0 there exists a large subset of a ∈ F×p such that for kl a,1,p : x → e((ax+x) / p) we have M(kla,1,p) ≥ (1−ε/√2π + o(1)) log log p, as p→∞. Finally, we prove a result on the growth of the moments of {M (kla,1,p)}a∈F×p. 2020 Mathematics Subject Classification: 11L03, 11T23 (Primary); 14F20, 60F10 (Secondary).}, author = {Bonolis, Dante}, issn = {14698064}, journal = {Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society}, publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, title = {{On the size of the maximum of incomplete Kloosterman sums}}, doi = {10.1017/S030500412100030X}, year = {2021}, } @inproceedings{9210, abstract = {Modern neural networks can easily fit their training set perfectly. Surprisingly, despite being “overfit” in this way, they tend to generalize well to future data, thereby defying the classic bias–variance trade-off of machine learning theory. Of the many possible explanations, a prevalent one is that training by stochastic gradient descent (SGD) imposes an implicit bias that leads it to learn simple functions, and these simple functions generalize well. However, the specifics of this implicit bias are not well understood. In this work, we explore the smoothness conjecture which states that SGD is implicitly biased towards learning functions that are smooth. We propose several measures to formalize the intuitive notion of smoothness, and we conduct experiments to determine whether SGD indeed implicitly optimizes for these measures. Our findings rule out the possibility that smoothness measures based on first-order derivatives are being implicitly enforced. They are supportive, though, of the smoothness conjecture for measures based on second-order derivatives.}, author = {Volhejn, Vaclav and Lampert, Christoph}, booktitle = {42nd German Conference on Pattern Recognition }, isbn = {9783030712778}, issn = {16113349}, location = {Virtual}, pages = {246--259}, publisher = {Springer}, title = {{Does SGD implicitly optimize for smoothness?}}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-71278-5_18}, volume = {12544 LNCS}, year = {2021}, } @article{9383, abstract = {A primary roadblock to our understanding of speciation is that it usually occurs over a timeframe that is too long to study from start to finish. The idea of a speciation continuum provides something of a solution to this problem; rather than observing the entire process, we can simply reconstruct it from the multitude of speciation events that surround us. But what do we really mean when we talk about the speciation continuum, and can it really help us understand speciation? We explored these questions using a literature review and online survey of speciation researchers. Although most researchers were familiar with the concept and thought it was useful, our survey revealed extensive disagreement about what the speciation continuum actually tells us. This is due partly to the lack of a clear definition. Here, we provide an explicit definition that is compatible with the Biological Species Concept. That is, the speciation continuum is a continuum of reproductive isolation. After outlining the logic of the definition in light of alternatives, we explain why attempts to reconstruct the speciation process from present‐day populations will ultimately fail. We then outline how we think the speciation continuum concept can continue to act as a foundation for understanding the continuum of reproductive isolation that surrounds us.}, author = {Stankowski, Sean and Ravinet, Mark}, issn = {15585646}, journal = {Evolution}, title = {{Defining the speciation continuum}}, doi = {10.1111/evo.14215}, year = {2021}, } @article{9376, abstract = {This paper presents a method for designing planar multistable compliant structures. Given a sequence of desired stable states and the corresponding poses of the structure, we identify the topology and geometric realization of a mechanism—consisting of bars and joints—that is able to physically reproduce the desired multistable behavior. In order to solve this problem efficiently, we build on insights from minimally rigid graph theory to identify simple but effective topologies for the mechanism. We then optimize its geometric parameters, such as joint positions and bar lengths, to obtain correct transitions between the given poses. Simultaneously, we ensure adequate stability of each pose based on an effective approximate error metric related to the elastic energy Hessian of the bars in the mechanism. As demonstrated by our results, we obtain functional multistable mechanisms of manageable complexity that can be fabricated using 3D printing. Further, we evaluated the effectiveness of our method on a large number of examples in the simulation and fabricated several physical prototypes.}, author = {Zhang, Ran and Auzinger, Thomas and Bickel, Bernd}, journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics}, keywords = {multistability, mechanism, computational design, rigidity}, title = {{Computational Design of Planar Multistable Compliant Structures}}, doi = {10.1145/3453477}, year = {2021}, } @article{9379, author = {Bolger-Munro, Madison and Choi, Kate and Cheung, Faith and Liu, Yi Tian and Dang-Lawson, May and Deretic, Nikola and Keane, Connor and Gold, Michael R.}, issn = {2296634X}, journal = {Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology}, keywords = {B cell, actin, immune synapse, cell spreading, cofilin, WDR1 (AIP1), LIM domain kinase, B cell receptor (BCR)}, title = {{The Wdr1-LIMK-Cofilin axis controls B cell antigen receptor-induced actin remodeling and signaling at the immune synapse}}, doi = {10.3389/fcell.2021.649433}, volume = {9}, year = {2021}, }