TY - JOUR
AB - Maximum entropy models are the least structured probability distributions that exactly reproduce a chosen set of statistics measured in an interacting network. Here we use this principle to construct probabilistic models which describe the correlated spiking activity of populations of up to 120 neurons in the salamander retina as it responds to natural movies. Already in groups as small as 10 neurons, interactions between spikes can no longer be regarded as small perturbations in an otherwise independent system; for 40 or more neurons pairwise interactions need to be supplemented by a global interaction that controls the distribution of synchrony in the population. Here we show that such “K-pairwise” models—being systematic extensions of the previously used pairwise Ising models—provide an excellent account of the data. We explore the properties of the neural vocabulary by: 1) estimating its entropy, which constrains the population's capacity to represent visual information; 2) classifying activity patterns into a small set of metastable collective modes; 3) showing that the neural codeword ensembles are extremely inhomogenous; 4) demonstrating that the state of individual neurons is highly predictable from the rest of the population, allowing the capacity for error correction.
AU - Tkacik, Gasper
AU - Marre, Olivier
AU - Amodei, Dario
AU - Schneidman, Elad
AU - Bialek, William
AU - Berry, Michael
ID - 2257
IS - 1
JF - PLoS Computational Biology
SN - 1553734X
TI - Searching for collective behavior in a large network of sensory neurons
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - To reveal the full potential of human pluripotent stem cells, new methods for rapid, site-specific genomic engineering are needed. Here, we describe a system for precise genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identified a novel human locus, H11, located in a safe, intergenic, transcriptionally active region of chromosome 22, as the recipient site, to provide robust, ubiquitous expression of inserted genes. Recipient cell lines were established by site-specific placement of a ‘landing pad’ cassette carrying attP sites for phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases at the H11 locus by spontaneous or TALEN-assisted homologous recombination. Dual integrase cassette exchange (DICE) mediated by phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases was used to insert genes of interest flanked by phiC31 and Bxb1 attB sites at the H11 locus, replacing the landing pad. This system provided complete control over content, direction and copy number of inserted genes, with a specificity of 100%. A series of genes, including mCherry and various combinations of the neural transcription factors LMX1a, FOXA2 and OTX2, were inserted in recipient cell lines derived from H9 ESC, as well as iPSC lines derived from a Parkinson’s disease patient and a normal sibling control. The DICE system offers rapid, efficient and precise gene insertion in ESC and iPSC and is particularly well suited for repeated modifications of the same locus.
AU - Zhu, Fangfang
AU - Gamboa, Matthew
AU - Farruggio, Alfonso
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Tasic, Bosiljka
AU - Schüle, Birgitt
AU - Chen Tsai, Yanru
AU - Calos, Michele
ID - 2261
IS - 5
JF - Nucleic Acids Research
TI - DICE, an efficient system for iterative genomic editing in human pluripotent stem cells
VL - 42
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Coordinated migration of newly-born neurons to their target territories is essential for correct neuronal circuit assembly in the developing brain. Although a cohort of signaling pathways has been implicated in the regulation of cortical projection neuron migration, the precise molecular mechanisms and how a balanced interplay of cell-autonomous and non-autonomous functions of candidate signaling molecules controls the discrete steps in the migration process, are just being revealed. In this chapter, I will focally review recent advances that improved our understanding of the cell-autonomous and possible cell-nonautonomous functions of the evolutionarily conserved LIS1/NDEL1-complex in regulating the sequential steps of cortical projection neuron migration. I will then elaborate on the emerging concept that the Reelin signaling pathway, acts exactly at precise stages in the course of cortical projection neuron migration. Lastly, I will discuss how finely tuned transcriptional programs and downstream effectors govern particular aspects in driving radial migration at discrete stages and how they regulate the precise positioning of cortical projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortex.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ED - Nguyen, Laurent
ID - 2265
T2 - Cellular and Molecular Control of Neuronal Migration
TI - Molecular pathways controlling the sequential steps of cortical projection neuron migration
VL - 800
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Energies with high-order non-submodular interactions have been shown to be very useful in vision due to their high modeling power. Optimization of such energies, however, is generally NP-hard. A naive approach that works for small problem instances is exhaustive search, that is, enumeration of all possible labelings of the underlying graph. We propose a general minimization approach for large graphs based on enumeration of labelings of certain small patches.
This partial enumeration technique reduces complex high-order energy formulations to pairwise Constraint Satisfaction Problems with unary costs (uCSP), which can be efficiently solved using standard methods like TRW-S. Our approach outperforms a number of existing state-of-the-art algorithms on well known difficult problems (e.g. curvature regularization, stereo, deconvolution); it gives near global minimum and better speed.
Our main application of interest is curvature regularization. In the context of segmentation, our partial enumeration technique allows to evaluate curvature directly on small patches using a novel integral geometry approach.
AU - Olsson, Carl
AU - Ulen, Johannes
AU - Boykov, Yuri
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 2275
TI - Partial enumeration and curvature regularization
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interaction, described by the Gross-Pitaevskii functional. Minimizers of this functional exist only if the interaction strength a satisfies {Mathematical expression}, where Q is the unique positive radial solution of {Mathematical expression} in {Mathematical expression}. We present a detailed analysis of the behavior of minimizers as a approaches a*, where all the mass concentrates at a global minimum of the trapping potential.
AU - Guo, Yujin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2281
IS - 2
JF - Letters in Mathematical Physics
TI - On the mass concentration for Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interactions
VL - 104
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - GABAergic inhibitory interneurons control fundamental aspects of neuronal network function. Their functional roles are assumed to be defined by the identity of their input synapses, the architecture of their dendritic tree, the passive and active membrane properties and finally the nature of their postsynaptic targets. Indeed, interneurons display a high degree of morphological and physiological heterogeneity. However, whether their morphological and physiological characteristics are correlated and whether interneuron diversity can be described by a continuum of GABAergic cell types or by distinct classes has remained unclear. Here we perform a detailed morphological and physiological characterization of GABAergic cells in the dentate gyrus, the input region of the hippocampus. To achieve an unbiased and efficient sampling and classification we used knock-in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons and performed cluster analysis. We identified five interneuron classes, each of them characterized by a distinct set of anatomical and physiological parameters. Cross-correlation analysis further revealed a direct relation between morphological and physiological properties indicating that dentate gyrus interneurons fall into functionally distinct classes which may differentially control neuronal network activity.
AU - Hosp, Jonas
AU - Strüber, Michael
AU - Yanagawa, Yuchio
AU - Obata, Kunihiko
AU - Vida, Imre
AU - Jonas, Peter M
AU - Bartos, Marlene
ID - 2285
IS - 2
JF - Hippocampus
TI - Morpho-physiological criteria divide dentate gyrus interneurons into classes
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Two definitions of the effective mass of a particle interacting with a quantum field, such as a polaron, are considered and shown to be equal in models similar to the Fröhlich polaron model. These are: 1. the mass defined by the low momentum energy E(P)≈E(0)+P2/2 M of the translation invariant system constrained to have momentum P and 2. the mass M of a simple particle in an arbitrary slowly varying external potential, V, described by the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, whose ground state energy equals that of the combined particle/field system in a bound state in the same V.
AU - Lieb, Élliott
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2407
IS - 1-2
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
TI - Equivalence of two definitions of the effective mass of a polaron
VL - 154
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For any pencil of conics or higher-dimensional quadrics over ℚ, with all degenerate fibres defined over ℚ, we show that the Brauer–Manin obstruction controls weak approximation. The proof is based on the Hasse principle and weak approximation for some special intersections of quadrics over ℚ, which is a consequence of recent advances in additive combinatorics.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Matthiesen, Lilian
AU - Skorobogatov, Alexei N
ID - 248
IS - 1
JF - Annals of Mathematics
TI - Rational points on pencils of conics and quadrics with many degenerate fibres
VL - 180
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A version of the Hardy-Littlewood circle method is developed for number fields K/ℚ and is used to show that nonsingular projective cubic hypersurfaces over K always have a K-rational point when they have dimension at least 8.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Vishe, Pankaj
ID - 249
IS - 10
JF - Duke Mathematical Journal
TI - Cubic hypersurfaces and a version of the circle method for number fields
VL - 163
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For any number field k, upper bounds are established for the number of k-rational points of bounded height on non-singular del Pezzo surfaces defined over k, which are equipped with suitable conic bundle structures over k.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Jones, Michael S
ID - 252
IS - 3
JF - Acta Arithmetica
TI - Counting rational points on del Pezzo surfaces with a conic bundle structure
VL - 163
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A new "polynomial sieve" is presented and used to show that almost all integers have at most one representation as a sum of two values of a given polynomial of degree at least 3.
AU - Timothy Browning
ID - 254
IS - 7
JF - International Mathematics Research Notices
TI - The polynomial sieve and equal sums of like polynomials
VL - 2015
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the Hasse principle for complete intersections cut out by a quadric hypersurface and a cubic hypersurface defined over the rational numbers.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Dietmann, Rainer
AU - Heath-Brown, Roger
ID - 255
IS - 4
JF - Journal of the Institute of Mathematics of Jussieu
TI - Rational points on intersections of cubic and quadric hypersurfaces
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which causes pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent dyes, is more effectively introduced by phenolic groups than by amino groups which have been much more commonly used so far. That is demonstrated by fluorescence measurements involving several classes of fluorophores. Electrochemical measurements show that PET in several amino-modified dyes is thermodynamically favorable, even though it was not experimentally found, underlining the importance of kinetic aspects to the process. Consequently, the attachment of phenolic groups allows for fast and simple preparation of a wide selection of fluorescent pH-probes with tailor-made spectral properties, sensitive ranges, and individual advantages, so that a large number of applications can be realized. Fluorophores carrying phenolic groups may also be used for sensing analytes other than pH or molecular switching and signaling.
AU - Aigner, Daniel
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Wilkening, Martin
AU - Saf, Robert
AU - Borisov, Sergey M.
AU - Klimant, Ingo
ID - 7300
IS - 18
JF - Analytical Chemistry
SN - 0003-2700
TI - Enhancing photoinduced electron transfer efficiency of fluorescent pH-probes with halogenated phenols
VL - 86
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Several problems arise at the O2 (positive) electrode in the Li-air battery, including solvent/electrode decomposition and electrode passivation by insulating Li2O2. Progress partially depends on exploring the basic electrochemistry of O2 reduction. Here we describe the effect of complexing-cations on the electrochemical reduction of O2 in DMSO in the presence and absence of a Li salt. The solubility of alkaline peroxides in DMSO is enhanced by the complexing-cations, consistent with their strong interaction with reduced O2. The complexing-cations also increase the rate of the 1-electron O2 reduction to O2•– by up to six-fold (k° = 2.4 ×10–3 to 1.5 × 10–2 cm s–1) whether or not Li+ ions are present. In the absence of Li+, the complexing-cations also promote the reduction of O2•– to O22–. In the presence of Li+ and complexing-cations, and despite the interaction of the reduced O2 with the latter, SERS confirms that the product is still Li2O2.
AU - Li, Chunmei
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Johnson, Lee
AU - Grugeon, Sylvie
AU - Laruelle, Stéphane
AU - Bruce, Peter G.
AU - Armand, Michel
ID - 7301
IS - 7
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
SN - 1932-7447
TI - Aprotic Li–O2 battery: Influence of complexing agents on oxygen reduction in an aprotic solvent
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Understanding charge carrier transport in Li2O2, the storage material in the non-aqueous Li-O2 battery, is key to the development of this high-energy battery. Here, we studied ionic transport properties and Li self-diffusion in nanocrystalline Li2O2 by conductivity and temperature variable 7Li NMR spectroscopy. Nanostructured Li2O2, characterized by a mean crystallite size of less than 50 nm as estimated from X-ray diffraction peak broadening, was prepared by high-energy ball milling of microcrystalline lithium peroxide with μm sized crystallites. At room temperature the overall conductivity σ of the microcrystalline reference sample turned out to be very low (3.4 × 10−13 S cm−1) which is in agreement with results from temperature-variable 7Li NMR line shape measurements. Ball-milling, however, leads to an increase of σ by approximately two orders of magnitude (1.1 × 10−10 S cm−1); correspondingly, the activation energy decreases from 0.89 eV to 0.82 eV. The electronic contribution σeon, however, is in the order of 9 × 10−12 S cm−1 which makes less than 10% of the total value. Interestingly, 7Li NMR lines of nano-Li2O2 undergo pronounced heterogeneous motional narrowing which manifests in a two-component line shape emerging with increasing temperatures. Most likely, the enhancement in σ can be traced back to the generation of a spin reservoir with highly mobile Li ions; these are expected to reside in the nearest neighbourhood of defects generated or near the structurally disordered and defect-rich interfacial regions formed during mechanical treatment.
AU - Dunst, A.
AU - Epp, V.
AU - Hanzu, I.
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Wilkening, M.
ID - 7302
IS - 8
JF - Energy & Environmental Science
SN - 1754-5692
TI - Short-range Li diffusion vs. long-range ionic conduction in nanocrystalline lithium peroxide Li2O2—the discharge product in lithium-air batteries
VL - 7
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - The electrolyte in the non-aqueous (aprotic) lithium air battery has a profound influence on the reactions that occur at the anode and cathode, and hence its overall operation on discharge/charge. It must possess a wide range of attributes, exceeding the requirements of electrolytes for Lithium ion batteries by far. The most important additional issues are stability at both anode and cathode in the presence of O2. The known problems with cycling the Li metal/non-aqueous electrolyte interface are further complicated by O2. New and much less understood are the reactions at the O2 cathode/electrolyte interface where the highly reversible formation/decomposition of Li2O2 on discharge/charge is critical for the operation of the non-aqueous lithium air battery. Many aprotic electrolytes exhibit decomposition at the cathode during discharge and charge due to the presence of reactive reduced O2 species affecting potential, capacity and kinetics on discharge and charge, cyclability and calendar life. Identifying suitable electrolytes is one of the key challenges for the non-aqueous lithium air battery at the present time. Following the realisation that cyclability of such cells in the initially used organic carbonate electrolytes is due to back-to-back irreversible reactions the stability of the non-aqueous electrolytes became a major focus of research on rechargeable lithium air batteries. This realisation led to the establishment of a suite of experimental and computational methods capable of screening the stability of electrolytes. These allow for greater mechanistic understanding of the reactivity and guide the way towards designing more stable systems. A range of electrolytes based on ethers, amides, sulfones, ionic liquids and dimethyl sulfoxide have been investigated. All are more stable than the organic carbonates, but not all are equally stable. Even though it was soon realised, by a number of groups, that ethers exhibit side reactions on discharge and charge, they still remain the choice in many studies. To date dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylacetamide were identified as the most stable electrolytes. In conjunction with the investigation of electrolyte stability the importance of electrode stability became more prominent. The stability of the electrolyte cannot be considered in isolation. Its stability depends on the synergy between electrolyte and electrode. Carbon based electrodes promote electrolyte decomposition and decompose on their own. Although great progress has been made in only a few years, future work on aprotic electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries will need to explore other electrolytes in the quest for yet lower cost, higher safety, stability and low volatility.
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Chen, Yuhui
AU - Bardé, Fanny
AU - Takechi, Kensuke
AU - Mizuno, Fuminori
AU - Bruce, Peter G.
ED - Imanishi, Nobuyuki
ED - Luntz, Alan C.
ED - Bruce, Peter
ID - 7303
SN - 9781489980618
T2 - The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals
TI - Nonaqueous Electrolytes
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Lithium-air batteries have received extraordinary attention recently owing to their theoretical gravimetric energies being considerably higher than those of Li-ion batteries. There are, however, significant challenges to practical implementation, including low energy efficiency, cycle life, and power capability. These are due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of oxygen reduction and evolution reaction kinetics and parasitic reactions between oxygen redox intermediate species and nominally inactive battery components such as carbon in the oxygen electrode and electrolytes. In this article, we discuss recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of oxygen redox reactions in nonaqueous electrolytes and the search for electrolytes and electrode materials that are chemically stable in the oxygen electrode. In addition, methods to protect lithium metal against corrosion by water and dendrite formation in aqueous lithium-air batteries are discussed. Further materials innovations lie at the heart of research and development efforts that are needed to enable the development of lithium-oxygen batteries with enhanced round-trip efficiency and cycle life.
AU - Kwabi, D.G.
AU - Ortiz-Vitoriano, N.
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Chen, Y.
AU - Imanishi, N.
AU - Bruce, P.G.
AU - Shao-Horn, Y.
ID - 7304
IS - 5
JF - MRS Bulletin
SN - 0883-7694
TI - Materials challenges in rechargeable lithium-air batteries
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When lithium–oxygen batteries discharge, O2 is reduced at the cathode to form solid Li2O2. Understanding the fundamental mechanism of O2 reduction in aprotic solvents is therefore essential to realizing their technological potential. Two different models have been proposed for Li2O2 formation, involving either solution or electrode surface routes. Here, we describe a single unified mechanism, which, unlike previous models, can explain O2 reduction across the whole range of solvents and for which the two previous models are limiting cases. We observe that the solvent influences O2 reduction through its effect on the solubility of LiO2, or, more precisely, the free energy of the reaction LiO2* ⇌ Li(sol)+ + O2−(sol) + ion pairs + higher aggregates (clusters). The unified mechanism shows that low-donor-number solvents are likely to lead to premature cell death, and that the future direction of research for lithium–oxygen batteries should focus on the search for new, stable, high-donor-number electrolytes, because they can support higher capacities and can better sustain discharge.
AU - Johnson, Lee
AU - Li, Chunmei
AU - Liu, Zheng
AU - Chen, Yuhui
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Ashok, Praveen C.
AU - Praveen, Bavishna B.
AU - Dholakia, Kishan
AU - Tarascon, Jean-Marie
AU - Bruce, Peter G.
ID - 7305
IS - 12
JF - Nature Chemistry
SN - 1755-4330
TI - The role of LiO2 solubility in O2 reduction in aprotic solvents and its consequences for Li–O2 batteries
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Bistable switches are fundamental regulatory elements of complex systems, ranging from electronics to living cells. Designed genetic toggle switches have been constructed from pairs of natural transcriptional repressors wired to inhibit one another. The complexity of the engineered regulatory circuits can be increased using orthogonal transcriptional regulators based on designed DNA-binding domains. However, a mutual repressor-based toggle switch comprising DNA-binding domains of transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) did not support bistability in mammalian cells. Here, the challenge of engineering a bistable switch based on monomeric DNA-binding domains is solved via the introduction of a positive feedback loop composed of activators based on the same TALE domains as their opposing repressors and competition for the same DNA operator site. This design introduces nonlinearity and results in epigenetic bistability. This principle could be used to employ other monomeric DNA-binding domains such as CRISPR for applications ranging from reprogramming cells to building digital biological memory.
AU - Lebar, Tina
AU - Bezeljak, Urban
AU - Golob, Anja
AU - Jerala, Miha
AU - Kadunc, Lucija
AU - Pirš, Boštjan
AU - Stražar, Martin
AU - Vučko, Dušan
AU - Zupančič, Uroš
AU - Benčina, Mojca
AU - Forstnerič, Vida
AU - Gaber, Rok
AU - Lonzarić, Jan
AU - Majerle, Andreja
AU - Oblak, Alja
AU - Smole, Anže
AU - Jerala, Roman
ID - 7361
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
SN - 2041-1723
TI - A bistable genetic switch based on designable DNA-binding domains
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The reaction between NiO and (0001)- and ([1\bar102])-oriented Al2O3 single crystals has been investigated on model experimental systems by using the ReflEXAFS technique. Depth-sensitive information is obtained by collecting data above and below the critical angle for total reflection. A systematic protocol for data analysis, based on the recently developed CARD code, was implemented, and a detailed description of the reactive systems was obtained. In particular, for ([1\bar102])-oriented Al2O3, the reaction with NiO is almost complete after heating for 6 h at 1273 K, and an almost uniform layer of spinel is found below a mixed (NiO + spinel) layer at the very upmost part of the sample. In the case of the (0001)-oriented Al2O3, for the same temperature and heating time, the reaction shows a lower advancement degree and a residual fraction of at least 30% NiO is detected in the ReflEXAFS spectra.
AU - Costanzo, Tommaso
AU - Benzi, Federico
AU - Ghigna, Paolo
AU - Pin, Sonia
AU - Spinolo, Giorgio
AU - d'Acapito, Francesco
ID - 7455
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
SN - 1600-5775
TI - Studying the surface reaction between NiO and Al2O3viatotal reflection EXAFS (ReflEXAFS)
VL - 21
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Xue, Hong-Wei
ID - 7598
IS - 5
JF - Cell Reports
SN - 2211-1247
TI - Casein kinase 1 regulates ethylene synthesis by phosphorylating and promoting the turnover of ACS5
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Sweeney, Lora Beatrice Jaeger
AU - Kelley, Darcy B
ID - 7699
IS - 10
JF - Current Opinion in Neurobiology
SN - 0959-4388
TI - Harnessing vocal patterns for social communication
VL - 28
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Experimental studies have demonstrated that environmental variation can create genotype‐environment interactions (GEIs) in the traits involved in sexual selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of phenotype across environments will require statistical tests that can describe both changes in genetic variance and covariance across environments. This chapter outlines the theoretical framework for the processes of sexual selection in the wild, identifying key parameters in wild systems, and highlighting the potential effects of the environment. It describes the proposed approaches for the estimation of these key parameters in a quantitative genetic framework within naturally occurring pedigreed populations. The chapter provides a worked example for a range of analysis methods. It aims to provide an overview of the analytical methods that can be used to model GEIs for traits involved in sexual selection in naturally occurring pedigreed populations.
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Qvarnström, Anna
ED - Hunt, John
ED - Hosken, David
ID - 7743
SN - 9780470671795
T2 - Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Sexual Selection
TI - Influence of the environment on the genetic architecture of traits involved in sexual selection within wild populations
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Wray, Naomi R.
AU - Visscher, Peter M.
ID - 7744
IS - 4
JF - Trends in Genetics
SN - 0168-9525
TI - Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the vibrational modes of quasi-two-dimensional disordered colloidal packings of hard colloidal spheres with short-range attractions as a function of packing fraction. Certain properties of the vibrational density of states (vDOS) are shown to correlate with the density and structure of the samples (i.e., in sparsely versus densely packed samples). Specifically, a crossover from dense glassy to sparse gel-like states is suggested by an excess of phonon modes at low frequency and by a variation in the slope of the vDOS with frequency at low frequency. This change in phonon mode distribution is demonstrated to arise largely from localized vibrations that involve individual and/or small clusters of particles with few local bonds. Conventional order parameters and void statistics did not exhibit obvious gel-glass signatures as a function of volume fraction. These mode behaviors and accompanying structural insights offer a potentially new set of indicators for identification of glass-gel transitions and for assignment of gel-like versus glass-like character to a disordered solid material.
AU - Lohr, Matthew A.
AU - Still, Tim
AU - Ganti, Raman
AU - Gratale, Matthew D.
AU - Davidson, Zoey S.
AU - Aptowicz, Kevin B.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Sussman, Daniel M.
AU - Yodh, A. G.
ID - 7768
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review E
SN - 1539-3755
TI - Vibrational and structural signatures of the crossover between dense glassy and sparse gel-like attractive colloidal packings
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Athermal packings of soft repulsive spheres exhibit a sharp jamming transition in the thermodynamic limit. Upon further compression, various structural and mechanical properties display clean power-law behavior over many decades in pressure. As with any phase transition, the rounding of such behavior in finite systems close to the transition plays an important role in understanding the nature of the transition itself. The situation for jamming is surprisingly rich: the assumption that jammed packings are isotropic is only strictly true in the large-size limit, and finite-size has a profound effect on the very meaning of jamming. Here, we provide a comprehensive numerical study of finite-size effects in sphere packings above the jamming transition, focusing on stability as well as the scaling of the contact number and the elastic response.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Dagois-Bohy, Simon
AU - Tighe, Brian P.
AU - van Hecke, Martin
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
ID - 7769
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review E
SN - 1539-3755
TI - Jamming in finite systems: Stability, anisotropy, fluctuations, and scaling
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Packings of frictionless athermal particles that interact only when they overlap experience a jamming transition as a function of packing density. Such packings provide the foundation for the theory of jamming. This theory rests on the observation that, despite the multitude of disordered configurations, the mechanical response to linear order depends only on the distance to the transition. We investigate the validity and utility of such measurements that invoke the harmonic approximation and show that, despite particles coming in and out of contact, there is a well-defined linear regime in the thermodynamic limit.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
ID - 7770
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review E
SN - 1539-3755
TI - Contact nonlinearities and linear response in jammed particulate packings
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In their Letter, Schreck, Bertrand, O'Hern and Shattuck [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 078301 (2011)] study nonlinearities in jammed particulate systems that arise when contacts are altered. They conclude that there is "no harmonic regime in the large system limit for all compressions" and "at jamming onset for any system size." Their argument rests on the claim that for finite-range repulsive potentials, of the form used in studies of jamming, the breaking or forming of a single contact is sufficient to destroy the linear regime. We dispute these conclusions and argue that linear response is both justified and essential for understanding the nature of the jammed solid.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
ID - 7771
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 0031-9007
TI - Comment on “Repulsive contact interactions make jammed particulate systems inherently nonharmonic”
VL - 112
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Particle tracking and displacement covariance matrix techniques are employed to investigate the phonon dispersion relations of two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of soft, thermoresponsive microgel particles whose temperature-sensitive size permits in situ variation of particle packing fraction. Bulk, B, and shear, G, moduli of the colloidal glasses are extracted from the dispersion relations as a function of packing fraction, and variation of the ratio G/B with packing fraction is found to agree quantitatively with predictions for jammed packings of frictional soft particles. In addition, G and B individually agree with numerical predictions for frictional particles. This remarkable level of agreement enabled us to extract an energy scale for the interparticle interaction from the individual elastic constants and to derive an approximate estimate for the interparticle friction coefficient.
AU - Still, Tim
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Chen, Ke
AU - Yunker, Peter J.
AU - Schoenholz, Samuel
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Yodh, A. G.
ID - 7772
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review E
SN - 1539-3755
TI - Phonon dispersion and elastic moduli of two-dimensional disordered colloidal packings of soft particles with frictional interactions
VL - 89
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For more than a century, physicists have described real solids in terms of perturbations about perfect crystalline order1. Such an approach takes us only so far: a glass, another ubiquitous form of rigid matter, cannot be described in any meaningful sense as a defected crystal2. Is there an opposite extreme to a crystal—a solid with complete disorder—that forms an alternative starting point for understanding real materials? Here, we argue that the solid comprising particles with finite-ranged interactions at the jamming transition3,4,5 constitutes such a limit. It has been shown that the physics associated with this transition can be extended to interactions that are long ranged6. We demonstrate that jamming physics is not restricted to amorphous systems, but dominates the behaviour of solids with surprisingly high order. Just as the free-electron and tight-binding models represent two idealized cases from which to understand electronic structure1, we identify two extreme limits of mechanical behaviour. Thus, the physics of jamming can be set side by side with the physics of crystals to provide an organizing structure for understanding the mechanical properties of solids over the entire spectrum of disorder.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
ID - 7773
IS - 8
JF - Nature Physics
SN - 1745-2473
TI - Solids between the mechanical extremes of order and disorder
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce algorithms for the computation of homology, cohomology, and related operations on cubical cell complexes, using the technique based on a chain contraction from the original chain complex to a reduced one that represents its homology. This work is based on previous results for simplicial complexes, and uses Serre’s diagonalization for cubical cells. An implementation in C++ of the introduced algorithms is available at http://www.pawelpilarczyk.com/chaincon/ together with some examples. The paper is self-contained as much as possible, and is written at a very elementary level, so that basic knowledge of algebraic topology should be sufficient to follow it.
AU - Pawel Pilarczyk
AU - Real, Pedro
ID - 451
IS - 1
JF - Advances in Computational Mathematics
TI - Computation of cubical homology, cohomology, and (co)homological operations via chain contraction
VL - 41
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundance) is lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss.
AU - Cimadom, Arno
AU - Ulloa, Angel
AU - Meidl, Patrick
AU - Zöttl, Markus
AU - Zöttl, Elisabet
AU - Fessl, Birgit
AU - Nemeth, Erwin
AU - Dvorak, Michael
AU - Cunninghame, Francesca
AU - Tebbich, Sabine
ID - 468
IS - 9
JF - PLoS One
TI - Invasive parasites habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches
VL - 9
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - First cycle games (FCG) are played on a finite graph by two players who push a token along the edges until a vertex is repeated, and a simple cycle is formed. The winner is determined by some fixed property Y of the sequence of labels of the edges (or nodes) forming this cycle. These games are traditionally of interest because of their connection with infinite-duration games such as parity and mean-payoff games. We study the memory requirements for winning strategies of FCGs and certain associated infinite duration games. We exhibit a simple FCG that is not memoryless determined (this corrects a mistake in Memoryless determinacy of parity and mean payoff games: a simple proof by Bj⋯orklund, Sandberg, Vorobyov (2004) that claims that FCGs for which Y is closed under cyclic permutations are memoryless determined). We show that θ (n)! memory (where n is the number of nodes in the graph), which is always sufficient, may be necessary to win some FCGs. On the other hand, we identify easy to check conditions on Y (i.e., Y is closed under cyclic permutations, and both Y and its complement are closed under concatenation) that are sufficient to ensure that the corresponding FCGs and their associated infinite duration games are memoryless determined. We demonstrate that many games considered in the literature, such as mean-payoff, parity, energy, etc., satisfy these conditions. On the complexity side, we show (for efficiently computable Y) that while solving FCGs is in PSPACE, solving some families of FCGs is PSPACE-hard.
AU - Aminof, Benjamin
AU - Rubin, Sasha
ID - 475
T2 - Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, EPTCS
TI - First cycle games
VL - 146
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Energy games belong to a class of turn-based two-player infinite-duration games played on a weighted directed graph. It is one of the rare and intriguing combinatorial problems that lie in NP∩co-NP, but are not known to be in P. The existence of polynomial-time algorithms has been a major open problem for decades and apart from pseudopolynomial algorithms there is no algorithm that solves any non-trivial subclass in polynomial time. In this paper, we give several results based on the weight structures of the graph. First, we identify a notion of penalty and present a polynomial-time algorithm when the penalty is large. Our algorithm is the first polynomial-time algorithm on a large class of weighted graphs. It includes several worst-case instances on which previous algorithms, such as value iteration and random facet algorithms, require at least sub-exponential time. Our main technique is developing the first non-trivial approximation algorithm and showing how to convert it to an exact algorithm. Moreover, we show that in a practical case in verification where weights are clustered around a constant number of values, the energy game problem can be solved in polynomial time. We also show that the problem is still as hard as in general when the clique-width is bounded or the graph is strongly ergodic, suggesting that restricting the graph structure does not necessarily help.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Krinninger, Sebastian
AU - Nanongkai, Danupon
ID - 535
IS - 3
JF - Algorithmica
TI - Polynomial time algorithms for energy games with special weight structures
VL - 70
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Transgenerational effects are broader than only parental relationships. Despite mounting evidence that multigenerational effects alter phenotypic and life-history traits, our understanding of how they combine to determine fitness is not well developed because of the added complexity necessary to study them. Here, we derive a quantitative genetic model of adaptation to an extraordinary new environment by an additive genetic component, phenotypic plasticity, maternal and grandmaternal effects. We show how, at equilibrium, negative maternal and negative grandmaternal effects maximize expected population mean fitness. We define negative transgenerational effects as those that have a negative effect on trait expression in the subsequent generation, that is, they slow, or potentially reverse, the expected evolutionary dynamic. When maternal effects are positive, negative grandmaternal effects are preferred. As expected under Mendelian inheritance, the grandmaternal effects have a lower impact on fitness than the maternal effects, but this dual inheritance model predicts a more complex relationship between maternal and grandmaternal effects to constrain phenotypic variance and so maximize expected population mean fitness in the offspring.
AU - Prizak, Roshan
AU - Ezard, Thomas
AU - Hoyle, Rebecca
ID - 537
IS - 15
JF - Ecology and Evolution
TI - Fitness consequences of maternal and grandmaternal effects
VL - 4
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Model-based testing is a promising technology for black-box software and hardware testing, in which test cases are generated automatically from high-level specifications. Nowadays, systems typically consist of multiple interacting components and, due to their complexity, testing presents a considerable portion of the effort and cost in the design process. Exploiting the compositional structure of system specifications can considerably reduce the effort in model-based testing. Moreover, inferring properties about the system from testing its individual components allows the designer to reduce the amount of integration testing.
In this paper, we study compositional properties of the IOCO-testing theory. We propose a new approach to composition and hiding operations, inspired by contract-based design and interface theories. These operations preserve behaviors that are compatible under composition and hiding, and prune away incompatible ones. The resulting specification characterizes the input sequences for which the unit testing of components is sufficient to infer the correctness of component integration without the need for further tests. We provide a methodology that uses these results to minimize integration testing effort, but also to detect potential weaknesses in specifications. While we focus on asynchronous models and the IOCO conformance relation, the resulting methodology can be applied to a broader class of systems.
AU - Daca, Przemyslaw
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Krenn, Willibald
AU - Nickovic, Dejan
ID - 5411
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Compositional specifications for IOCO testing
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) which are a standard model for probabilistic systems. We focus on qualitative properties for MDPs that can express that desired behaviors of the system arise almost-surely (with probability 1) or with positive probability.
We introduce a new simulation relation to capture the refinement relation of MDPs with respect to qualitative properties, and present discrete graph theoretic algorithms with quadratic complexity to compute the simulation relation.
We present an automated technique for assume-guarantee style reasoning for compositional analysis of MDPs with qualitative properties by giving a counter-example guided abstraction-refinement approach to compute our new simulation relation. We have implemented our algorithms and show that the compositional analysis leads to significant improvements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Daca, Przemyslaw
AU - Chmelik, Martin
ID - 5412
SN - 2664-1690
TI - CEGAR for qualitative analysis of probabilistic systems
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) which are a standard model for probabilistic systems. We focus on qualitative properties for MDPs that can express that desired behaviors of the system arise almost-surely (with probability 1) or with positive probability.
We introduce a new simulation relation to capture the refinement relation of MDPs with respect to qualitative properties, and present discrete graph theoretic algorithms with quadratic complexity to compute the simulation relation.
We present an automated technique for assume-guarantee style reasoning for compositional analysis of MDPs with qualitative properties by giving a counter-example guided abstraction-refinement approach to compute our new simulation relation. We have implemented our algorithms and show that the compositional analysis leads to significant improvements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Daca, Przemyslaw
AU - Chmelik, Martin
ID - 5413
SN - 2664-1690
TI - CEGAR for qualitative analysis of probabilistic systems
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) which are a standard model for probabilistic systems. We focus on qualitative properties for MDPs that can express that desired behaviors of the system arise almost-surely (with probability 1) or with positive probability.
We introduce a new simulation relation to capture the refinement relation of MDPs with respect to qualitative properties, and present discrete graph theoretic algorithms with quadratic complexity to compute the simulation relation.
We present an automated technique for assume-guarantee style reasoning for compositional analysis of MDPs with qualitative properties by giving a counter-example guided abstraction-refinement approach to compute our new simulation relation.
We have implemented our algorithms and show that the compositional analysis leads to significant improvements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Daca, Przemyslaw
AU - Chmelik, Martin
ID - 5414
SN - 2664-1690
TI - CEGAR for qualitative analysis of probabilistic systems
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Recently there has been a significant effort to add quantitative properties in formal verification and synthesis. While weighted automata over finite and infinite words provide a natural and flexible framework to express quantitative properties, perhaps surprisingly, several basic system properties such as average response time cannot be expressed with weighted automata. In this work, we introduce nested weighted automata as a new formalism for expressing important quantitative properties such as average response time. We establish an almost complete decidability picture for the basic decision problems for nested weighted automata, and illustrate its applicability in several domains.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 5415
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Nested weighted automata
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - As hybrid systems involve continuous behaviors, they should be evaluated by quantitative methods, rather than qualitative methods. In this paper we adapt a quantitative framework, called model measuring, to the hybrid systems domain. The model-measuring problem asks, given a model M and a specification, what is the maximal distance such that all models within that distance from M satisfy (or violate) the specification. A distance function on models is given as part of the input of the problem. Distances, especially related to continuous behaviors are more natural in the hybrid case than the discrete case. We are interested in distances represented by monotonic hybrid automata, a hybrid counterpart of (discrete) weighted automata, whose recognized timed languages are monotone (w.r.t. inclusion) in the values of parameters.The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we give sufficient conditions under which the model-measuring problem can be solved. Second, we discuss the modeling of distances and applications of the model-measuring problem.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 5416
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Model measuring for hybrid systems
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We define the model-measuring problem: given a model M and specification φ, what is the maximal distance ρ such that all models M'within distance ρ from M satisfy (or violate)φ. The model measuring problem presupposes a distance function on models. We concentrate on automatic distance functions, which are defined by weighted automata.
The model-measuring problem subsumes several generalizations of the classical model-checking problem, in particular, quantitative model-checking problems that measure the degree of satisfaction of a specification, and robustness problems that measure how much a model can be perturbed without violating the specification.
We show that for automatic distance functions, and ω-regular linear-time and branching-time specifications, the model-measuring problem can be solved.
We use automata-theoretic model-checking methods for model measuring, replacing the emptiness question for standard word and tree automata by the optimal-weight question for the weighted versions of these automata. We consider weighted automata that accumulate weights by maximizing, summing, discounting, and limit averaging.
We give several examples of using the model-measuring problem to compute various notions of robustness and quantitative satisfaction for temporal specifications.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 5417
SN - 2664-1690
TI - From model checking to model measuring
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider multi-player graph games with partial-observation and parity objective. While the decision problem for three-player games with a coalition of the first and second players against the third player is undecidable, we present a decidability result for partial-observation games where the first and third player are in a coalition against the second player, thus where the second player is adversarial but weaker due to partial-observation. We establish tight complexity bounds in the case where player 1 is less informed than player 2, namely 2-EXPTIME-completeness for parity objectives. The symmetric case of player 1 more informed than player 2 is much more complicated, and we show that already in the case where player 1 has perfect observation, memory of size non-elementary is necessary in general for reachability objectives, and the problem is decidable for safety and reachability objectives. Our results have tight connections with partial-observation stochastic games for which we derive new complexity results.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
ID - 5418
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Games with a weak adversary
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the reachability and shortest path problems on low tree-width graphs, with n nodes, m edges, and tree-width t, on a standard RAM with wordsize W. We use O to hide polynomial factors of the inverse of the Ackermann function. Our main contributions are three fold:
1. For reachability, we present an algorithm that requires O(n·t2·log(n/t)) preprocessing time, O(n·(t·log(n/t))/W) space, and O(t/W) time for pair queries and O((n·t)/W) time for single-source queries. Note that for constant t our algorithm uses O(n·logn) time for preprocessing; and O(n/W) time for single-source queries, which is faster than depth first search/breath first search (after the preprocessing).
2. We present an algorithm for shortest path that requires O(n·t2) preprocessing time, O(n·t) space, and O(t2) time for pair queries and O(n·t) time single-source queries.
3. We give a space versus query time trade-off algorithm for shortest path that, given any constant >0, requires O(n·t2) preprocessing time, O(n·t2) space, and O(n1−·t2) time for pair queries.
Our algorithms improve all existing results, and use very simple data structures.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
ID - 5419
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Improved algorithms for reachability and shortest path on low tree-width graphs
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider concurrent mean-payoff games, a very well-studied class of two-player (player 1 vs player 2) zero-sum games on finite-state graphs where every transition is assigned a reward between 0 and 1, and the payoff function is the long-run average of the rewards. The value is the maximal expected payoff that player 1 can guarantee against all strategies of player 2. We consider the computation of the set of states with value 1 under finite-memory strategies for player 1, and our main results for the problem are as follows: (1) we present a polynomial-time algorithm; (2) we show that whenever there is a finite-memory strategy, there is a stationary strategy that does not need memory at all; and (3) we present an optimal bound (which is double exponential) on the patience of stationary strategies (where patience of a distribution is the inverse of the smallest positive probability and represents a complexity measure of a stationary strategy).
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
ID - 5420
SN - 2664-1690
TI - The value 1 problem for concurrent mean-payoff games
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Evolution occurs in populations of reproducing individuals. The structure of the population affects the outcome of the evolutionary process. Evolutionary graph theory is a powerful approach to study this phenomenon. There are two graphs. The interaction graph specifies who interacts with whom in the context of evolution. The replacement graph specifies who competes with whom for reproduction. The vertices of the two graphs are the same, and each vertex corresponds to an individual. A key quantity is the fixation probability of a new mutant. It is defined as the probability that a newly introduced mutant (on a single vertex) generates a lineage of offspring which eventually takes over the entire population of resident individuals. The basic computational questions are as follows: (i) the qualitative question asks whether the fixation probability is positive; and (ii) the quantitative approximation question asks for an approximation of the fixation probability. Our main results are: (1) We show that the qualitative question is NP-complete and the quantitative approximation question is #P-hard in the special case when the interaction and the replacement graphs coincide and even with the restriction that the resident individuals do not reproduce (which corresponds to an invading population taking over an empty structure). (2) We show that in general the qualitative question is PSPACE-complete and the quantitative approximation question is PSPACE-hard and can be solved in exponential time.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5421
SN - 2664-1690
TI - The complexity of evolution on graphs
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Notes from the Third Plenary for the Research Data Alliance in Dublin, Ireland on March 26 to 28, 2014 with focus on starting an institutional research data repository.
AU - Porsche, Jana
ID - 5422
TI - Notes from Research Data Alliance Plenary Meeting in Dublin, Ireland
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We present a flexible framework for the automated competitive analysis of on-line scheduling algorithms for firm- deadline real-time tasks based on multi-objective graphs: Given a taskset and an on-line scheduling algorithm specified as a labeled transition system, along with some optional safety, liveness, and/or limit-average constraints for the adversary, we automatically compute the competitive ratio of the algorithm w.r.t. a clairvoyant scheduler. We demonstrate the flexibility and power of our approach by comparing the competitive ratio of several on-line algorithms, including D(over), that have been proposed in the past, for various tasksets. Our experimental results reveal that none of these algorithms is universally optimal, in the sense that there are tasksets where other schedulers provide better performance. Our framework is hence a very useful design tool for selecting optimal algorithms for a given application.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kössler, Alexander
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Schmid, Ulrich
ID - 5423
SN - 2664-1690
TI - A framework for automated competitive analysis of on-line scheduling of firm-deadline tasks
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs), that are a standard framework for robotics applications to model uncertainties present in the real world, with temporal logic specifications. All temporal logic specifications in linear-time temporal logic (LTL) can be expressed as parity objectives. We study the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives that asks whether there is a controller (policy) to ensure that the objective holds with probability 1 (almost-surely). While the qualitative analysis of POMDPs with parity objectives is undecidable, recent results show that when restricted to finite-memory policies the problem is EXPTIME-complete. While the problem is intractable in theory, we present a practical approach to solve the qualitative analysis problem. We designed several heuristics to deal with the exponential complexity, and have used our implementation on a number of well-known POMDP examples for robotics applications. Our results provide the first practical approach to solve the qualitative analysis of robot motion planning with LTL properties in the presence of uncertainty.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Chmelik, Martin
AU - Gupta, Raghav
AU - Kanodia, Ayush
ID - 5424
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Qualitative analysis of POMDPs with temporal logic specifications for robotics applications
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with a set of target states and every transition is associated with an integer cost. The optimization objective we study asks to minimize the expected total cost till the target set is reached, while ensuring that the target set is reached almost-surely (with probability 1). We show that for integer costs approximating the optimal cost is undecidable. For positive costs, our results are as follows: (i) we establish matching lower and upper bounds for the optimal cost and the bound is double exponential; (ii) we show that the problem of approximating the optimal cost is decidable and present approximation algorithms developing on the existing algorithms for POMDPs with finite-horizon objectives. While the worst-case running time of our algorithm is double exponential, we also present efficient stopping criteria for the algorithm and show experimentally that it performs well in many examples of interest.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
AU - Anonymous, 4
ID - 5425
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Optimal cost almost-sure reachability in POMDPs
ER -