates comprehensive normalization methods for quantitative real-time PCR analyses}},
doi = {10.1111/1755-0998.13062},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6819,
abstract = {Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) and its commercial herbicide formulations have been shown to exert toxicity via various mechanisms. It has been asserted that glyphosate substitutes for glycine in polypeptide chains leading to protein misfolding and toxicity. However, as no direct evidence exists for glycine to glyphosate substitution in proteins, including in mammalian organisms, we tested this claim by conducting a proteomics analysis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells grown in the presence of 100 mg/L glyphosate for 6 days. Protein extracts from three treated and three untreated cell cultures were analysed as one TMT-6plex labelled sample, to highlight a specific pattern (+/+/+/−/−/−) of reporter intensities for peptides bearing true glyphosate treatment induced-post translational modifications as well as allowing an investigation of the total proteome.},
author = {Antoniou, Michael N. and Nicolas, Armel and Mesnage, Robin and Biserni, Martina and Rao, Francesco V. and Martin, Cristina Vazquez},
issn = {1756-0500},
journal = {BMC Research Notes},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Glyphosate does not substitute for glycine in proteins of actively dividing mammalian cells}},
doi = {10.1186/s13104-019-4534-3},
volume = {12},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6840,
abstract = {We discuss thermodynamic properties of harmonically trapped
imperfect quantum gases. The spatial inhomogeneity of these systems imposes
a redefinition of the mean-field interparticle potential energy as compared
to the homogeneous case. In our approach, it takes the form a
2N2 ωd, where
N is the number of particles, ω—the harmonic trap frequency, d—system’s
dimensionality, and a is a parameter characterizing the interparticle interaction.
We provide arguments that this model corresponds to the limiting case of
a long-ranged interparticle potential of vanishingly small amplitude. This
conclusion is drawn from a computation similar to the well-known Kac scaling
procedure, which is presented here in a form adapted to the case of an isotropic
harmonic trap. We show that within the model, the imperfect gas of trapped
repulsive bosons undergoes the Bose–Einstein condensation provided d > 1.
The main result of our analysis is that in d = 1 the gas of attractive imperfect
fermions with a = −aF < 0 is thermodynamically equivalent to the gas of
repulsive bosons with a = aB > 0 provided the parameters aF and aB fulfill
the relation aB + aF = . This result supplements similar recent conclusion
about thermodynamic equivalence of two-dimensional (2D) uniform imperfect
repulsive Bose and attractive Fermi gases.},
author = {Mysliwy, Krzysztof and Napiórkowski, Marek},
issn = {1742-5468},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
number = {6},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{Thermodynamics of inhomogeneous imperfect quantum gases in harmonic traps}},
doi = {10.1088/1742-5468/ab190d},
volume = {2019},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6491,
author = {Rueda Sanchez, Alfredo R and Sedlmeir, Florian and Kumari, Madhuri and Leuchs, Gerd and Schwefel, Harald G.L.},
issn = {14764687},
journal = {Nature},
title = {{Publisher correction: Resonant electro-optic frequency comb}},
doi = {10.1038/s41586-019-1220-5},
volume = {569},
year = {2019},
}
@article{5986,
abstract = {Given a triangulation of a point set in the plane, a flip deletes an edge e whose removal leaves a convex quadrilateral, and replaces e by the opposite diagonal of the quadrilateral. It is well known that any triangulation of a point set can be reconfigured to any other triangulation by some sequence of flips. We explore this question in the setting where each edge of a triangulation has a label, and a flip transfers the label of the removed edge to the new edge. It is not true that every labelled triangulation of a point set can be reconfigured to every other labelled triangulation via a sequence of flips, but we characterize when this is possible. There is an obvious necessary condition: for each label l, if edge e has label l in the first triangulation and edge f has label l in the second triangulation, then there must be some sequence of flips that moves label l from e to f, ignoring all other labels. Bose, Lubiw, Pathak and Verdonschot formulated the Orbit Conjecture, which states that this necessary condition is also sufficient, i.e. that all labels can be simultaneously mapped to their destination if and only if each label individually can be mapped to its destination. We prove this conjecture. Furthermore, we give a polynomial-time algorithm (with 𝑂(𝑛8) being a crude bound on the run-time) to find a sequence of flips to reconfigure one labelled triangulation to another, if such a sequence exists, and we prove an upper bound of 𝑂(𝑛7) on the length of the flip sequence. Our proof uses the topological result that the sets of pairwise non-crossing edges on a planar point set form a simplicial complex that is homeomorphic to a high-dimensional ball (this follows from a result of Orden and Santos; we give a different proof based on a shelling argument). The dual cell complex of this simplicial ball, called the flip complex, has the usual flip graph as its 1-skeleton. We use properties of the 2-skeleton of the flip complex to prove the Orbit Conjecture.},
author = {Lubiw, Anna and Masárová, Zuzana and Wagner, Uli},
issn = {0179-5376},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {4},
pages = {880--898},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{A Proof of the Orbit Conjecture for Flipping Edge-Labelled Triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-018-0035-8},
volume = {61},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6681,
abstract = {The first part of the thesis considers the computational aspects of the homotopy groups πd(X) of a topological space X. It is well known that there is no algorithm to decide whether the fundamental group π1(X) of a given finite simplicial complex X is trivial. On the other hand, there are several algorithms that, given a finite simplicial complex X that is simply connected (i.e., with π1(X) trivial), compute the higher homotopy group πd(X) for any given d ≥ 2.
However, these algorithms come with a caveat: They compute the isomorphism type of πd(X), d ≥ 2 as an abstract finitely generated abelian group given by generators and relations, but they work with very implicit representations of the elements of πd(X). We present an algorithm that, given a simply connected space X, computes πd(X) and represents its elements as simplicial maps from suitable triangulations of the d-sphere Sd to X. For fixed d, the algorithm runs in time exponential in size(X), the number of simplices of X. Moreover, we prove that this is optimal: For every fixed d ≥ 2,
we construct a family of simply connected spaces X such that for any simplicial map representing a generator of πd(X), the size of the triangulation of S d on which the map is defined, is exponential in size(X).
In the second part of the thesis, we prove that the following question is algorithmically undecidable for d < ⌊3(k+1)/2⌋, k ≥ 5 and (k, d) ̸= (5, 7), which covers essentially everything outside the meta-stable range: Given a finite simplicial complex K of dimension k, decide whether there exists a piecewise-linear (i.e., linear on an arbitrarily fine subdivision of K) embedding f : K ↪→ Rd of K into a d-dimensional Euclidean space.},
author = {Zhechev, Stephan Y},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {104},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Algorithmic aspects of homotopy theory and embeddability}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:6681},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6179,
abstract = {In the first part of this thesis we consider large random matrices with arbitrary expectation and a general slowly decaying correlation among its entries. We prove universality of the local eigenvalue statistics and optimal local laws for the resolvent in the bulk and edge regime. The main novel tool is a systematic diagrammatic control of a multivariate cumulant expansion.
In the second part we consider Wigner-type matrices and show that at any cusp singularity of the limiting eigenvalue distribution the local eigenvalue statistics are uni- versal and form a Pearcey process. Since the density of states typically exhibits only square root or cubic root cusp singularities, our work complements previous results on the bulk and edge universality and it thus completes the resolution of the Wigner- Dyson-Mehta universality conjecture for the last remaining universality type. Our analysis holds not only for exact cusps, but approximate cusps as well, where an ex- tended Pearcey process emerges. As a main technical ingredient we prove an optimal local law at the cusp, and extend the fast relaxation to equilibrium of the Dyson Brow- nian motion to the cusp regime.
In the third and final part we explore the entrywise linear statistics of Wigner ma- trices and identify the fluctuations for a large class of test functions with little regularity. This enables us to study the rectangular Young diagram obtained from the interlacing eigenvalues of the random matrix and its minor, and we find that, despite having the same limit, the fluctuations differ from those of the algebraic Young tableaux equipped with the Plancharel measure.},
author = {Schröder, Dominik J},
pages = {375},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{From Dyson to Pearcey: Universal statistics in random matrix theory}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th6179},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{6888,
abstract = {In this paper, we design novel liquid time-constant recurrent neural networks for robotic control, inspired by the brain of the nematode, C. elegans. In the worm's nervous system, neurons communicate through nonlinear time-varying synaptic links established amongst them by their particular wiring structure. This property enables neurons to express liquid time-constants dynamics and therefore allows the network to originate complex behaviors with a small number of neurons. We identify neuron-pair communication motifs as design operators and use them to configure compact neuronal network structures to govern sequential robotic tasks. The networks are systematically designed to map the environmental observations to motor actions, by their hierarchical topology from sensory neurons, through recurrently-wired interneurons, to motor neurons. The networks are then parametrized in a supervised-learning scheme by a search-based algorithm. We demonstrate that obtained networks realize interpretable dynamics. We evaluate their performance in controlling mobile and arm robots, and compare their attributes to other artificial neural network-based control agents. Finally, we experimentally show their superior resilience to environmental noise, compared to the existing machine learning-based methods.},
author = {Lechner, Mathias and Hasani, Ramin and Zimmer, Manuel and Henzinger, Thomas A and Grosu, Radu},
booktitle = {Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
isbn = {9781538660270},
location = {Montreal, QC, Canada},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Designing worm-inspired neural networks for interpretable robotic control}},
doi = {10.1109/icra.2019.8793840},
volume = {2019-May},
year = {2019},
}
@inbook{6890,
abstract = {Describing the protein interactions that form pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses represents a considerable challenge to most structural biology techniques, including X-ray crystallography and single particle cryo-electron microscopy. Obtaining a detailed understanding of these interactions is nevertheless important, considering the number of relevant human pathogens that do not follow strict icosahedral or helical symmetry. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging methods provide structural insights into complex biological environments and are well suited to go beyond structures of perfectly symmetric viruses. This chapter discusses recent developments showing that cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging can provide high-resolution insights into hitherto unknown structural features of pleomorphic and asymmetric virus particles. It also describes how these methods have significantly added to our understanding of retrovirus capsid assemblies in immature and mature viruses. Additional examples of irregular viruses and their associated proteins, whose structures have been studied via cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging, further support the versatility of these methods.},
author = {Obr, Martin and Schur, Florian KM},
booktitle = {Complementary Strategies to Study Virus Structure and Function},
editor = {Rey, Félix A.},
isbn = {9780128184561},
issn = {0065-3527},
pages = {117--159},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Structural analysis of pleomorphic and asymmetric viruses using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging}},
doi = {10.1016/bs.aivir.2019.07.008},
volume = {105},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6857,
abstract = {Gene Drives are regarded as future tools with a high potential for population control. Due to their inherent ability to overcome the rules of Mendelian inheritance, gene drives (GD) may spread genes rapidly through populations of sexually reproducing organisms. A release of organisms carrying a GD would constitute a paradigm shift in the handling of genetically modified organisms because gene drive organisms (GDO) are designed to drive their transgenes into wild populations and thereby increase the number of GDOs. The rapid development in this field and its focus on wild populations demand a prospective risk assessment with a focus on exposure related aspects. Presently, it is unclear how adequate risk management could be guaranteed to limit the spread of GDs in time and space, in order to avoid potential adverse effects in socio‐ecological systems.
The recent workshop on the “Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Control of Gene Drives” hosted by the Institute of Safety/Security and Risk Sciences (ISR) in Vienna aimed at gaining some insight into the potential population dynamic behavior of GDs and appropriate measures of control. Scientists from France, Germany, England, and the USA discussed both topics in this meeting on April 4–5, 2019. This article summarizes results of the workshop.},
author = {Giese, B and Friess, J L and Schetelig, M F and Barton, Nicholas H and Messer, Philip and Debarre, Florence and Meimberg, H and Windbichler, N and Boete, C},
journal = {BioEssays},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Gene Drives: Dynamics and regulatory matters – A report from the workshop “Evaluation of spatial and temporal control of Gene Drives”, 4 – 5 April 2019, Vienna}},
doi = {10.1002/bies.201900151},
year = {2019},
}
@article{138,
abstract = {Autoregulation is the direct modulation of gene expression by the product of the corresponding gene. Autoregulation of bacterial gene expression has been mostly studied at the transcriptional level, when a protein acts as the cognate transcriptional repressor. A recent study investigating dynamics of the bacterial toxin–antitoxin MazEF system has shown how autoregulation at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels affects the heterogeneity of Escherichia coli populations. Toxin–antitoxin systems hold a crucial but still elusive part in bacterial response to stress. This perspective highlights how these modules can also serve as a great model system for investigating basic concepts in gene regulation. However, as the genomic background and environmental conditions substantially influence toxin activation, it is important to study (auto)regulation of toxin–antitoxin systems in well-defined setups as well as in conditions that resemble the environmental niche.},
author = {Nikolic, Nela},
journal = {Current Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {133--138},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Autoregulation of bacterial gene expression: lessons from the MazEF toxin–antitoxin system}},
doi = {10.1007/s00294-018-0879-8},
volume = {65},
year = {2019},
}
@article{405,
abstract = {We investigate the quantum Jensen divergences from the viewpoint of joint convexity. It turns out that the set of the functions which generate jointly convex quantum Jensen divergences on positive matrices coincides with the Matrix Entropy Class which has been introduced by Chen and Tropp quite recently.},
author = {Virosztek, Daniel},
journal = {Linear Algebra and Its Applications},
pages = {67--78},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Jointly convex quantum Jensen divergences}},
doi = {10.1016/j.laa.2018.03.002},
volume = {576},
year = {2019},
}
@article{5944,
abstract = {Understanding the thermodynamics of the duplication process is a fundamental step towards a comprehensive physical theory of biological systems. However, the immense complexity of real cells obscures the fundamental tensions between energy gradients and entropic contributions that underlie duplication. The study of synthetic, feasible systems reproducing part of the key ingredients of living entities but overcoming major sources of biological complexity is of great relevance to deepen the comprehension of the fundamental thermodynamic processes underlying life and its prevalence. In this paper an abstract—yet realistic—synthetic system made of small synthetic protocell aggregates is studied in detail. A fundamental relation between free energy and entropic gradients is derived for a general, non-equilibrium scenario, setting the thermodynamic conditions for the occurrence and prevalence of duplication phenomena. This relation sets explicitly how the energy gradients invested in creating and maintaining structural—and eventually, functional—elements of the system must always compensate the entropic gradients, whose contributions come from changes in the translational, configurational, and macrostate entropies, as well as from dissipation due to irreversible transitions. Work/energy relations are also derived, defining lower bounds on the energy required for the duplication event to take place. A specific example including real ternary emulsions is provided in order to grasp the orders of magnitude involved in the problem. It is found that the minimal work invested over the system to trigger a duplication event is around ~ 10−13J , which results, in the case of duplication of all the vesicles contained in a liter of emulsion, in an amount of energy around ~ 1kJ . Without aiming to describe a truly biological process of duplication, this theoretical contribution seeks to explicitly define and identify the key actors that participate in it.},
author = {Corominas-Murtra, Bernat},
issn = {20751729},
journal = {Life},
number = {1},
publisher = {MDPI},
title = {{Thermodynamics of duplication thresholds in synthetic protocell systems}},
doi = {10.3390/life9010009},
volume = {9},
year = {2019},
}
@article{5886,
abstract = {Problems involving quantum impurities, in which one or a few particles are interacting with a macroscopic environment, represent a pervasive paradigm, spanning across atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter physics. In this paper we introduce new variational approaches to quantum impurities and apply them to the Fröhlich polaron–a quasiparticle formed out of an electron (or other point-like impurity) in a polar medium, and to the angulon–a quasiparticle formed out of a rotating molecule in a bosonic bath. We benchmark these approaches against established theories, evaluating their accuracy as a function of the impurity-bath coupling.},
author = {Li, Xiang and Bighin, Giacomo and Yakaboylu, Enderalp and Lemeshko, Mikhail},
issn = {00268976},
journal = {Molecular Physics},
publisher = {Taylor and Francis},
title = {{Variational approaches to quantum impurities: from the Fröhlich polaron to the angulon}},
doi = {10.1080/00268976.2019.1567852},
year = {2019},
}