0 there exists a large subset of a ∈ F×p such that for kl a,1,p : x → e((ax+x) / p) we have M(kla,1,p) ≥ (1−ε/√2π + o(1)) log log p, as p→∞. Finally, we prove a result on the growth of the moments of {M (kla,1,p)}a∈F×p. 2020 Mathematics Subject Classification: 11L03, 11T23 (Primary); 14F20, 60F10 (Secondary). AU - Bonolis, Dante ID - 9364 JF - Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society SN - 03050041 TI - On the size of the maximum of incomplete Kloosterman sums ER - TY - JOUR AB - Shigella are pathogens originating within the Escherichia lineage but frequently classified as a separate genus. Shigella genomes contain numerous insertion sequences (ISs) that lead to pseudogenisation of affected genes and an increase of non-homologous recombination. Here, we study 414 genomes of E. coli and Shigella strains to assess the contribution of genomic rearrangements to Shigella evolution. We found that Shigella experienced exceptionally high rates of intragenomic rearrangements and had a decreased rate of homologous recombination compared to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli. The high rearrangement rate resulted in independent disruption of syntenic regions and parallel rearrangements in different Shigella lineages. Specifically, we identified two types of chromosomally encoded E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases acquired independently by all Shigella strains that also showed a high level of sequence conservation in the promoter and further in the 5′-intergenic region. In the only available enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strain, which is a pathogenic E. coli with a phenotype intermediate between Shigella and non-pathogenic E. coli, we found a rate of genome rearrangements comparable to those in other E. coli and no functional copies of the two Shigella-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. These data indicate that the accumulation of ISs influenced many aspects of genome evolution and played an important role in the evolution of intracellular pathogens. Our research demonstrates the power of comparative genomics-based on synteny block composition and an important role of non-coding regions in the evolution of genomic islands. AU - Seferbekova, Zaira AU - Zabelkin, Alexey AU - Yakovleva, Yulia AU - Afasizhev, Robert AU - Dranenko, Natalia O. AU - Alexeev, Nikita AU - Gelfand, Mikhail S. AU - Bochkareva, Olga ID - 9380 JF - Frontiers in Microbiology TI - High rates of genome rearrangements and pathogenicity of Shigella spp. VL - 12 ER - TY - JOUR AB - A game of rock-paper-scissors is an interesting example of an interaction where none of the pure strategies strictly dominates all others, leading to a cyclic pattern. In this work, we consider an unstable version of rock-paper-scissors dynamics and allow individuals to make behavioural mistakes during the strategy execution. We show that such an assumption can break a cyclic relationship leading to a stable equilibrium emerging with only one strategy surviving. We consider two cases: completely random mistakes when individuals have no bias towards any strategy and a general form of mistakes. Then, we determine conditions for a strategy to dominate all other strategies. However, given that individuals who adopt a dominating strategy are still prone to behavioural mistakes in the observed behaviour, we may still observe extinct strategies. That is, behavioural mistakes in strategy execution stabilise evolutionary dynamics leading to an evolutionary stable and, potentially, mixed co-existence equilibrium. AU - Kleshnina, Maria AU - Streipert, Sabrina S. AU - Filar, Jerzy A. AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu ID - 9381 IS - 4 JF - PLoS Computational Biology SN - 1553734X TI - Mistakes can stabilise the dynamics of rock-paper-scissors games VL - 17 ER - TY - JOUR AB - A primary roadblock to our understanding of speciation is that it usually occurs over a timeframe that is too long to study from start to finish. The idea of a speciation continuum provides something of a solution to this problem; rather than observing the entire process, we can simply reconstruct it from the multitude of speciation events that surround us. But what do we really mean when we talk about the speciation continuum, and can it really help us understand speciation? We explored these questions using a literature review and online survey of speciation researchers. Although most researchers were familiar with the concept and thought it was useful, our survey revealed extensive disagreement about what the speciation continuum actually tells us. This is due partly to the lack of a clear definition. Here, we provide an explicit definition that is compatible with the Biological Species Concept. That is, the speciation continuum is a continuum of reproductive isolation. After outlining the logic of the definition in light of alternatives, we explain why attempts to reconstruct the speciation process from present‐day populations will ultimately fail. We then outline how we think the speciation continuum concept can continue to act as a foundation for understanding the continuum of reproductive isolation that surrounds us. AU - Stankowski, Sean AU - Ravinet, Mark ID - 9383 JF - Evolution SN - 00143820 TI - Defining the speciation continuum ER - TY - JOUR AU - Bolger-Munro, Madison AU - Choi, Kate AU - Cheung, Faith AU - Liu, Yi Tian AU - Dang-Lawson, May AU - Deretic, Nikola AU - Keane, Connor AU - Gold, Michael R. ID - 9379 JF - Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology KW - B cell KW - actin KW - immune synapse KW - cell spreading KW - cofilin KW - WDR1 (AIP1) KW - LIM domain kinase KW - B cell receptor (BCR) TI - The Wdr1-LIMK-Cofilin axis controls B cell antigen receptor-induced actin remodeling and signaling at the immune synapse VL - 9 ER - TY - JOUR AB - We report the complete analysis of a deterministic model of deleterious mutations and negative selection against them at two haploid loci without recombination. As long as mutation is a weaker force than selection, mutant alleles remain rare at the only stable equilibrium, and otherwise, a variety of dynamics are possible. If the mutation-free genotype is absent, generally the only stable equilibrium is the one that corresponds to fixation of the mutant allele at the locus where it is less deleterious. This result suggests that fixation of a deleterious allele that follows a click of the Muller’s ratchet is governed by natural selection, instead of random drift. AU - Khudiakova, Kseniia AU - Neretina, Tatiana Yu. AU - Kondrashov, Alexey S. ID - 9387 JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology KW - General Biochemistry KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology KW - Modelling and Simulation KW - Statistics and Probability KW - General Immunology and Microbiology KW - Applied Mathematics KW - General Agricultural and Biological Sciences KW - General Medicine SN - 0022-5193 TI - Two linked loci under mutation-selection balance and Muller’s ratchet VL - 524 ER - TY - JOUR AB - We consider the core algorithmic problems related to verification of systems with respect to three classical quantitative properties, namely, the mean-payoff, the ratio, and the minimum initial credit for energy property. The algorithmic problem given a graph and a quantitative property asks to compute the optimal value (the infimum value over all traces) from every node of the graph. We consider graphs with bounded treewidth—a class that contains the control flow graphs of most programs. Let n denote the number of nodes of a graph, m the number of edges (for bounded treewidth 𝑚=𝑂(𝑛)) and W the largest absolute value of the weights. Our main theoretical results are as follows. First, for the minimum initial credit problem we show that (1) for general graphs the problem can be solved in 𝑂(𝑛2⋅𝑚) time and the associated decision problem in 𝑂(𝑛⋅𝑚) time, improving the previous known 𝑂(𝑛3⋅𝑚⋅log(𝑛⋅𝑊)) and 𝑂(𝑛2⋅𝑚) bounds, respectively; and (2) for bounded treewidth graphs we present an algorithm that requires 𝑂(𝑛⋅log𝑛) time. Second, for bounded treewidth graphs we present an algorithm that approximates the mean-payoff value within a factor of 1+𝜖 in time 𝑂(𝑛⋅log(𝑛/𝜖)) as compared to the classical exact algorithms on general graphs that require quadratic time. Third, for the ratio property we present an algorithm that for bounded treewidth graphs works in time 𝑂(𝑛⋅log(|𝑎⋅𝑏|))=𝑂(𝑛⋅log(𝑛⋅𝑊)), when the output is 𝑎𝑏, as compared to the previously best known algorithm on general graphs with running time 𝑂(𝑛2⋅log(𝑛⋅𝑊)). We have implemented some of our algorithms and show that they present a significant speedup on standard benchmarks. AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas ID - 9393 JF - Formal Methods in System Design SN - 09259856 TI - Faster algorithms for quantitative verification in bounded treewidth graphs ER - TY - JOUR AB - Chromosomal inversions have long been recognized for their role in local adaptation. By suppressing recombination in heterozygous individuals, they can maintain coadapted gene complexes and protect them from homogenizing effects of gene flow. However, to fully understand their importance for local adaptation we need to know their influence on phenotypes under divergent selection. For this, the marine snail Littorina saxatilis provides an ideal study system. Divergent ecotypes adapted to wave action and crab predation occur in close proximity on intertidal shores with gene flow between them. Here, we used F2 individuals obtained from crosses between the ecotypes to test for associations between genomic regions and traits distinguishing the Crab‐/Wave‐adapted ecotypes including size, shape, shell thickness, and behavior. We show that most of these traits are influenced by two previously detected inversion regions that are divergent between ecotypes. We thus gain a better understanding of one important underlying mechanism responsible for the rapid and repeated formation of ecotypes: divergent selection acting on inversions. We also found that some inversions contributed to more than one trait suggesting that they may contain several loci involved in adaptation, consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of recombination within inversions facilitates differentiation in the presence of gene flow. AU - Koch, Eva L. AU - Morales, Hernán E. AU - Larsson, Jenny AU - Westram, Anja M AU - Faria, Rui AU - Lemmon, Alan R. AU - Lemmon, E. Moriarty AU - Johannesson, Kerstin AU - Butlin, Roger K. ID - 9394 JF - Evolution Letters TI - Genetic variation for adaptive traits is associated with polymorphic inversions in Littorina saxatilis ER - TY - JOUR AU - Stankowski, Sean AU - Ravinet, Mark ID - 9392 IS - 9 JF - Current Biology SN - 09609822 TI - Quantifying the use of species concepts VL - 31 ER - TY - CHAP AB - Optimal decision making requires individuals to know their available options and to anticipate correctly what consequences these options have. In many social interactions, however, we refrain from gathering all relevant information, even if this information would help us make better decisions and is costless to obtain. This chapter examines several examples of “deliberate ignorance.” Two simple models are proposed to illustrate how ignorance can evolve among self-interested and payoff - maximizing individuals, and open problems are highlighted that lie ahead for future research to explore. AU - Schmid, Laura AU - Hilbe, Christian ED - Hertwig, Ralph ED - Engel, Christoph ID - 9403 SN - 978-0-262-04559-9 T2 - Deliberate Ignorance: Choosing Not To Know TI - The evolution of strategic ignorance in strategic interaction VL - 29 ER - TY - JOUR AB - We extend our recent result [22] on the central limit theorem for the linear eigenvalue statistics of non-Hermitian matrices X with independent, identically distributed complex entries to the real symmetry class. We find that the expectation and variance substantially differ from their complex counterparts, reflecting (i) the special spectral symmetry of real matrices onto the real axis; and (ii) the fact that real i.i.d. matrices have many real eigenvalues. Our result generalizes the previously known special cases where either the test function is analytic [49] or the first four moments of the matrix elements match the real Gaussian [59, 44]. The key element of the proof is the analysis of several weakly dependent Dyson Brownian motions (DBMs). The conceptual novelty of the real case compared with [22] is that the correlation structure of the stochastic differentials in each individual DBM is non-trivial, potentially even jeopardising its well-posedness. AU - Cipolloni, Giorgio AU - Erdös, László AU - Schröder, Dominik J ID - 9412 JF - Electronic Journal of Probability TI - Fluctuation around the circular law for random matrices with real entries VL - 26 ER - TY - JOUR AB - The dynamics of a triangular magnetocapillary swimmer is studied using the lattice Boltzmann method. We extend on our previous work, which deals with the self-assembly and a specific type of the swimmer motion characterized by the swimmer’s maximum velocity centred around the particle’s inverse viscous time. Here, we identify additional regimes of motion. First, modifying the ratio of surface tension and magnetic forces allows to study the swimmer propagation in the regime of significantly lower frequencies mainly defined by the strength of the magnetocapillary potential. Second, introducing a constant magnetic contribution in each of the particles in addition to their magnetic moment induced by external fields leads to another regime characterized by strong in-plane swimmer reorientations that resemble experimental observations. AU - Sukhov, Alexander AU - Hubert, Maxime AU - Grosjean, Galien M AU - Trosman, Oleg AU - Ziegler, Sebastian AU - Collard, Ylona AU - Vandewalle, Nicolas AU - Smith, Ana Sunčana AU - Harting, Jens ID - 9411 IS - 4 JF - European Physical Journal E SN - 12928941 TI - Regimes of motion of magnetocapillary swimmers VL - 44 ER - TY - JOUR AB - Microtubule plus-end depolymerization rate is a potentially important target of physiological regulation, but it has been challenging to measure, so its role in spatial organization is poorly understood. Here we apply a method for tracking plus ends based on time difference imaging to measure depolymerization rates in large interphase asters growing in Xenopus egg extract. We observed strong spatial regulation of depolymerization rates, which were higher in the aster interior compared with the periphery, and much less regulation of polymerization or catastrophe rates. We interpret these data in terms of a limiting component model, where aster growth results in lower levels of soluble tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in the interior cytosol compared with that at the periphery. The steady-state polymer fraction of tubulin was ∼30%, so tubulin is not strongly depleted in the aster interior. We propose that the limiting component for microtubule assembly is a MAP that inhibits depolymerization, and that egg asters are tuned to low microtubule density. AU - Ishihara, Keisuke AU - Decker, Franziska AU - Dos Santos Caldas, Paulo R AU - Pelletier, James F. AU - Loose, Martin AU - Brugués, Jan AU - Mitchison, Timothy J. ID - 9414 IS - 9 JF - Molecular Biology of the Cell SN - 10591524 TI - Spatial variation of microtubule depolymerization in large asters VL - 32 ER - TY - JOUR AB - We present a computational design system that assists users to model, optimize, and fabricate quad-robots with soft skins. Our system addresses the challenging task of predicting their physical behavior by fully integrating the multibody dynamics of the mechanical skeleton and the elastic behavior of the soft skin. The developed motion control strategy uses an alternating optimization scheme to avoid expensive full space time-optimization, interleaving space-time optimization for the skeleton, and frame-by-frame optimization for the full dynamics. The output are motor torques to drive the robot to achieve a user prescribed motion trajectory. We also provide a collection of convenient engineering tools and empirical manufacturing guidance to support the fabrication of the designed quad-robot. We validate the feasibility of designs generated with our system through physics simulations and with a physically-fabricated prototype. AU - Feng, Xudong AU - Liu, Jiafeng AU - Wang, Huamin AU - Yang, Yin AU - Bao, Hujun AU - Bickel, Bernd AU - Xu, Weiwei ID - 9408 IS - 6 JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics SN - 19410506 TI - Computational design of skinned Quad-Robots VL - 27 ER - TY - JOUR AB - Antibiotic concentrations vary dramatically in the body and the environment. Hence, understanding the dynamics of resistance evolution along antibiotic concentration gradients is critical for predicting and slowing the emergence and spread of resistance. While it has been shown that increasing the concentration of an antibiotic slows resistance evolution, how adaptation to one antibiotic concentration correlates with fitness at other points along the gradient has not received much attention. Here, we selected populations of Escherichia coli at several points along a concentration gradient for three different antibiotics, asking how rapidly resistance evolved and whether populations became specialized to the antibiotic concentration they were selected on. Populations selected at higher concentrations evolved resistance more slowly but exhibited equal or higher fitness across the whole gradient. Populations selected at lower concentrations evolved resistance rapidly, but overall fitness in the presence of antibiotics was lower. However, these populations readily adapted to higher concentrations upon subsequent selection. Our results indicate that resistance management strategies must account not only for the rates of resistance evolution but also for the fitness of evolved strains. AU - Lagator, Mato AU - Uecker, Hildegard AU - Neve, Paul ID - 9410 IS - 5 JF - Biology letters TI - Adaptation at different points along antibiotic concentration gradients VL - 17 ER -