TY - JOUR
AB - Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically based recognition system that functions to prevent self-fertilization and mating among related plants. An enduring puzzle in SI is how the high diversity observed in nature arises and is maintained. Based on the underlying recognition mechanism, SI can be classified into two main groups: self- and non-self recognition. Most work has focused on diversification within self-recognition systems despite expected differences between the two groups in the evolutionary pathways and outcomes of diversification. Here, we use a deterministic population genetic model and stochastic simulations to investigate how novel S-haplotypes evolve in a gametophytic non-self recognition (SRNase/S Locus F-box (SLF)) SI system. For this model the pathways for diversification involve either the maintenance or breakdown of SI and can vary in the order of mutations of the female (SRNase) and male (SLF) components. We show analytically that diversification can occur with high inbreeding depression and self-pollination, but this varies with evolutionary pathway and level of completeness (which determines the number of potential mating partners in the population), and in general is more likely for lower haplotype number. The conditions for diversification are broader in stochastic simulations of finite population size. However, the number of haplotypes observed under high inbreeding and moderate to high self-pollination is less than that commonly observed in nature. Diversification was observed through pathways that maintain SI as well as through self-compatible intermediates. Yet the lifespan of diversified haplotypes was sensitive to their level of completeness. By examining diversification in a non-self recognition SI system, this model extends our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of haplotype diversity observed in a self recognition system common in flowering plants.
AU - Bodova, Katarina
AU - Priklopil, Tadeas
AU - Field, David
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Pickup, Melinda
ID - 316
IS - 3
JF - Genetics
TI - Evolutionary pathways for the generation of new self-incompatibility haplotypes in a non-self recognition system
VL - 209
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the Fokker-Planck equation derived in the large system limit of the Markovian process describing the dynamics of quantitative traits. The Fokker-Planck equation is posed on a bounded domain and its transport and diffusion coefficients vanish on the domain's boundary. We first argue that, despite this degeneracy, the standard no-flux boundary condition is valid. We derive the weak formulation of the problem and prove the existence and uniqueness of its solutions by constructing the corresponding contraction semigroup on a suitable function space. Then, we prove that for the parameter regime with high enough mutation rate the problem exhibits a positive spectral gap, which implies exponential convergence to equilibrium.Next, we provide a simple derivation of the so-called Dynamic Maximum Entropy (DynMaxEnt) method for approximation of observables (moments) of the Fokker-Planck solution, which can be interpreted as a nonlinear Galerkin approximation. The limited applicability of the DynMaxEnt method inspires us to introduce its modified version that is valid for the whole range of admissible parameters. Finally, we present several numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance of both the original and modified DynMaxEnt methods. We observe that in the parameter regimes where both methods are valid, the modified one exhibits slightly better approximation properties compared to the original one.
AU - Bodova, Katarina
AU - Haskovec, Jan
AU - Markowich, Peter
ID - 607
JF - Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
TI - Well posedness and maximum entropy approximation for the dynamics of quantitative traits
VL - 376-377
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Bacteria regulate genes to survive antibiotic stress, but regulation can be far from perfect. When regulation is not optimal, mutations that change gene expression can contribute to antibiotic resistance. It is not systematically understood to what extent natural gene regulation is or is not optimal for distinct antibiotics, and how changes in expression of specific genes quantitatively affect antibiotic resistance. Here we discover a simple quantitative relation between fitness, gene expression, and antibiotic potency, which rationalizes our observation that a multitude of genes and even innate antibiotic defense mechanisms have expression that is critically nonoptimal under antibiotic treatment. First, we developed a pooled-strain drug-diffusion assay and screened Escherichia coli overexpression and knockout libraries, finding that resistance to a range of 31 antibiotics could result from changing expression of a large and functionally diverse set of genes, in a primarily but not exclusively drug-specific manner. Second, by synthetically controlling the expression of single-drug and multidrug resistance genes, we observed that their fitness-expression functions changed dramatically under antibiotic treatment in accordance with a log-sensitivity relation. Thus, because many genes are nonoptimally expressed under antibiotic treatment, many regulatory mutations can contribute to resistance by altering expression and by activating latent defenses.
AU - Palmer, Adam
AU - Chait, Remy P
AU - Kishony, Roy
ID - 19
IS - 11
JF - Molecular Biology and Evolution
TI - Nonoptimal gene expression creates latent potential for antibiotic resistance
VL - 35
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The abelian sandpile serves as a model to study self-organized criticality, a phenomenon occurring in biological, physical and social processes. The identity of the abelian group is a fractal composed of self-similar patches, and its limit is subject of extensive collaborative research. Here, we analyze the evolution of the sandpile identity under harmonic fields of different orders. We show that this evolution corresponds to periodic cycles through the abelian group characterized by the smooth transformation and apparent conservation of the patches constituting the identity. The dynamics induced by second and third order harmonics resemble smooth stretchings, respectively translations, of the identity, while the ones induced by fourth order harmonics resemble magnifications and rotations. Starting with order three, the dynamics pass through extended regions of seemingly random configurations which spontaneously reassemble into accentuated patterns. We show that the space of harmonic functions projects to the extended analogue of the sandpile group, thus providing a set of universal coordinates identifying configurations between different domains. Since the original sandpile group is a subgroup of the extended one, this directly implies that it admits a natural renormalization. Furthermore, we show that the harmonic fields can be induced by simple Markov processes, and that the corresponding stochastic dynamics show remarkable robustness over hundreds of periods. Finally, we encode information into seemingly random configurations, and decode this information with an algorithm requiring minimal prior knowledge. Our results suggest that harmonic fields might split the sandpile group into sub-sets showing different critical coefficients, and that it might be possible to extend the fractal structure of the identity beyond the boundaries of its domain.
AU - Lang, Moritz
AU - Shkolnikov, Mikhail
ID - 196
T2 - ArXiv
TI - Harmonic dynamics of the Abelian sandpile
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hanging-drop network (HDN) is a technology platform based on a completely open microfluidic network at the bottom of an inverted, surface-patterned substrate. The platform is predominantly used for the formation, culturing, and interaction of self-assembled spherical microtissues (spheroids) under precisely controlled flow conditions. Here, we describe design, fabrication, and operation of microfluidic hanging-drop networks.
AU - Misun, Patrick
AU - Birchler, Axel
AU - Lang, Moritz
AU - Hierlemann, Andreas
AU - Frey, Olivier
ID - 305
JF - Methods in Molecular Biology
TI - Fabrication and operation of microfluidic hanging drop networks
VL - 1771
ER -