@phdthesis{7258,
abstract = {Many flows encountered in nature and applications are characterized by a chaotic motion known as turbulence. Turbulent flows generate intense friction with pipe walls and are responsible for considerable amounts of energy losses at world scale. The nature of turbulent friction and techniques aimed at reducing it have been subject of extensive research over the last century, but no definite answer has been found yet. In this thesis we show that in pipes at moderate turbulent Reynolds numbers friction is better described by the power law first introduced by Blasius and not by the Prandtl–von Kármán formula. At higher Reynolds numbers, large scale motions gradually become more important in the flow and can be related to the change in scaling of friction. Next, we present a series of new techniques that can relaminarize turbulence by suppressing a key mechanism that regenerates it at walls, the lift–up effect. In addition, we investigate the process of turbulence decay in several experiments and discuss the drag reduction potential. Finally, we examine the behavior of friction under pulsating conditions inspired by the human heart cycle and we show that under such circumstances turbulent friction can be reduced to produce energy savings.},
author = {Scarselli, Davide},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {174},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{New approaches to reduce friction in turbulent pipe flow}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:7258},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7563,
abstract = {We introduce “state space persistence analysis” for deducing the symbolic dynamics of time series data obtained from high-dimensional chaotic attractors. To this end, we adapt a topological data analysis technique known as persistent homology for the characterization of state space projections of chaotic trajectories and periodic orbits. By comparing the shapes along a chaotic trajectory to those of the periodic orbits, state space persistence analysis quantifies the shape similarity of chaotic trajectory segments and periodic orbits. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the three-dimensional Rössler system and a 30-dimensional discretization of the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky partial differential equation in (1+1) dimensions.
One way of studying chaotic attractors systematically is through their symbolic dynamics, in which one partitions the state space into qualitatively different regions and assigns a symbol to each such region.1–3 This yields a “coarse-grained” state space of the system, which can then be reduced to a Markov chain encoding all possible transitions between the states of the system. While it is possible to obtain the symbolic dynamics of low-dimensional chaotic systems with standard tools such as Poincaré maps, when applied to high-dimensional systems such as turbulent flows, these tools alone are not sufficient to determine symbolic dynamics.4,5 In this paper, we develop “state space persistence analysis” and demonstrate that it can be utilized to infer the symbolic dynamics in very high-dimensional settings.},
author = {Yalniz, Gökhan and Budanur, Nazmi B},
issn = {1089-7682},
journal = {Chaos},
number = {3},
publisher = {AIP Publishing},
title = {{Inferring symbolic dynamics of chaotic flows from persistence}},
doi = {10.1063/1.5122969},
volume = {30},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7534,
abstract = {In the past two decades, our understanding of the transition to turbulence in shear flows with linearly stable laminar solutions has greatly improved. Regarding the susceptibility of the laminar flow, two concepts have been particularly useful: the edge states and the minimal seeds. In this nonlinear picture of the transition, the basin boundary of turbulence is set by the edge state's stable manifold and this manifold comes closest in energy to the laminar equilibrium at the minimal seed. We begin this paper by presenting numerical experiments in which three-dimensional perturbations are too energetic to trigger turbulence in pipe flow but they do lead to turbulence when their amplitude is reduced. We show that this seemingly counterintuitive observation is in fact consistent with the fully nonlinear description of the transition mediated by the edge state. In order to understand the physical mechanisms behind this process, we measure the turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation rates as a function of the radial coordinate. Our main observation is that the transition to turbulence relies on the energy amplification away from the wall, as opposed to the turbulence itself, whose energy is predominantly produced near the wall. This observation is further supported by the similar analyses on the minimal seeds and the edge states. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of production-over-dissipation curves provides a clear distinction between the different initial amplification stages of the transition to turbulence from the minimal seed.},
author = {Budanur, Nazmi B and Marensi, Elena and Willis, Ashley P. and Hof, Björn},
issn = {2469-990X},
journal = {Physical Review Fluids},
number = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Upper edge of chaos and the energetics of transition in pipe flow}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevfluids.5.023903},
volume = {5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7364,
abstract = {We present nsCouette, a highly scalable software tool to solve the Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow between differentially heated and independently rotating, concentric cylinders. It is based on a pseudospectral spatial discretization and dynamic time-stepping. It is implemented in modern Fortran with a hybrid MPI-OpenMP parallelization scheme and thus designed to compute turbulent flows at high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. An additional GPU implementation (C-CUDA) for intermediate problem sizes and a version for pipe flow (nsPipe) are also provided.},
author = {Lopez Alonso, Jose M and Feldmann, Daniel and Rampp, Markus and Vela-Martín, Alberto and Shi, Liang and Avila, Marc},
issn = {23527110},
journal = {SoftwareX},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{nsCouette – A high-performance code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent Taylor–Couette flow}},
doi = {10.1016/j.softx.2019.100395},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{6779,
abstract = {Recent studies suggest that unstable recurrent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation provide new insights
into dynamics of turbulent flows. In this study, we compute an extensive network of dynamical connections
between such solutions in a weakly turbulent quasi-two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow that lies in the inversion symmetric subspace. In particular, we find numerous isolated heteroclinic connections between different
types of solutions—equilibria, periodic, and quasiperiodic orbits—as well as continua of connections forming
higher-dimensional connecting manifolds. We also compute a homoclinic connection of a periodic orbit and
provide strong evidence that the associated homoclinic tangle forms the chaotic repeller that underpins transient
turbulence in the symmetric subspace.},
author = {Suri, Balachandra and Pallantla, Ravi Kumar and Schatz, Michael F. and Grigoriev, Roman O.},
issn = {2470-0053},
journal = {Physical Review E},
number = {1},
publisher = {APS},
title = {{Heteroclinic and homoclinic connections in a Kolmogorov-like flow}},
doi = {10.1103/physreve.100.013112},
volume = {100},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6957,
abstract = {In many shear flows like pipe flow, plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, etc. turbulence emerges subcritically. Here, when subjected to strong enough perturbations, the flow becomes turbulent in spite of the laminar base flow being linearly stable. The nature of this instability has puzzled the scientific community for decades. At onset, turbulence appears in localized patches and flows are spatio-temporally intermittent. In pipe flow the localized turbulent structures are referred to as puffs and in planar flows like plane Couette and channel flow, patches arise in the form of localized oblique bands. In this thesis, we study the onset of turbulence in channel flow in direct numerical simulations from a dynamical system theory perspective, as well as by performing experiments in a large aspect ratio channel.
The aim of the experimental work is to determine the critical Reynolds number where turbulence first becomes sustained. Recently, the onset of turbulence has been described in analogy to absorbing state phase transition (i.e. directed percolation). In particular, it has been shown that the critical point can be estimated from the competition between spreading and decay processes. Here, by performing experiments, we identify the mechanisms underlying turbulence proliferation in channel flow and find the critical Reynolds number, above which turbulence becomes sustained. Above the critical point, the continuous growth at the tip of the stripes outweighs the stochastic shedding of turbulent patches at the tail and the stripes expand. For growing stripes, the probability to decay decreases while the probability of stripe splitting increases. Consequently, and unlike for the puffs in pipe flow, neither of these two processes is time-independent i.e. memoryless. Coupling between stripe expansion and creation of new stripes via splitting leads to a significantly lower critical point ($Re_c=670+/-10$) than most earlier studies suggest.
While the above approach sheds light on how turbulence first becomes sustained, it provides no insight into the origin of the stripes themselves. In the numerical part of the thesis we investigate how turbulent stripes form from invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The origin of these turbulent stripes can be identified by applying concepts from the dynamical system theory. In doing so, we identify the exact coherent structures underlying stripes and their bifurcations and how they give rise to the turbulent attractor in phase space. We first report a family of localized nonlinear traveling wave solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in channel flow. These solutions show structural similarities with turbulent stripes in experiments like obliqueness, quasi-streamwise streaks and vortices, etc. A parametric study of these traveling wave solution is performed, with parameters like Reynolds number, stripe tilt angle and domain size, including the stability of the solutions. These solutions emerge through saddle-node bifurcations and form a phase space skeleton for the turbulent stripes observed in the experiments. The lower branches of these TW solutions at different tilt angles undergo Hopf bifurcation and new solutions branches of relative periodic orbits emerge. These RPO solutions do not belong to the same family and therefore the routes to chaos for different angles are different.
In shear flows, turbulence at onset is transient in nature. Consequently,turbulence can not be tracked to lower Reynolds numbers, where the dynamics may simplify. Before this happens, turbulence becomes short-lived and laminarizes. In the last part of the thesis, we show that using numerical simulations we can continue turbulent stripes in channel flow past the 'relaminarization barrier' all the way to their origin. Here, turbulent stripe dynamics simplifies and the fluctuations are no longer stochastic and the stripe settles down to a relative periodic orbit. This relative periodic orbit originates from the aforementioned traveling wave solutions. Starting from the relative periodic orbit, a small increase in speed i.e. Reynolds number gives rise to chaos and the attractor dimension sharply increases in contrast to the classical transition scenario where the instabilities affect the flow globally and give rise to much more gradual route to turbulence.},
author = {Paranjape, Chaitanya S},
issn = {2663-337X},
keyword = {Instabilities, Turbulence, Nonlinear dynamics},
pages = {138},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Onset of turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:6957},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6508,
author = {Shamipour, Shayan and Kardos, Roland and Xue, Shi-lei and Hof, Björn and Hannezo, Edouard B and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J},
issn = {10974172},
journal = {Cell},
number = {6},
pages = {1463--1479.e18},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes}},
doi = {10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.030},
volume = {177},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7001,
author = {Schwayer, Cornelia and Shamipour, Shayan and Pranjic-Ferscha, Kornelija and Schauer, Alexandra and Balda, M and Tada, M and Matter, K and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J},
issn = {1097-4172},
journal = {Cell},
number = {4},
pages = {937--952.e18},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Mechanosensation of tight junctions depends on ZO-1 phase separation and flow}},
doi = {10.1016/j.cell.2019.10.006},
volume = {179},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7397,
abstract = {Polymer additives can substantially reduce the drag of turbulent flows and the upperlimit, the so called “maximum drag reduction” (MDR) asymptote is universal, i.e. inde-pendent of the type of polymer and solvent used. Until recently, the consensus was that,in this limit, flows are in a marginal state where only a minimal level of turbulence activ-ity persists. Observations in direct numerical simulations using minimal sized channelsappeared to support this view and reported long “hibernation” periods where turbu-lence is marginalized. In simulations of pipe flow we find that, indeed, with increasingWeissenberg number (Wi), turbulence expresses long periods of hibernation if the domainsize is small. However, with increasing pipe length, the temporal hibernation continuouslyalters to spatio-temporal intermittency and here the flow consists of turbulent puffs sur-rounded by laminar flow. Moreover, upon an increase in Wi, the flow fully relaminarises,in agreement with recent experiments. At even larger Wi, a different instability is en-countered causing a drag increase towards MDR. Our findings hence link earlier minimalflow unit simulations with recent experiments and confirm that the addition of polymersinitially suppresses Newtonian turbulence and leads to a reverse transition. The MDRstate on the other hand results from a separate instability and the underlying dynamicscorresponds to the recently proposed state of elasto-inertial-turbulence (EIT).},
author = {Lopez Alonso, Jose M and Choueiri, George H and Hof, Björn},
issn = {0022-1120},
journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
pages = {699--719},
publisher = {CUP},
title = {{Dynamics of viscoelastic pipe flow at low Reynolds numbers in the maximum drag reduction limit}},
doi = {10.1017/jfm.2019.486},
volume = {874},
year = {2019},
}
@article{5878,
abstract = {We consider the motion of a droplet bouncing on a vibrating bath of the same fluid in the presence of a central potential. We formulate a rotation symmetry-reduced description of this system, which allows for the straightforward application of dynamical systems theory tools. As an illustration of the utility of the symmetry reduction, we apply it to a model of the pilot-wave system with a central harmonic force. We begin our analysis by identifying local bifurcations and the onset of chaos. We then describe the emergence of chaotic regions and their merging bifurcations, which lead to the formation of a global attractor. In this final regime, the droplet’s angular momentum spontaneously changes its sign as observed in the experiments of Perrard et al.},
author = {Budanur, Nazmi B and Fleury, Marc},
issn = {1089-7682},
journal = {Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science},
number = {1},
publisher = {AIP Publishing},
title = {{State space geometry of the chaotic pilot-wave hydrodynamics}},
doi = {10.1063/1.5058279},
volume = {29},
year = {2019},
}