TY - JOUR
AB - Previous research on animations of soap bubbles, films, and foams largely focuses on the motion and geometric shape of the bubble surface. These works neglect the evolution of the bubble’s thickness, which is normally responsible for visual phenomena like surface vortices, Newton’s interference patterns, capillary waves, and deformation-dependent rupturing of films in a foam. In this paper, we model these natural phenomena by introducing the film thickness as a reduced degree of freedom in the Navier-Stokes equations and deriving their equations of motion. We discretize the equations on a nonmanifold triangle mesh surface and couple it to an existing bubble solver. In doing so, we also introduce an incompressible fluid solver for 2.5D films and a novel advection algorithm for convecting fields across non-manifold surface junctions. Our simulations enhance state-of-the-art bubble solvers with additional effects caused by convection, rippling, draining, and evaporation of the thin film.
AU - Ishida, Sadashige
AU - Synak, Peter
AU - Narita, Fumiya
AU - Hachisuka, Toshiya
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8384
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - A model for soap film dynamics with evolving thickness
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a method for animating yarn-level cloth effects using a thin-shell solver. We accomplish this through numerical homogenization: we first use a large number of yarn-level simulations to build a model of the potential energy density of the cloth, and then use this energy density function to compute forces in a thin shell simulator. We model several yarn-based materials, including both woven and knitted fabrics. Our model faithfully reproduces expected effects like the stiffness of woven fabrics, and the highly deformable nature and anisotropy of knitted fabrics. Our approach does not require any real-world experiments nor measurements; because the method is based entirely on simulations, it can generate entirely new material models quickly, without the need for testing apparatuses or human intervention. We provide data-driven models of several woven and knitted fabrics, which can be used for efficient simulation with an off-the-shelf cloth solver.
AU - Sperl, Georg
AU - Narain, Rahul
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8385
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Homogenized yarn-level cloth
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose a method to enhance the visual detail of a water surface simulation. Our method works as a post-processing step which takes a simulation as input and increases its apparent resolution by simulating many detailed Lagrangian water waves on top of it. We extend linear water wave theory to work in non-planar domains which deform over time, and we discretize the theory using Lagrangian wave packets attached to spline curves. The method is numerically stable and trivially parallelizable, and it produces high frequency ripples with dispersive wave-like behaviors customized to the underlying fluid simulation.
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Soderstrom, Andreas
AU - Johansson, John
AU - Sprenger, Christoph
AU - Museth, Ken
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8535
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Wave curves: Simulating Lagrangian water waves on dynamically deforming surfaces
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper introduces a simple method for simulating highly anisotropic elastoplastic material behaviors like the dissolution of fibrous phenomena (splintering wood, shredding bales of hay) and materials composed of large numbers of irregularly‐shaped bodies (piles of twigs, pencils, or cards). We introduce a simple transformation of the anisotropic problem into an equivalent isotropic one, and we solve this new “fictitious” isotropic problem using an existing simulator based on the material point method. Our approach results in minimal changes to existing simulators, and it allows us to re‐use popular isotropic plasticity models like the Drucker‐Prager yield criterion instead of inventing new anisotropic plasticity models for every phenomenon we wish to simulate.
AU - Schreck, Camille
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8765
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
KW - Computer Networks and Communications
SN - 0167-7055
TI - A practical method for animating anisotropic elastoplastic materials
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The “procedural” approach to animating ocean waves is the dominant algorithm for animating larger bodies of water in
interactive applications as well as in off-line productions — it provides high visual quality with a low computational demand. In this paper, we widen the applicability of procedural water wave animation with an extension that guarantees the satisfaction of boundary conditions imposed by terrain while still approximating physical wave behavior. In combination with a particle system that models wave breaking, foam, and spray, this allows us to naturally model waves interacting with beaches and rocks. Our system is able to animate waves at large scales at interactive frame rates on a commodity PC.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Hafner, Christian
AU - Chentanez, Nuttapong
AU - Macklin, Miles
AU - Müller-Fischer, Matthias
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8766
IS - 8
JF - Computer Graphics forum
TI - Making procedural water waves boundary-aware
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce dynamically warping grids for adaptive liquid simulation. Our primary contributions are a strategy for dynamically deforming regular grids over the course of a simulation and a method for efficiently utilizing these deforming grids for liquid simulation. Prior work has shown that unstructured grids are very effective for adaptive fluid simulations. However, unstructured grids often lead to complicated implementations and a poor cache hit rate due to inconsistent memory access. Regular grids, on the other hand, provide a fast, fixed memory access pattern and straightforward implementation. Our method combines the advantages of both: we leverage the simplicity of regular grids while still achieving practical and controllable spatial adaptivity. We demonstrate that our method enables adaptive simulations that are fast, flexible, and robust to null-space issues. At the same time, our method is simple to implement and takes advantage of existing highly-tuned algorithms.
AU - Hikaru, Ibayashi
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Igarashi, Takeo
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
ID - 5681
IS - 6
JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
SN - 10772626
TI - Simulating liquids on dynamically warping grids
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multiple importance sampling (MIS) has become an indispensable tool in Monte Carlo rendering, widely accepted as a near-optimal solution for combining different sampling techniques. But an MIS combination, using the common balance or power heuristics, often results in an overly defensive estimator, leading to high variance. We show that by generalizing the MIS framework, variance can be substantially reduced. Specifically, we optimize one of the combined sampling techniques so as to decrease the overall variance of the resulting MIS estimator. We apply the approach to the computation of direct illumination due to an HDR environment map and to the computation of global illumination using a path guiding algorithm. The implementation can be as simple as subtracting a constant value from the tabulated sampling density done entirely in a preprocessing step. This produces a consistent noise reduction in all our tests with no negative influence on run time, no artifacts or bias, and no failure cases.
AU - Karlík, Ondřej
AU - Šik, Martin
AU - Vévoda, Petr
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Křivánek, Jaroslav
ID - 7418
IS - 6
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 0730-0301
TI - MIS compensation: Optimizing sampling techniques in multiple importance sampling
VL - 38
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper investigates the use of fundamental solutions for animating detailed linear water surface waves. We first propose an analytical solution for efficiently animating circular ripples in closed form. We then show how to adapt the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) to create ambient waves interacting with complex obstacles. Subsequently, we present a novel wavelet-based discretization which outperforms the state of the art MFS approach for simulating time-varying water surface waves with moving obstacles. Our results feature high-resolution spatial details, interactions with complex boundaries, and large open ocean domains. Our method compares favorably with previous work as well as known analytical solutions. We also present comparisons between our method and real world examples.
AU - Schreck, Camille
AU - Hafner, Christian
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 6442
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Fundamental solutions for water wave animation
VL - 38
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a thermodynamically based approach to the design of models for viscoelastic fluids with stress diffusion effect. In particular, we show how to add a stress diffusion term to some standard viscoelastic rate-type models (Giesekus, FENE-P, Johnson–Segalman, Phan-Thien–Tanner and Bautista–Manero–Puig) so that the resulting models with the added stress diffusion term are thermodynamically consistent in the sense that they obey the first and the second law of thermodynamics. We point out the potential applications of the provided thermodynamical background in the study of flows of fluids described by the proposed models.
AU - Dostalík, Mark
AU - Pruša, Vít
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
ID - 6642
T2 - AIP Conference Proceedings
TI - On diffusive variants of some classical viscoelastic rate-type models
VL - 2107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multiple Importance Sampling (MIS) is a key technique for achieving robustness of Monte Carlo estimators in computer graphics and other fields. We derive optimal weighting functions for MIS that provably minimize the variance of an MIS estimator, given a set of sampling techniques. We show that the resulting variance reduction over the balance heuristic can be higher than predicted by the variance bounds derived by Veach and Guibas, who assumed only non-negative weights in their proof. We theoretically analyze the variance of the optimal MIS weights and show the relation to the variance of the balance heuristic. Furthermore, we establish a connection between the new weighting functions and control variates as previously applied to mixture sampling. We apply the new optimal weights to integration problems in light transport and show that they allow for new design considerations when choosing the appropriate sampling techniques for a given integration problem.
AU - Kondapaneni, Ivo
AU - Vevoda, Petr
AU - Grittmann, Pascal
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Slusallek, Philipp
AU - Křivánek, Jaroslav
ID - 7002
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 0730-0301
TI - Optimal multiple importance sampling
VL - 38
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The current state of the art in real-time two-dimensional water wave simulation requires developers to choose between efficient Fourier-based methods, which lack interactions with moving obstacles, and finite-difference or finite element methods, which handle environmental interactions but are significantly more expensive. This paper attempts to bridge this long-standing gap between complexity and performance, by proposing a new wave simulation method that can faithfully simulate wave interactions with moving obstacles in real time while simultaneously preserving minute details and accommodating very large simulation domains.
Previous methods for simulating 2D water waves directly compute the change in height of the water surface, a strategy which imposes limitations based on the CFL condition (fast moving waves require small time steps) and Nyquist's limit (small wave details require closely-spaced simulation variables). This paper proposes a novel wavelet transformation that discretizes the liquid motion in terms of amplitude-like functions that vary over space, frequency, and direction, effectively generalizing Fourier-based methods to handle local interactions. Because these new variables change much more slowly over space than the original water height function, our change of variables drastically reduces the limitations of the CFL condition and Nyquist limit, allowing us to simulate highly detailed water waves at very large visual resolutions. Our discretization is amenable to fast summation and easy to parallelize. We also present basic extensions like pre-computed wave paths and two-way solid fluid coupling. Finally, we argue that our discretization provides a convenient set of variables for artistic manipulation, which we illustrate with a novel wave-painting interface.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Mueller Fischer, Matthias
AU - Chentanez, Nuttapong
AU - Macklin, Miles
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 134
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Water surface wavelets
VL - 37
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Fluid Implicit Particle method (FLIP) reduces numerical dissipation by combining particles with grids. To improve performance, the subsequent narrow band FLIP method (NB‐FLIP) uses a FLIP‐based fluid simulation only near the liquid surface and a traditional grid‐based fluid simulation away from the surface. This spatially‐limited FLIP simulation significantly reduces the number of particles and alleviates a computational bottleneck. In this paper, we extend the NB‐FLIP idea even further, by allowing a simulation to transition between a FLIP‐like fluid simulation and a grid‐based simulation in arbitrary locations, not just near the surface. This approach leads to even more savings in memory and computation, because we can concentrate the particles only in areas where they are needed. More importantly, this new method allows us to seamlessly transition to smooth implicit surface geometry wherever the particle‐based simulation is unnecessary. Consequently, our method leads to a practical algorithm for avoiding the noisy surface artifacts associated with particle‐based liquid simulations, while simultaneously maintaining the benefits of a FLIP simulation in regions of dynamic motion.
AU - Sato, Takahiro
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Igarashi, Takeo
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
ID - 135
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
SN - 0167-7055
TI - Extended narrow band FLIP for liquid simulations
VL - 37
ER -
TY - THES
AB - This thesis describes a brittle fracture simulation method for visual effects applications. Building upon a symmetric Galerkin boundary element method, we first compute stress intensity factors following the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics. We then use these stress intensities to simulate the motion of a propagating crack front at a significantly higher resolution than the overall deformation of the breaking object. Allowing for spatial variations of the material's toughness during crack propagation produces visually realistic, highly-detailed fracture surfaces. Furthermore, we introduce approximations for stress intensities and crack opening displacements, resulting in both practical speed-up and theoretically superior runtime complexity compared to previous methods. While we choose a quasi-static approach to fracture mechanics, ignoring dynamic deformations, we also couple our fracture simulation framework to a standard rigid-body dynamics solver, enabling visual effects artists to simulate both large scale motion, as well as fracturing due to collision forces in a combined system. As fractures inside of an object grow, their geometry must be represented both in the coarse boundary element mesh, as well as at the desired fine output resolution. Using a boundary element method, we avoid complicated volumetric meshing operations. Instead we describe a simple set of surface meshing operations that allow us to progressively add cracks to the mesh of an object and still re-use all previously computed entries of the linear boundary element system matrix. On the high resolution level, we opt for an implicit surface representation. We then describe how to capture fracture surfaces during crack propagation, as well as separate the individual fragments resulting from the fracture process, based on this implicit representation. We show results obtained with our method, either solving the full boundary element system in every time step, or alternatively using our fast approximations. These results demonstrate that both of these methods perform well in basic test cases and produce realistic fracture surfaces. Furthermore we show that our fast approximations substantially out-perform the standard approach in more demanding scenarios. Finally, these two methods naturally combine, using the full solution while the problem size is manageably small and switching to the fast approximations later on. The resulting hybrid method gives the user a direct way to choose between speed and accuracy of the simulation.
AU - Hahn, David
ID - 839
TI - Brittle fracture simulation with boundary elements for computer graphics
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents a method for simulating water surface waves as a displacement field on a 2D domain. Our method relies on Lagrangian particles that carry packets of water wave energy; each packet carries information about an entire group of wave trains, as opposed to only a single wave crest. Our approach is unconditionally stable and can simulate high resolution geometric details. This approach also presents a straightforward interface for artistic control, because it is essentially a particle system with intuitive parameters like wavelength and amplitude. Our implementation parallelizes well and runs in real time for moderately challenging scenarios.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 470
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Water wave packets
VL - 36
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Includes source codes, test cases, and example data used in the thesis Brittle Fracture Simulation with Boundary Elements for Computer Graphics. Also includes pre-built binaries of the HyENA library, but not sources - please contact the HyENA authors to obtain these sources if required (https://mech.tugraz.at/hyena)
AU - Hahn, David
ID - 5568
KW - Boundary elements
KW - brittle fracture
KW - computer graphics
KW - fracture simulation
TI - Source codes: Brittle fracture simulation with boundary elements for computer graphics
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose an efficient method to model paper tearing in the context of interactive modeling. The method uses geometrical information to automatically detect potential starting points of tears. We further introduce a new hybrid geometrical and physical-based method to compute the trajectory of tears while procedurally synthesizing high resolution details of the tearing path using a texture based approach. The results obtained are compared with real paper and with previous studies on the expected geometric paths of paper that tears.
AU - Schreck, Camille
AU - Rohmer, Damien
AU - Hahmann, Stefanie
ID - 670
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
SN - 01677055
TI - Interactive paper tearing
VL - 36
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - One of the major challenges in physically based modelling is making simulations efficient. Adaptive models provide an essential solution to these efficiency goals. These models are able to self-adapt in space and time, attempting to provide the best possible compromise between accuracy and speed. This survey reviews the adaptive solutions proposed so far in computer graphics. Models are classified according to the strategy they use for adaptation, from time-stepping and freezing techniques to geometric adaptivity in the form of structured grids, meshes and particles. Applications range from fluids, through deformable bodies, to articulated solids.
AU - Manteaux, Pierre
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Narain, Rahul
AU - Redon, Stéphane
AU - Faure, François
AU - Cani, Marie
ID - 1367
IS - 6
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
SN - 01677055
TI - Adaptive physically based models in computer graphics
VL - 36
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose a new memetic strategy that can solve the multi-physics, complex inverse problems, formulated as the multi-objective optimization ones, in which objectives are misfits between the measured and simulated states of various governing processes. The multi-deme structure of the strategy allows for both, intensive, relatively cheap exploration with a moderate accuracy and more accurate search many regions of Pareto set in parallel. The special type of selection operator prefers the coherent alternative solutions, eliminating artifacts appearing in the particular processes. The additional accuracy increment is obtained by the parallel convex searches applied to the local scalarizations of the misfit vector. The strategy is dedicated for solving ill-conditioned problems, for which inverting the single physical process can lead to the ambiguous results. The skill of the selection in artifact elimination is shown on the benchmark problem, while the whole strategy was applied for identification of oil deposits, where the misfits are related to various frequencies of the magnetic and electric waves of the magnetotelluric measurements. 2016 Elsevier B.V.
AU - Gajda-Zagorska, Ewa P
AU - Schaefer, Robert
AU - Smołka, Maciej
AU - Pardo, David
AU - Alvarez Aramberri, Julen
ID - 1152
JF - Journal of Computational Science
SN - 18777503
TI - A multi objective memetic inverse solver reinforced by local optimization methods
VL - 18
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A major open problem on the road to artificial intelligence is the development of incrementally learning systems that learn about more and more concepts over time from a stream of data. In this work, we introduce a new training strategy, iCaRL, that allows learning in such a class-incremental way: only the training data for a small number of classes has to be present at the same time and new classes can be added progressively. iCaRL learns strong classifiers and a data representation simultaneously. This distinguishes it from earlier works that were fundamentally limited to fixed data representations and therefore incompatible with deep learning architectures. We show by experiments on CIFAR-100 and ImageNet ILSVRC 2012 data that iCaRL can learn many classes incrementally over a long period of time where other strategies quickly fail.
AU - Rebuffi, Sylvestre Alvise
AU - Kolesnikov, Alexander
AU - Sperl, Georg
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 998
SN - 978-153860457-1
TI - iCaRL: Incremental classifier and representation learning
VL - 2017
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - PhD thesis LaTeX source code
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
ID - 5558
TI - Tracking, Correcting and Absorbing Water Surface Waves
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose a novel surface-only technique for simulating incompressible, inviscid and uniform-density liquids with surface tension in three dimensions. The liquid surface is captured by a triangle mesh on which a Lagrangian velocity field is stored. Because advection of the velocity field may violate the incompressibility condition, we devise an orthogonal projection technique to remove the divergence while requiring the evaluation of only two boundary integrals. The forces of surface tension, gravity, and solid contact are all treated by a boundary element solve, allowing us to perform detailed simulations of a wide range of liquid phenomena, including waterbells, droplet and jet collisions, fluid chains, and crown splashes.
AU - Da, Fang
AU - Hahn, David
AU - Batty, Christopher
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Grinspun, Eitan
ID - 1361
IS - 4
TI - Surface only liquids
VL - 35
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a boundary element based method for fast simulation of brittle fracture. By introducing simplifying assumptions that allow us to quickly estimate stress intensities and opening displacements during crack propagation, we build a fracture algorithm where the cost of each time step scales linearly with the length of the crackfront. The transition from a full boundary element method to our faster variant is possible at the beginning of any time step. This allows us to build a hybrid method, which uses the expensive but more accurate BEM while the number of degrees of freedom is low, and uses the fast method once that number exceeds a given threshold as the crack geometry becomes more complicated. Furthermore, we integrate this fracture simulation with a standard rigid-body solver. Our rigid-body coupling solves a Neumann boundary value problem by carefully separating translational, rotational and deformational components of the collision forces and then applying a Tikhonov regularizer to the resulting linear system. We show that our method produces physically reasonable results in standard test cases and is capable of dealing with complex scenes faster than previous finite- or boundary element approaches.
AU - Hahn, David
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1362
IS - 4
TI - Fast approximations for boundary element based brittle fracture simulation
VL - 35
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - When aiming to seamlessly integrate a fluid simulation into a larger scenario (like an open ocean), careful attention must be paid to boundary conditions. In particular, one must implement special "non-reflecting" boundary conditions, which dissipate out-going waves as they exit the simulation. Unfortunately, the state of the art in non-reflecting boundary conditions (perfectly-matched layers, or PMLs) only permits trivially simple inflow/outflow conditions, so there is no reliable way to integrate a fluid simulation into a more complicated environment like a stormy ocean or a turbulent river. This paper introduces the first method for combining nonreflecting boundary conditions based on PMLs with inflow/outflow boundary conditions that vary arbitrarily throughout space and time. Our algorithm is a generalization of stateof- the-art mean-flow boundary conditions in the computational fluid dynamics literature, and it allows for seamless integration of a fluid simulation into much more complicated environments. Our method also opens the door for previously-unseen postprocess effects like retroactively changing the location of solid obstacles, and locally increasing the visual detail of a pre-existing simulation.
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1363
IS - 4
TI - Generalized non-reflecting boundaries for fluid re-simulation
VL - 35
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Combining high-resolution level set surface tracking with lower resolution physics is an inexpensive method for achieving highly detailed liquid animations. Unfortunately, the inherent resolution mismatch introduces several types of disturbing visual artifacts. We identify the primary sources of these artifacts and present simple, efficient, and practical solutions to address them. First, we propose an unconditionally stable filtering method that selectively removes sub-grid surface artifacts not seen by the fluid physics, while preserving fine detail in dynamic splashing regions. It provides comparable results to recent error-correction techniques at lower cost, without substepping, and with better scaling behavior. Second, we show how a modified narrow-band scheme can ensure accurate free surface boundary conditions in the presence of large resolution mismatches. Our scheme preserves the efficiency of the narrow-band methodology, while eliminating objectionable stairstep artifacts observed in prior work. Third, we demonstrate that the use of linear interpolation of velocity during advection of the high-resolution level set surface is responsible for visible grid-aligned kinks; we therefore advocate higher-order velocity interpolation, and show that it dramatically reduces this artifact. While these three contributions are orthogonal, our results demonstrate that taken together they efficiently address the dominant sources of visual artifacts arising with high-resolution embedded liquid surfaces; the proposed approach offers improved visual quality, a straightforward implementation, and substantially greater scalability than competing methods.
AU - Goldade, Ryan
AU - Batty, Christopher
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1412
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - A practical method for high-resolution embedded liquid surfaces
VL - 35
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper generalizes the well-known Diffusion Curves Images (DCI), which are composed of a set of Bezier curves with colors specified on either side. These colors are diffused as Laplace functions over the image domain, which results in smooth color gradients interrupted by the Bezier curves. Our new formulation allows for more color control away from the boundary, providing a similar expressive power as recent Bilaplace image models without introducing associated issues and computational costs. The new model is based on a special Laplace function blending and a new edge blur formulation. We demonstrate that given some user-defined boundary curves over an input raster image, fitting colors and edge blur from the image to the new model and subsequent editing and animation is equally convenient as with DCIs. Numerous examples and comparisons to DCIs are presented.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
ID - 1413
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - Generalized diffusion curves: An improved vector representation for smooth-shaded images
VL - 35
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Fluid Implicit Particle method (FLIP) for liquid simulations uses particles to reduce numerical dissipation and provide important visual cues for events like complex splashes and small-scale features near the liquid surface. Unfortunately, FLIP simulations can be computationally expensive, because they require a dense sampling of particles to fill the entire liquid volume. Furthermore, the vast majority of these FLIP particles contribute nothing to the fluid's visual appearance, especially for larger volumes of liquid. We present a method that only uses FLIP particles within a narrow band of the liquid surface, while efficiently representing the remaining inner volume on a regular grid. We show that a naïve realization of this idea introduces unstable and uncontrollable energy fluctuations, and we propose a novel coupling scheme between FLIP particles and regular grid which overcomes this problem. Our method drastically reduces the particle count and simulation times while yielding results that are nearly indistinguishable from regular FLIP simulations. Our approach is easy to integrate into any existing FLIP implementation.
AU - Ferstl, Florian
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Westermann, Rüdiger
AU - Thuerey, Nils
ID - 1415
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - Narrow band FLIP for liquid simulations
VL - 35
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Computer graphics is an extremely exciting field for two reasons. On the one hand,
there is a healthy injection of pragmatism coming from the visual effects industry
that want robust algorithms that work so they can produce results at an increasingly
frantic pace. On the other hand, they must always try to push the envelope and
achieve the impossible to wow their audiences in the next blockbuster, which means
that the industry has not succumb to conservatism, and there is plenty of room to
try out new and crazy ideas if there is a chance that it will pan into something
useful.
Water simulation has been in visual effects for decades, however it still remains
extremely challenging because of its high computational cost and difficult artdirectability.
The work in this thesis tries to address some of these difficulties.
Specifically, we make the following three novel contributions to the state-of-the-art
in water simulation for visual effects.
First, we develop the first algorithm that can convert any sequence of closed
surfaces in time into a moving triangle mesh. State-of-the-art methods at the time
could only handle surfaces with fixed connectivity, but we are the first to be able to
handle surfaces that merge and split apart. This is important for water simulation
practitioners, because it allows them to convert splashy water surfaces extracted
from particles or simulated using grid-based level sets into triangle meshes that can
be either textured and enhanced with extra surface dynamics as a post-process.
We also apply our algorithm to other phenomena that merge and split apart, such
as morphs and noisy reconstructions of human performances.
Second, we formulate a surface-based energy that measures the deviation of a
water surface froma physically valid state. Such discrepancies arise when there is a
mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the water surface and the underlying
physics solver. This commonly happens when practitioners use a moving triangle
mesh with a grid-based physics solver, or when high-resolution grid-based surfaces
are combined with low-resolution physics. Following the direction of steepest
descent on our surface-based energy, we can either smooth these artifacts or turn
them into high-resolution waves by interpreting the energy as a physical potential.
Third, we extend state-of-the-art techniques in non-reflecting boundaries to handle spatially and time-varying background flows. This allows a novel new
workflow where practitioners can re-simulate part of an existing simulation, such
as removing a solid obstacle, adding a new splash or locally changing the resolution.
Such changes can easily lead to new waves in the re-simulated region that would
reflect off of the new simulation boundary, effectively ruining the illusion of a
seamless simulation boundary between the existing and new simulations. Our
non-reflecting boundaries makes sure that such waves are absorbed.
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
ID - 1122
TI - Tracking, correcting and absorbing water surface waves
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose an interactive sculpting system for seamlessly editing pre-computed animations of liquid, without the need for any resimulation. The input is a sequence of meshes without correspondences representing the liquid surface over time. Our method enables the efficient selection of consistent space-time parts of this animation, such as moving waves or droplets, which we call space-time features. Once selected, a feature can be copied, edited, or duplicated and then pasted back anywhere in space and time in the same or in another liquid animation sequence. Our method circumvents tedious user interactions by automatically computing the spatial and temporal ranges of the selected feature. We also provide space-time shape editing tools for non-uniform scaling, rotation, trajectory changes, and temporal editing to locally speed up or slow down motion. Using our tools, the user can edit and progressively refine any input simulation result, possibly using a library of precomputed space-time features extracted from other animations. In contrast to the trial-and-error loop usually required to edit animation results through the tuning of indirect simulation parameters, our method gives the user full control over the edited space-time behaviors. © 2016 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).
AU - Manteaux, Pierre
AU - Vimont, Ulysse
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Rohmer, Damien
AU - Cani, Marie
ID - 1136
T2 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Motion in Games
TI - Space-time sculpting of liquid animation
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper we introduce the Multiobjective Optimization Hierarchic Genetic Strategy with maturing (MO-mHGS), a meta-algorithm that performs evolutionary optimization in a hierarchy of populations. The maturing mechanism improves growth and reduces redundancy. The performance of MO-mHGS with selected state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithms as internal algorithms is analysed on benchmark problems and their modifications for which single fitness evaluation time depends on the solution accuracy. We compare the proposed algorithm with the Island Model Genetic Algorithm as well as with single-deme methods, and discuss the impact of internal algorithms on the MO-mHGS meta-algorithm. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
AU - Łazarz, Radosław
AU - Idzik, Michał
AU - Gądek, Konrad
AU - Gajda-Zagorska, Ewa P
ID - 1141
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Computational Science
TI - Hierarchic genetic strategy with maturing as a generic tool for multiobjective optimization
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This work presents a method for efficiently simplifying the pressure projection step in a liquid simulation. We first devise a straightforward dimension reduction technique that dramatically reduces the cost of solving the pressure projection. Next, we introduce a novel change of basis that satisfies free-surface boundary conditions exactly, regardless of the accuracy of the pressure solve. When combined, these ideas greatly reduce the computational complexity of the pressure solve without compromising free surface boundary conditions at the highest level of detail. Our techniques are easy to parallelize, and they effectively eliminate the computational bottleneck for large liquid simulations.
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
AU - Thürey, Nils
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1735
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - A dimension-reduced pressure solver for liquid simulations
VL - 34
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present an efficient wavefront tracking algorithm for animating bodies of water that interact with their environment. Our contributions include: a novel wavefront tracking technique that enables dispersion, refraction, reflection, and diffraction in the same simulation; a unique multivalued function interpolation method that enables our simulations to elegantly sidestep the Nyquist limit; a dispersion approximation for efficiently amplifying the number of simulated waves by several orders of magnitude; and additional extensions that allow for time-dependent effects and interactive artistic editing of the resulting animation. Our contributions combine to give us multitudes more wave details than similar algorithms, while maintaining high frame rates and allowing close camera zooms.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1814
IS - 3
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Water wave animation via wavefront parameter interpolation
VL - 34
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a method to learn and propagate shape placements in 2D polygonal scenes from a few examples provided by a user. The placement of a shape is modeled as an oriented bounding box. Simple geometric relationships between this bounding box and nearby scene polygons define a feature set for the placement. The feature sets of all example placements are then used to learn a probabilistic model over all possible placements and scenes. With this model, we can generate a new set of placements with similar geometric relationships in any given scene. We introduce extensions that enable propagation and generation of shapes in 3D scenes, as well as the application of a learned modeling session to large scenes without additional user interaction. These concepts allow us to generate complex scenes with thousands of objects with relatively little user interaction.
AU - Guerrero, Paul
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Wimmer, Michael
AU - Wonka, Peter
ID - 1630
IS - 4
TI - Learning shape placements by example
VL - 34
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper presents a liquid simulation technique that enforces the incompressibility condition using a stream function solve instead of a pressure projection. Previous methods have used stream function techniques for the simulation of detailed single-phase flows, but a formulation for liquid simulation has proved elusive in part due to the free surface boundary conditions. In this paper, we introduce a stream function approach to liquid simulations with novel boundary conditions for free surfaces, solid obstacles, and solid-fluid coupling.
Although our approach increases the dimension of the linear system necessary to enforce incompressibility, it provides interesting and surprising benefits. First, the resulting flow is guaranteed to be divergence-free regardless of the accuracy of the solve. Second, our free-surface boundary conditions guarantee divergence-free motion even in the un-simulated air phase, which enables two-phase flow simulation by only computing a single phase. We implemented this method using a variant of FLIP simulation which only samples particles within a narrow band of the liquid surface, and we illustrate the effectiveness of our method for detailed two-phase flow simulations with complex boundaries, detailed bubble interactions, and two-way solid-fluid coupling.
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1632
IS - 4
TI - A stream function solver for liquid simulations
VL - 34
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a method for simulating brittle fracture under the assumptions of quasi-static linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Using the boundary element method (BEM) and Lagrangian crack-fronts, we produce highly detailed fracture surfaces. The computational cost of the BEM is alleviated by using a low-resolution mesh and interpolating the resulting stress intensity factors when propagating the high-resolution crack-front.
Our system produces physics-based fracture surfaces with high spatial and temporal resolution, taking spatial variation of material toughness and/or strength into account. It also allows for crack initiation to be handled separately from crack propagation, which is not only more reasonable from a physics perspective, but can also be used to control the simulation.
Separating the resolution of the crack-front from the resolution of the computational mesh increases the efficiency and therefore the amount of visual detail on the resulting fracture surfaces. The BEM also allows us to re-use previously computed blocks of the system matrix.
AU - Hahn, David
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 1633
IS - 4
TI - High-resolution brittle fracture simulation with boundary elements
VL - 34
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Simulating the delightful dynamics of soap films, bubbles, and foams has traditionally required the use of a fully three-dimensional many-phase Navier-Stokes solver, even though their visual appearance is completely dominated by the thin liquid surface. We depart from earlier work on soap bubbles and foams by noting that their dynamics are naturally described by a Lagrangian vortex sheet model in which circulation is the primary variable. This leads us to derive a novel circulation-preserving surface-only discretization of foam dynamics driven by surface tension on a non-manifold triangle mesh. We represent the surface using a mesh-based multimaterial surface tracker which supports complex bubble topology changes, and evolve the surface according to the ambient air flow induced by a scalar circulation field stored on the mesh. Surface tension forces give rise to a simple update rule for circulation, even at non-manifold Plateau borders, based on a discrete measure of signed scalar mean curvature. We further incorporate vertex constraints to enable the interaction of soap films with wires. The result is a method that is at once simple, robust, and efficient, yet able to capture an array of soap films behaviors including foam rearrangement, catenoid collapse, blowing bubbles, and double bubbles being pulled apart.
AU - Da, Fang
AU - Batty, Christopher
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Grinspun, Eitan
ID - 1634
IS - 4
TI - Double bubbles sans toil and trouble: discrete circulation-preserving vortex sheets for soap films and foams
VL - 34
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we present a method for non-rigid, partial shape matching in vector graphics. Given a user-specified query region in a 2D shape, similar regions are found, even if they are non-linearly distorted. Furthermore, a non-linear mapping is established between the query regions and these matches, which allows the automatic transfer of editing operations such as texturing. This is achieved by a two-step approach. First, pointwise correspondences between the query region and the whole shape are established. The transformation parameters of these correspondences are registered in an appropriate transformation space. For transformations between similar regions, these parameters form surfaces in transformation space, which are extracted in the second step of our method. The extracted regions may be related to the query region by a non-rigid transform, enabling non-rigid shape matching. In this paper, we present a method for non-rigid, partial shape matching in vector graphics. Given a user-specified query region in a 2D shape, similar regions are found, even if they are non-linearly distorted. Furthermore, a non-linear mapping is established between the query regions and these matches, which allows the automatic transfer of editing operations such as texturing. This is achieved by a two-step approach. First, pointwise correspondences between the query region and the whole shape are established. The transformation parameters of these correspondences are registered in an appropriate transformation space. For transformations between similar regions, these parameters form surfaces in transformation space, which are extracted in the second step of our method. The extracted regions may be related to the query region by a non-rigid transform, enabling non-rigid shape matching.
AU - Guerrero, Paul
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Wimmer, Michael
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
ID - 1854
IS - 1
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - Partial shape matching using transformation parameter similarity
VL - 34
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we introduce a novel scene representation for the visualization of large-scale point clouds accompanied by a set of high-resolution photographs. Many real-world applications deal with very densely sampled point-cloud data, which are augmented with photographs that often reveal lighting variations and inaccuracies in registration. Consequently, the high-quality representation of the captured data, i.e., both point clouds and photographs together, is a challenging and time-consuming task. We propose a two-phase approach, in which the first (preprocessing) phase generates multiple overlapping surface patches and handles the problem of seamless texture generation locally for each patch. The second phase stitches these patches at render-time to produce a high-quality visualization of the data. As a result of the proposed localization of the global texturing problem, our algorithm is more than an order of magnitude faster than equivalent mesh-based texturing techniques. Furthermore, since our preprocessing phase requires only a minor fraction of the whole data set at once, we provide maximum flexibility when dealing with growing data sets.
AU - Arikan, Murat
AU - Preiner, Reinhold
AU - Scheiblauer, Claus
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Wimmer, Michael
ID - 1906
IS - 9
JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
TI - Large-scale point-cloud visualization through localized textured surface reconstruction
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations.
AU - Guerrero, Paul
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Wimmer, Michael
AU - Wonka, Peter
ID - 1629
IS - 2
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a new method for efficiently simulating liquid with extreme amounts of spatial adaptivity. Our method combines several key components to drastically speed up the simulation of large-scale fluid phenomena: We leverage an alternative Eulerian tetrahedral mesh discretization to significantly reduce the complexity of the pressure solve while increasing the robustness with respect to element quality and removing the possibility of locking. Next, we enable subtle free-surface phenomena by deriving novel second-order boundary conditions consistent with our discretization. We couple this discretization with a spatially adaptive Fluid-Implicit Particle (FLIP) method, enabling efficient, robust, minimally-dissipative simulations that can undergo sharp changes in spatial resolution while minimizing artifacts. Along the way, we provide a new method for generating a smooth and detailed surface from a set of particles with variable sizes. Finally, we explore several new sizing functions for determining spatially adaptive simulation resolutions, and we show how to couple them to our simulator. We combine each of these elements to produce a simulation algorithm that is capable of creating animations at high maximum resolutions while avoiding common pitfalls like inaccurate boundary conditions and inefficient computation.
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2466
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Highly adaptive liquid simulations on tetrahedral meshes
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents a method for computing topology changes for triangle meshes in an interactive geometric modeling environment. Most triangle meshes in practice do not exhibit desirable geometric properties, so we develop a solution that is independent of standard assumptions and robust to geometric errors. Specifically, we provide the first method for topology change applicable to arbitrary non-solid, non-manifold, non-closed, self-intersecting surfaces. We prove that this new method for topology change produces the expected conventional results when applied to solid (closed, manifold, non-self-intersecting) surfaces---that is, we prove a backwards-compatibility property relative to prior work. Beyond solid surfaces, we present empirical evidence that our method remains tolerant to a variety of surface aberrations through the incorporation of a novel error correction scheme. Finally, we demonstrate how topology change applied to non-solid objects enables wholly new and useful behaviors.
AU - Bernstein, Gilbert
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2467
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Putting holes in holey geometry: Topology change for arbitrary surfaces
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Our work concerns the combination of an Eulerian liquid simulation with a high-resolution surface tracker (e.g. the level set method or a Lagrangian triangle mesh). The naive application of a high-resolution surface tracker to a low-resolution velocity field can produce many visually disturbing physical and topological artifacts that limit their use in practice. We address these problems by defining an error function which compares the current state of the surface tracker to the set of physically valid surface states. By reducing this error with a gradient descent technique, we introduce a novel physics-based surface fairing method. Similarly, by treating this error function as a potential energy, we derive a new surface correction force that mimics the vortex sheet equations. We demonstrate our results with both level set and mesh-based surface trackers.
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 2468
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Liquid surface tracking with error compensation
VL - 32
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a method for recovering a temporally coherent, deforming triangle mesh with arbitrarily changing topology from an incoherent sequence of static closed surfaces. We solve this problem using the surface geometry alone, without any prior information like surface templates or velocity fields. Our system combines a proven strategy for triangle mesh improvement, a robust multi-resolution non-rigid registration routine, and a reliable technique for changing surface mesh topology. We also introduce a novel topological constraint enforcement algorithm to ensure that the output and input always have similar topology. We apply our technique to a series of diverse input data from video reconstructions, physics simulations, and artistic morphs. The structured output of our algorithm allows us to efficiently track information like colors and displacement maps, recover velocity information, and solve PDEs on the mesh as a post process.
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
AU - Li, Hao
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 3118
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
TI - Tracking surfaces with evolving topology
VL - 31
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present an approach for artist-directed animation of liquids using multiple levels of control over the simulation, ranging from the overall tracking of desired shapes to highly detailed secondary effects such as dripping streams, separating sheets of fluid, surface waves and ripples. The first portion of our technique is a volume preserving morph that allows the animator to produce a plausible fluid-like motion from a sparse set of control meshes. By rasterizing the resulting control meshes onto the simulation grid, the mesh velocities act as boundary conditions during the projection step of the fluid simulation. We can then blend this motion together with uncontrolled fluid velocities to achieve a more relaxed control over the fluid that captures natural inertial effects. Our method can produce highly detailed liquid surfaces with control over sub-grid details by using a mesh-based surface tracker on top of a coarse grid-based fluid simulation. We can create ripples and waves on the fluid surface attracting the surface mesh to the control mesh with spring-like forces and also by running a wave simulation over the surface mesh. Our video results demonstrate how our control scheme can be used to create animated characters and shapes that are made of water.
AU - Raveendran, Karthik
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Turk, Greg
ID - 3119
T2 - Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation
TI - Controlling liquids using meshes
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We introduce the idea of using an explicit triangle mesh to track the air/fluid interface in a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator. Once an initial surface mesh is created, this mesh is carried forward in time using nearby particle velocities to advect the mesh vertices. The mesh connectivity remains mostly unchanged across time-steps; it is only modified locally for topology change events or for the improvement of triangle quality. In order to ensure that the surface mesh does not diverge from the underlying particle simulation, we periodically project the mesh surface onto an implicit surface defined by the physics simulation. The mesh surface gives us several advantages over previous SPH surface tracking techniques. We demonstrate a new method for surface tension calculations that clearly outperforms the state of the art in SPH surface tension for computer graphics. We also demonstrate a method for tracking detailed surface information (like colors) that is less susceptible to numerical diffusion than competing techniques. Finally, our temporally-coherent surface mesh allows us to simulate high-resolution surface wave dynamics without being limited by the particle resolution of the SPH simulation.
AU - Yu, Jihun
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Turk, Greg
AU - Yap, Chee
ID - 3123
IS - 2
T2 - Computer Graphics Forum
TI - Explicit mesh surfaces for particle based fluids
VL - 31
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Animating detailed liquid surfaces has always been a challenge for computer graphics researchers and visual effects artists. Over the past few years, researchers in this field have focused on mesh-based surface tracking to synthesize extremely detailed liquid surfaces as efficiently as possible. This course provides a solid understanding of the steps required to create a fluid simulator with a mesh-based liquid surface.
The course begins with an overview of several existing liquid-surface-tracking techniques and the pros and cons of each method. Then it explains how to embed a triangle mesh into a finite-difference-based fluid simulator and describes several methods for allowing the liquid surface to merge together or break apart. The final section showcases the benefits and further applications of a mesh-based liquid surface, highlighting state-of-the-art methods for tracking colors and textures, maintaining liquid volume, preserving small surface features, and simulating realistic surface-tension waves.
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Müller Fischer, Matthias
AU - Brochu, Tyson
ID - 3297
TI - Liquid simulation with mesh-based surface tracking
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a new algorithm for enforcing incompressibility for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) by preserving uniform density across the domain. We propose a hybrid method that uses a Poisson solve on a coarse grid to enforce a divergence free velocity ﬁeld, followed by a local density correction of the particles. This avoids typical grid artifacts and maintains the Lagrangian nature of SPH by directly transferring pressures onto particles. Our method can be easily integrated with existing SPH techniques such as the incompressible PCISPH method as well as weakly compressible SPH by adding an additional force term. We show that this hybrid method accelerates convergence towards uniform density and permits a signiﬁcantly larger time step compared to earlier approaches while producing similar results. We demonstrate our approach in a variety of scenarios with signiﬁcant pressure gradients such as splashing liquids.
AU - Raveendran, Karthik
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Turk, Greg
ED - Spencer, Stephen
ID - 3298
TI - Hybrid smoothed particle hydrodynamics
ER -