TY - JOUR
AB - This study treats with the influence of a symmetry-breaking transversal magnetic field on the nonlinear dynamics of ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow – flow confined between two concentric independently rotating cylinders. We detected alternating ‘flip’ solutions which are flow states featuring typical characteristics of slow-fast-dynamics in dynamical systems. The flip corresponds to a temporal change in the axial wavenumber and we find them to appear either as pure 2-fold axisymmetric (due to the symmetry-breaking nature of the applied transversal magnetic field) or involving non-axisymmetric, helical modes in its interim solution. The latter ones show features of typical ribbon solutions. In any case the flip solutions have a preferential first axial wavenumber which corresponds to the more stable state (slow dynamics) and second axial wavenumber, corresponding to the short appearing more unstable state (fast dynamics). However, in both cases the flip time grows exponential with increasing the magnetic field strength before the flip solutions, living on 2-tori invariant manifolds, cease to exist, with lifetime going to infinity. Further we show that ferrofluidic flow turbulence differ from the classical, ordinary (usually at high Reynolds number) turbulence. The applied magnetic field hinders the free motion of ferrofluid partials and therefore smoothen typical turbulent quantities and features so that speaking of mildly chaotic dynamics seems to be a more appropriate expression for the observed motion.
AU - Altmeyer, Sebastian
ID - 519
JF - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
TI - Non-linear dynamics and alternating ‘flip’ solutions in ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow
VL - 452
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In pipes, turbulence sets in despite the linear stability of the laminar Hagen–Poiseuille flow. The Reynolds number ( ) for which turbulence first appears in a given experiment – the ‘natural transition point’ – depends on imperfections of the set-up, or, more precisely, on the magnitude of finite amplitude perturbations. At onset, turbulence typically only occupies a certain fraction of the flow, and this fraction equally is found to differ from experiment to experiment. Despite these findings, Reynolds proposed that after sufficiently long times, flows may settle to steady conditions: below a critical velocity, flows should (regardless of initial conditions) always return to laminar, while above this velocity, eddying motion should persist. As will be shown, even in pipes several thousand diameters long, the spatio-temporal intermittent flow patterns observed at the end of the pipe strongly depend on the initial conditions, and there is no indication that different flow patterns would eventually settle to a (statistical) steady state. Exploiting the fact that turbulent puffs do not age (i.e. they are memoryless), we continuously recreate the puff sequence exiting the pipe at the pipe entrance, and in doing so introduce periodic boundary conditions for the puff pattern. This procedure allows us to study the evolution of the flow patterns for arbitrary long times, and we find that after times in excess of advective time units, indeed a statistical steady state is reached. Although the resulting flows remain spatio-temporally intermittent, puff splitting and decay rates eventually reach a balance, so that the turbulent fraction fluctuates around a well-defined level which only depends on . In accordance with Reynolds’ proposition, we find that at lower (here 2020), flows eventually always resume to laminar, while for higher ( ), turbulence persists. The critical point for pipe flow hence falls in the interval of $2020 , which is in very good agreement with the recently proposed value of . The latter estimate was based on single-puff statistics and entirely neglected puff interactions. Unlike in typical contact processes where such interactions strongly affect the percolation threshold, in pipe flow, the critical point is only marginally influenced. Interactions, on the other hand, are responsible for the approach to the statistical steady state. As shown, they strongly affect the resulting flow patterns, where they cause ‘puff clustering’, and these regions of large puff densities are observed to travel across the puff pattern in a wave-like fashion.
AU - Vasudevan, Mukund
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 5996
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 0022-1120
TI - The critical point of the transition to turbulence in pipe flow
VL - 839
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recent studies suggest that unstable, nonchaotic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation may provide deep insights into fluid turbulence. In this article, we present a combined experimental and numerical study exploring the dynamical role of unstable equilibrium solutions and their invariant manifolds in a weakly turbulent, electromagnetically driven, shallow fluid layer. Identifying instants when turbulent evolution slows down, we compute 31 unstable equilibria of a realistic two-dimensional model of the flow. We establish the dynamical relevance of these unstable equilibria by showing that they are closely visited by the turbulent flow. We also establish the dynamical relevance of unstable manifolds by verifying that they are shadowed by turbulent trajectories departing from the neighborhoods of unstable equilibria over large distances in state space.
AU - Suri, Balachandra
AU - Tithof, Jeffrey
AU - Grigoriev, Roman
AU - Schatz, Michael
ID - 136
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review E
TI - Unstable equilibria and invariant manifolds in quasi-two-dimensional Kolmogorov-like flow
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We report quantitative evidence of mixing-layer elastic instability in a viscoelastic fluid flow between two widely spaced obstacles hindering a channel flow at Re 1 and Wi 1. Two mixing layers with nonuniform shear velocity profiles are formed in the region between the obstacles. The mixing-layer instability arises in the vicinity of an inflection point on the shear velocity profile with a steep variation in the elastic stress. The instability results in an intermittent appearance of small vortices in the mixing layers and an amplification of spatiotemporal averaged vorticity in the elastic turbulence regime. The latter is characterized through scaling of friction factor with Wi and both pressure and velocity spectra. Furthermore, the observations reported provide improved understanding of the stability of the mixing layer in a viscoelastic fluid at large elasticity, i.e., Wi 1 and Re 1 and oppose the current view of suppression of vorticity solely by polymer additives.
AU - Varshney, Atul
AU - Steinberg, Victor
ID - 16
IS - 10
JF - Physical Review Fluids
TI - Mixing layer instability and vorticity amplification in a creeping viscoelastic flow
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The drag of turbulent flows can be drastically decreased by adding small amounts of high molecular weight polymers. While drag reduction initially increases with polymer concentration, it eventually saturates to what is known as the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote; this asymptote is generally attributed to the dynamics being reduced to a marginal yet persistent state of subdued turbulent motion. Contrary to this accepted view, we show that, for an appropriate choice of parameters, polymers can reduce the drag beyond the suggested asymptotic limit, eliminating turbulence and giving way to laminar flow. At higher polymer concentrations, however, the laminar state becomes unstable, resulting in a fluctuating flow with the characteristic drag of the MDR asymptote. Our findings indicate that the asymptotic state is hence dynamically disconnected from ordinary turbulence. © 2018 American Physical Society.
AU - Choueiri, George H
AU - Lopez Alonso, Jose M
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 328
IS - 12
JF - Physical Review Letters
TI - Exceeding the asymptotic limit of polymer drag reduction
VL - 120
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that a rather simple, steady modification of the streamwise velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarizes. Two different devices, a stationary obstacle (inset) and a device which injects fluid through an annular gap close to the wall, are used to control the flow. Both devices modify the streamwise velocity profile such that the flow in the center of the pipe is decelerated and the flow in the near wall region is accelerated. We present measurements with stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to investigate and capture the development of the relaminarizing flow downstream these devices and the specific circumstances responsible for relaminarization. We find total relaminarization up to Reynolds numbers of 6000, where the skin friction in the far downstream distance is reduced by a factor of 3.4 due to relaminarization. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains completely laminar downstream of the control. Furthermore, we show that transient (temporary) relaminarization in a spatially confined region right downstream the devices occurs also at much higher Reynolds numbers, accompanied by a significant local skin friction drag reduction. The underlying physical mechanism of relaminarization is attributed to a weakening of the near-wall turbulence production cycle.
AU - Kühnen, Jakob
AU - Scarselli, Davide
AU - Schaner, Markus
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 422
IS - 4
JF - Flow Turbulence and Combustion
TI - Relaminarization by steady modification of the streamwise velocity profile in a pipe
VL - 100
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.
AU - Kühnen, Jakob
AU - Song, Baofang
AU - Scarselli, Davide
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Riedl, Michael
AU - Willis, Ashley
AU - Avila, Marc
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 461
JF - Nature Physics
TI - Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In shear flows at transitional Reynolds numbers, localized patches of turbulence, known as puffs, coexist with the laminar flow. Recently, Avila et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 110, 2013, 224502) discovered two spatially localized relative periodic solutions for pipe flow, which appeared in a saddle-node bifurcation at low Reynolds number. Combining slicing methods for continuous symmetry reduction with Poincaré sections for the first time in a shear flow setting, we compute and visualize the unstable manifold of the lower-branch solution and show that it extends towards the neighbourhood of the upper-branch solution. Surprisingly, this connection even persists far above the bifurcation point and appears to mediate the first stage of the puff generation: amplification of streamwise localized fluctuations. When the state-space trajectories on the unstable manifold reach the vicinity of the upper branch, corresponding fluctuations expand in space and eventually take the usual shape of a puff.
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 824
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Heteroclinic path to spatially localized chaos in pipe flow
VL - 827
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Fluid flows in nature and applications are frequently subject to periodic velocity modulations. Surprisingly, even for the generic case of flow through a straight pipe, there is little consensus regarding the influence of pulsation on the transition threshold to turbulence: while most studies predict a monotonically increasing threshold with pulsation frequency (i.e. Womersley number, ), others observe a decreasing threshold for identical parameters and only observe an increasing threshold at low . In the present study we apply recent advances in the understanding of transition in steady shear flows to pulsating pipe flow. For moderate pulsation amplitudes we find that the first instability encountered is subcritical (i.e. requiring finite amplitude disturbances) and gives rise to localized patches of turbulence ('puffs') analogous to steady pipe flow. By monitoring the impact of pulsation on the lifetime of turbulence we map the onset of turbulence in parameter space. Transition in pulsatile flow can be separated into three regimes. At small Womersley numbers the dynamics is dominated by the decay turbulence suffers during the slower part of the cycle and hence transition is delayed significantly. As shown in this regime thresholds closely agree with estimates based on a quasi-steady flow assumption only taking puff decay rates into account. The transition point predicted in the zero limit equals to the critical point for steady pipe flow offset by the oscillation Reynolds number (i.e. the dimensionless oscillation amplitude). In the high frequency limit on the other hand, puff lifetimes are identical to those in steady pipe flow and hence the transition threshold appears to be unaffected by flow pulsation. In the intermediate frequency regime the transition threshold sharply drops (with increasing ) from the decay dominated (quasi-steady) threshold to the steady pipe flow level.
AU - Xu, Duo
AU - Warnecke, Sascha
AU - Song, Baofang
AU - Ma, Xingyu
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 745
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Transition to turbulence in pulsating pipe flow
VL - 831
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The chaotic dynamics of low-dimensional systems, such as Lorenz or Rössler flows, is guided by the infinity of periodic orbits embedded in their strange attractors. Whether this is also the case for the infinite-dimensional dynamics of Navier–Stokes equations has long been speculated, and is a topic of ongoing study. Periodic and relative periodic solutions have been shown to be involved in transitions to turbulence. Their relevance to turbulent dynamics – specifically, whether periodic orbits play the same role in high-dimensional nonlinear systems like the Navier–Stokes equations as they do in lower-dimensional systems – is the focus of the present investigation. We perform here a detailed study of pipe flow relative periodic orbits with energies and mean dissipations close to turbulent values. We outline several approaches to reduction of the translational symmetry of the system. We study pipe flow in a minimal computational cell at Re=2500, and report a library of invariant solutions found with the aid of the method of slices. Detailed study of the unstable manifolds of a sample of these solutions is consistent with the picture that relative periodic orbits are embedded in the chaotic saddle and that they guide the turbulent dynamics.
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Short, Kimberly
AU - Farazmand, Mohammad
AU - Willis, Ashley
AU - Cvitanović, Predrag
ID - 792
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Relative periodic orbits form the backbone of turbulent pipe flow
VL - 833
ER -