TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamics and thermodynamics of ion transport in narrow, water-filled channels, considered as effective 1D Coulomb systems. The long range nature of the inter-ion interactions comes about due to the dielectric constants mismatch between the water and the surrounding medium, confining the electric filed to stay mostly within the water-filled channel. Statistical mechanics of such Coulomb systems is dominated by entropic effects which may be accurately accounted for by mapping onto an effective quantum mechanics. In presence of multivalent ions the corresponding quantum mechanics appears to be non-Hermitian. In this review we discuss a framework for semiclassical calculations for the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Non-Hermiticity elevates WKB action integrals from the real line to closed cycles on a complex Riemann surfaces where direct calculations are not attainable. We circumvent this issue by applying tools from algebraic topology, such as the Picard-Fuchs equation. We discuss how its solutions relate to the thermodynamics and correlation functions of multivalent solutions within narrow, water-filled channels.
AU - Gulden, Tobias
AU - Kamenev, Alex
ID - 9020
IS - 1
JF - Entropy
TI - Dynamics of ion channels via non-hermitian quantum mechanics
VL - 23
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We determine an asymptotic formula for the number of integral points of bounded height on a blow-up of $\mathbb{P}^3$ outside certain planes using universal torsors.
AU - Wilsch, Florian Alexander
ID - 9034
T2 - arXiv
TI - Integral points of bounded height on a log Fano threefold
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Layered materials in which individual atomic layers are bonded by weak van der Waals forces (vdW materials) constitute one of the most prominent platforms for materials research. Particularly, polar vdW crystals, such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), alpha-molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) or alpha-vanadium pentoxide (α-V2O5), have received significant attention in nano-optics, since they support phonon polaritons (PhPs)―light coupled to lattice vibrations― with strong electromagnetic confinement and low optical losses. Recently, correlative far- and near-field studies of α-MoO3 have been demonstrated as an effective strategy to accurately extract the permittivity of this material. Here, we use this accurately characterized and low-loss polaritonic material to sense its local dielectric environment, namely silica (SiO2), one of the most widespread substrates in nanotechnology. By studying the propagation of PhPs on α-MoO3 flakes with different thicknesses laying on SiO2 substrates via near-field microscopy (s-SNOM), we extract locally the infrared permittivity of SiO2. Our work reveals PhPs nanoimaging as a versatile method for the quantitative characterization of the local optical properties of dielectric substrates, crucial for understanding and predicting the response of nanomaterials and for the future scalability of integrated nanophotonic devices.
AU - Aguilar-Merino, Patricia
AU - Álvarez-Pérez, Gonzalo
AU - Taboada-Gutiérrez, Javier
AU - Duan, Jiahua
AU - Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan
AU - Álvarez-Prado, Luis Manuel
AU - Nikitin, Alexey Y.
AU - Martín-Sánchez, Javier
AU - Alonso-González, Pablo
ID - 9038
IS - 1
JF - Nanomaterials
TI - Extracting the infrared permittivity of SiO2 substrates locally by near-field imaging of phonon polaritons in a van der Waals crystal
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We continue our study of ‘no‐dimension’ analogues of basic theorems in combinatorial and convex geometry in Banach spaces. We generalize some results of the paper (Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa, ‘Theorems of Carathéodory, Helly, and Tverberg without dimension’, Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual ACM‐SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, San Diego, California, 2019) 2350–2360) and prove no‐dimension versions of the colored Tverberg theorem, the selection lemma and the weak 𝜀 ‐net theorem in Banach spaces of type 𝑝>1 . To prove these results, we use the original ideas of Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa for the Euclidean case, our no‐dimension version of the Radon theorem and slightly modified version of the celebrated Maurey lemma.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
ID - 9037
JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
SN - 00246093
TI - No-dimension Tverberg's theorem and its corollaries in Banach spaces of type p
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this short note, we prove that the square root of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence is a true metric on the cone of positive matrices, and hence in particular on the quantum state space.
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 9036
IS - 3
JF - Advances in Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0001-8708
TI - The metric property of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence
VL - 380
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We develop a geometric version of the circle method and use it to compute the compactly supported cohomology of the space of rational curves through a point on a smooth affine hypersurface of sufficiently low degree.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Sawin, Will
ID - 177
IS - 3
JF - Annals of Mathematics
TI - A geometric version of the circle method
VL - 191
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An asymptotic formula is established for the number of rational points of bounded anticanonical height which lie on a certain Zariski dense subset of the biprojective hypersurface x1y21+⋯+x4y24=0 in ℙ3×ℙ3. This confirms the modified Manin conjecture for this variety, in which the removal of a thin set of rational points is allowed.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Heath Brown, Roger
ID - 179
IS - 16
JF - Duke Mathematical Journal
TI - Density of rational points on a quadric bundle in ℙ3×ℙ3
VL - 169
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce dynamically warping grids for adaptive liquid simulation. Our primary contributions are a strategy for dynamically deforming regular grids over the course of a simulation and a method for efficiently utilizing these deforming grids for liquid simulation. Prior work has shown that unstructured grids are very effective for adaptive fluid simulations. However, unstructured grids often lead to complicated implementations and a poor cache hit rate due to inconsistent memory access. Regular grids, on the other hand, provide a fast, fixed memory access pattern and straightforward implementation. Our method combines the advantages of both: we leverage the simplicity of regular grids while still achieving practical and controllable spatial adaptivity. We demonstrate that our method enables adaptive simulations that are fast, flexible, and robust to null-space issues. At the same time, our method is simple to implement and takes advantage of existing highly-tuned algorithms.
AU - Hikaru, Ibayashi
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Thuerey, Nils
AU - Igarashi, Takeo
AU - Ando, Ryoichi
ID - 5681
IS - 6
JF - IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
SN - 10772626
TI - Simulating liquids on dynamically warping grids
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - For complex Wigner-type matrices, i.e. Hermitian random matrices with independent, not necessarily identically distributed entries above the diagonal, we show that at any cusp singularity of the limiting eigenvalue distribution the local eigenvalue statistics are universal and form a Pearcey process. Since the density of states typically exhibits only square root or cubic root cusp singularities, our work complements previous results on the bulk and edge universality and it thus completes the resolution of the Wigner–Dyson–Mehta universality conjecture for the last remaining universality type in the complex Hermitian class. Our analysis holds not only for exact cusps, but approximate cusps as well, where an extended Pearcey process emerges. As a main technical ingredient we prove an optimal local law at the cusp for both symmetry classes. This result is also the key input in the companion paper (Cipolloni et al. in Pure Appl Anal, 2018. arXiv:1811.04055) where the cusp universality for real symmetric Wigner-type matrices is proven. The novel cusp fluctuation mechanism is also essential for the recent results on the spectral radius of non-Hermitian random matrices (Alt et al. in Spectral radius of random matrices with independent entries, 2019. arXiv:1907.13631), and the non-Hermitian edge universality (Cipolloni et al. in Edge universality for non-Hermitian random matrices, 2019. arXiv:1908.00969).
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Schröder, Dominik J
ID - 6185
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cusp universality for random matrices I: Local law and the complex Hermitian case
VL - 378
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove edge universality for a general class of correlated real symmetric or complex Hermitian Wigner matrices with arbitrary expectation. Our theorem also applies to internal edges of the self-consistent density of states. In particular, we establish a strong form of band rigidity which excludes mismatches between location and label of eigenvalues close to internal edges in these general models.
AU - Alt, Johannes
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Schröder, Dominik J
ID - 6184
IS - 2
JF - Annals of Probability
TI - Correlated random matrices: Band rigidity and edge universality
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamical optimal transport metrics between density matricesassociated to symmetric Dirichlet forms on finite-dimensional C∗-algebras. Our settingcovers arbitrary skew-derivations and it provides a unified framework that simultaneously generalizes recently constructed transport metrics for Markov chains, Lindblad equations, and the Fermi Ornstein–Uhlenbeck semigroup. We develop a non-nommutative differential calculus that allows us to obtain non-commutative Ricci curvature bounds, logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, transport-entropy inequalities, andspectral gap estimates.
AU - Carlen, Eric A.
AU - Maas, Jan
ID - 6358
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Non-commutative calculus, optimal transport and functional inequalities in dissipative quantum systems
VL - 178
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The strong rate of convergence of the Euler-Maruyama scheme for nondegenerate SDEs with irregular drift coefficients is considered. In the case of α-Hölder drift in the recent literature the rate α/2 was proved in many related situations. By exploiting the regularising effect of the noise more efficiently, we show that the rate is in fact arbitrarily close to 1/2 for all α>0. The result extends to Dini continuous coefficients, while in d=1 also to all bounded measurable coefficients.
AU - Dareiotis, Konstantinos
AU - Gerencser, Mate
ID - 6359
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
TI - On the regularisation of the noise for the Euler-Maruyama scheme with irregular drift
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove a central limit theorem for the difference of linear eigenvalue statistics of a sample covariance matrix W˜ and its minor W. We find that the fluctuation of this difference is much smaller than those of the individual linear statistics, as a consequence of the strong correlation between the eigenvalues of W˜ and W. Our result identifies the fluctuation of the spatial derivative of the approximate Gaussian field in the recent paper by Dumitru and Paquette. Unlike in a similar result for Wigner matrices, for sample covariance matrices, the fluctuation may entirely vanish.
AU - Cipolloni, Giorgio
AU - Erdös, László
ID - 6488
IS - 3
JF - Random Matrices: Theory and Application
SN - 20103263
TI - Fluctuations for differences of linear eigenvalue statistics for sample covariance matrices
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper presents two algorithms. The first decides the existence of a pointed homotopy between given simplicial maps 𝑓,𝑔:𝑋→𝑌, and the second computes the group [𝛴𝑋,𝑌]∗ of pointed homotopy classes of maps from a suspension; in both cases, the target Y is assumed simply connected. More generally, these algorithms work relative to 𝐴⊆𝑋.
AU - Filakovský, Marek
AU - Vokřínek, Lukas
ID - 6563
JF - Foundations of Computational Mathematics
SN - 16153375
TI - Are two given maps homotopic? An algorithmic viewpoint
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the monotone variational inequality problem in a Hilbert space and describe a projection-type method with inertial terms under the following properties: (a) The method generates a strongly convergent iteration sequence; (b) The method requires, at each iteration, only one projection onto the feasible set and two evaluations of the operator; (c) The method is designed for variational inequality for which the underline operator is monotone and uniformly continuous; (d) The method includes an inertial term. The latter is also shown to speed up the convergence in our numerical results. A comparison with some related methods is given and indicates that the new method is promising.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Li, Xiao-Huan
AU - Dong, Qiao-Li
ID - 6593
JF - Numerical Algorithms
SN - 1017-1398
TI - An efficient projection-type method for monotone variational inequalities in Hilbert spaces
VL - 84
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - While Hartree–Fock theory is well established as a fundamental approximation for interacting fermions, it has been unclear how to describe corrections to it due to many-body correlations. In this paper we start from the Hartree–Fock state given by plane waves and introduce collective particle–hole pair excitations. These pairs can be approximately described by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. We use Bogoliubov theory to construct a trial state yielding a rigorous Gell-Mann–Brueckner–type upper bound to the ground state energy. Our result justifies the random-phase approximation in the mean-field scaling regime, for repulsive, regular interaction potentials.
AU - Benedikter, Niels P
AU - Nam, Phan Thành
AU - Porta, Marcello
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 6649
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Optimal upper bound for the correlation energy of a Fermi gas in the mean-field regime
VL - 374
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Fitting a function by using linear combinations of a large number N of `simple' components is one of the most fruitful ideas in statistical learning. This idea lies at the core of a variety of methods, from two-layer neural networks to kernel regression, to boosting. In general, the resulting risk minimization problem is non-convex and is solved by gradient descent or its variants. Unfortunately, little is known about global convergence properties of these approaches.
Here we consider the problem of learning a concave function f on a compact convex domain Ω⊆ℝd, using linear combinations of `bump-like' components (neurons). The parameters to be fitted are the centers of N bumps, and the resulting empirical risk minimization problem is highly non-convex. We prove that, in the limit in which the number of neurons diverges, the evolution of gradient descent converges to a Wasserstein gradient flow in the space of probability distributions over Ω. Further, when the bump width δ tends to 0, this gradient flow has a limit which is a viscous porous medium equation. Remarkably, the cost function optimized by this gradient flow exhibits a special property known as displacement convexity, which implies exponential convergence rates for N→∞, δ→0. Surprisingly, this asymptotic theory appears to capture well the behavior for moderate values of δ,N. Explaining this phenomenon, and understanding the dependence on δ,N in a quantitative manner remains an outstanding challenge.
AU - Javanmard, Adel
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Montanari, Andrea
ID - 6748
IS - 6
JF - Annals of Statistics
TI - Analysis of a two-layer neural network via displacement convexity
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nearby grid cells have been observed to express a remarkable degree of long-rangeorder, which is often idealized as extending potentially to infinity. Yet their strict peri-odic firing and ensemble coherence are theoretically possible only in flat environments, much unlike the burrows which rodents usually live in. Are the symmetrical, coherent grid maps inferred in the lab relevant to chart their way in their natural habitat? We consider spheres as simple models of curved environments and waiting for the appropriate experiments to be performed, we use our adaptation model to predict what grid maps would emerge in a network with the same type of recurrent connections, which on the plane produce coherence among the units. We find that on the sphere such connections distort the maps that single grid units would express on their own, and aggregate them into clusters. When remapping to a different spherical environment, units in each cluster maintain only partial coherence, similar to what is observed in disordered materials, such as spin glasses.
AU - Stella, Federico
AU - Urdapilleta, Eugenio
AU - Luo, Yifan
AU - Treves, Alessandro
ID - 6796
IS - 4
JF - Hippocampus
SN - 10509631
TI - Partial coherence and frustration in self-organizing spherical grids
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become an important catalyst for discovery in the life sciences. In STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy, a pattern of light drives fluorophores from a signal-emitting on-state to a non-signalling off-state. Only emitters residing in a sub-diffraction volume around an intensity minimum are allowed to fluoresce, rendering them distinguishable from the nearby, but dark fluorophores. STED routinely achieves resolution in the few tens of nanometers range in biological samples and is suitable for live imaging. Here, we review the working principle of STED and provide general guidelines for successful STED imaging. The strive for ever higher resolution comes at the cost of increased light burden. We discuss techniques to reduce light exposure and mitigate its detrimental effects on the specimen. These include specialized illumination strategies as well as protecting fluorophores from photobleaching mediated by high-intensity STED light. This opens up the prospect of volumetric imaging in living cells and tissues with diffraction-unlimited resolution in all three spatial dimensions.
AU - Jahr, Wiebke
AU - Velicky, Philipp
AU - Danzl, Johann G
ID - 6808
IS - 3
JF - Methods
SN - 1046-2023
TI - Strategies to maximize performance in STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy of biological specimens
VL - 174
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In resource allocation games, selfish players share resources that are needed in order to fulfill their objectives. The cost of using a resource depends on the load on it. In the traditional setting, the players make their choices concurrently and in one-shot. That is, a strategy for a player is a subset of the resources. We introduce and study dynamic resource allocation games. In this setting, the game proceeds in phases. In each phase each player chooses one resource. A scheduler dictates the order in which the players proceed in a phase, possibly scheduling several players to proceed concurrently. The game ends when each player has collected a set of resources that fulfills his objective. The cost for each player then depends on this set as well as on the load on the resources in it – we consider both congestion and cost-sharing games. We argue that the dynamic setting is the suitable setting for many applications in practice. We study the stability of dynamic resource allocation games, where the appropriate notion of stability is that of subgame perfect equilibrium, study the inefficiency incurred due to selfish behavior, and also study problems that are particular to the dynamic setting, like constraints on the order in which resources can be chosen or the problem of finding a scheduler that achieves stability.
AU - Avni, Guy
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Kupferman, Orna
ID - 6761
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
SN - 03043975
TI - Dynamic resource allocation games
VL - 807
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a unified framework tackling two problems: class-specific 3D reconstruction from a single image, and generation of new 3D shape samples. These tasks have received considerable attention recently; however, most existing approaches rely on 3D supervision, annotation of 2D images with keypoints or poses, and/or training with multiple views of each object instance. Our framework is very general: it can be trained in similar settings to existing approaches, while also supporting weaker supervision. Importantly, it can be trained purely from 2D images, without pose annotations, and with only a single view per instance. We employ meshes as an output representation, instead of voxels used in most prior work. This allows us to reason over lighting parameters and exploit shading information during training, which previous 2D-supervised methods cannot. Thus, our method can learn to generate and reconstruct concave object classes. We evaluate our approach in various settings, showing that: (i) it learns to disentangle shape from pose and lighting; (ii) using shading in the loss improves performance compared to just silhouettes; (iii) when using a standard single white light, our model outperforms state-of-the-art 2D-supervised methods, both with and without pose supervision, thanks to exploiting shading cues; (iv) performance improves further when using multiple coloured lights, even approaching that of state-of-the-art 3D-supervised methods; (v) shapes produced by our model capture smooth surfaces and fine details better than voxel-based approaches; and (vi) our approach supports concave classes such as bathtubs and sofas, which methods based on silhouettes cannot learn.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Ferrari, Vittorio
ID - 6952
JF - International Journal of Computer Vision
SN - 0920-5691
TI - Learning single-image 3D reconstruction by generative modelling of shape, pose and shading
VL - 128
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 6997
IS - 3
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028-646x
TI - Auxin guides roots to avoid obstacles during gravitropic growth
VL - 225
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The central object of investigation of this paper is the Hirzebruch class, a deformation of the Todd class, given by Hirzebruch (for smooth varieties). The generalization for singular varieties is due to Brasselet–Schürmann–Yokura. Following the work of Weber, we investigate its equivariant version for (possibly singular) toric varieties. The local decomposition of the Hirzebruch class to the fixed points of the torus action and a formula for the local class in terms of the defining fan are recalled. After this review part, we prove the positivity of local Hirzebruch classes for all toric varieties, thus proving false the alleged counterexample given by Weber.
AU - Rychlewicz, Kamil P
ID - 6965
JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
SN - 0024-6093
TI - The positivity of local equivariant Hirzebruch class for toric varieties
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Origami is rapidly transforming the design of robots1,2, deployable structures3,4,5,6 and metamaterials7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14. However, as foldability requires a large number of complex compatibility conditions that are difficult to satisfy, the design of crease patterns is limited to heuristics and computer optimization. Here we introduce a systematic strategy that enables intuitive and effective design of complex crease patterns that are guaranteed to fold. First, we exploit symmetries to construct 140 distinct foldable motifs, and represent these as jigsaw puzzle pieces. We then show that when these pieces are fitted together they encode foldable crease patterns. This maps origami design to solving combinatorial problems, which allows us to systematically create, count and classify a vast number of crease patterns. We show that all of these crease patterns are pluripotent—capable of folding into multiple shapes—and solve exactly for the number of possible shapes for each pattern. Finally, we employ our framework to rationally design a crease pattern that folds into two independently defined target shapes, and fabricate such pluripotent origami. Our results provide physicists, mathematicians and engineers with a powerful new design strategy.
AU - Dieleman, Peter
AU - Vasmel, Niek
AU - Waitukaitis, Scott R
AU - van Hecke, Martin
ID - 6976
IS - 1
JF - Nature Physics
SN - 1745-2473
TI - Jigsaw puzzle design of pluripotent origami
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We define an action of the (double of) Cohomological Hall algebra of Kontsevich and Soibelman on the cohomology of the moduli space of spiked instantons of Nekrasov. We identify this action with the one of the affine Yangian of gl(1). Based on that we derive the vertex algebra at the corner Wr1,r2,r3 of Gaiotto and Rapčák. We conjecture that our approach works for a big class of Calabi–Yau categories, including those associated with toric Calabi–Yau 3-folds.
AU - Rapcak, Miroslav
AU - Soibelman, Yan
AU - Yang, Yaping
AU - Zhao, Gufang
ID - 7004
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - Cohomological Hall algebras, vertex algebras and instantons
VL - 376
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The unusual correlated state that emerges in URu2Si2 below THO = 17.5 K is known as “hidden order” because even basic characteristics of the order parameter, such as its dimensionality (whether it has one component or two), are “hidden.” We use resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to measure the symmetry-resolved elastic anomalies across THO. We observe no anomalies in the shear elastic moduli, providing strong thermodynamic evidence for a one-component order parameter. We develop a machine learning framework that reaches this conclusion directly from the raw data, even in a crystal that is too small for traditional resonant ultrasound. Our result rules out a broad class of theories of hidden order based on two-component order parameters, and constrains the nature of the fluctuations from which unconventional superconductivity emerges at lower temperature. Our machine learning framework is a powerful new tool for classifying the ubiquitous competing orders in correlated electron systems.
AU - Ghosh, Sayak
AU - Matty, Michael
AU - Baumbach, Ryan
AU - Bauer, Eric D.
AU - Modic, Kimberly A
AU - Shekhter, Arkady
AU - Mydosh, J. A.
AU - Kim, Eun-Ah
AU - Ramshaw, B. J.
ID - 7084
IS - 10
JF - Science Advances
TI - One-component order parameter in URu2Si2 uncovered by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and machine learning
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Removal of the Bax gene from mice completely protects the somas of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis following optic nerve injury. This makes BAX a promising therapeutic target to prevent neurodegeneration. In this study, Bax+/− mice were used to test the hypothesis that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs would delay apoptosis following optic nerve injury. RGCs were damaged by performing optic nerve crush (ONC) and then immunostaining for phospho-cJUN, and quantitative PCR were used to monitor the status of the BAX activation mechanism in the months following injury. The apoptotic susceptibility of injured cells was directly tested by virally introducing GFP-BAX into Bax−/− RGCs after injury. The competency of quiescent RGCs to reactivate their BAX activation mechanism was tested by intravitreal injection of the JNK pathway agonist, anisomycin. Twenty-four weeks after ONC, Bax+/− mice had significantly less cell loss in their RGC layer than Bax+/+ mice 3 weeks after ONC. Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs exhibited similar patterns of nuclear phospho-cJUN accumulation immediately after ONC, which persisted in Bax+/− RGCs for up to 7 weeks before abating. The transcriptional activation of BAX-activating genes was similar in Bax+/− and Bax+/+ RGCs following ONC. Intriguingly, cells deactivated their BAX activation mechanism between 7 and 12 weeks after crush. Introduction of GFP-BAX into Bax−/− cells at 4 weeks after ONC showed that these cells had a nearly normal capacity to activate this protein, but this capacity was lost 8 weeks after crush. Collectively, these data suggest that 8–12 weeks after crush, damaged cells no longer displayed increased susceptibility to BAX activation relative to their naïve counterparts. In this same timeframe, retinal glial activation and the signaling of the pro-apoptotic JNK pathway also abated. Quiescent RGCs did not show a timely reactivation of their JNK pathway following intravitreal injection with anisomycin. These findings demonstrate that lowering the quantity of BAX in RGCs is neuroprotective after acute injury. Damaged RGCs enter a quiescent state months after injury and are no longer responsive to an apoptotic stimulus. Quiescent RGCs will require rejuvenation to reacquire functionality.
AU - Donahue, RJ
AU - Maes, Margaret E
AU - Grosser, JA
AU - Nickells, RW
ID - 7033
IS - 2
JF - Molecular Neurobiology
SN - 0893-7648
TI - BAX-depleted retinal ganglion cells survive and become quiescent following optic nerve damage
VL - 57
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin acts as an amazingly versatile coordinator of plant growth and development. With its morphogen-like properties, auxin controls sites and timing of differentiation and/or growth responses both, in quantitative and qualitative terms. Specificity in the auxin response depends largely on distinct modes of signal transmission, by which individual cells perceive and convert auxin signals into a remarkable diversity of responses. The best understood, or so-called canonical mechanism of auxin perception ultimately results in variable adjustments of the cellular transcriptome, via a short, nuclear signal transduction pathway. Additional findings that accumulated over decades implied that an additional, presumably, cell surface-based auxin perception mechanism mediates very rapid cellular responses and decisively contributes to the cell's overall hormonal response. Recent investigations into both, nuclear and cell surface auxin signalling challenged this assumed partition of roles for different auxin signalling pathways and revealed an unexpected complexity in transcriptional and non-transcriptional cellular responses mediated by auxin.
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Luschnig, C
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 7142
IS - 2
JF - Current Opinion in Plant Biology
SN - 1369-5266
TI - Auxin signalling in growth: Schrödinger's cat out of the bag
VL - 53
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the cerebellum, GluD2 is exclusively expressed in Purkinje cells, where it regulates synapse formation and regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and motor learning. Delayed cognitive development in humans with GluD2 gene mutations suggests extracerebellar functions of GluD2. However, extracerebellar expression of GluD2 and its relationship with that of GluD1 are poorly understood. GluD2 mRNA and protein were widely detected, with relatively high levels observed in the olfactory glomerular layer, medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, olfactory tubercle, subiculum, striatum, lateral septum, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus. These regions were also enriched for GluD1, and many individual neurons coexpressed the two GluDs. In the retrosplenial granular cortex, GluD1 and GluD2 were selectively expressed at PSD‐95‐expressing glutamatergic synapses, and their coexpression on the same synapses was shown by SDS‐digested freeze‐fracture replica labeling. Biochemically, GluD1 and GluD2 formed coimmunoprecipitable complex formation in HEK293T cells and in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. We further estimated the relative protein amount by quantitative immunoblotting using GluA2/GluD2 and GluA2/GluD1 chimeric proteins as standards for titration of GluD1 and GluD2 antibodies. Intriguingly, the relative amount of GluD2 was almost comparable to that of GluD1 in the postsynaptic density fraction prepared from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In contrast, GluD2 was overwhelmingly predominant in the cerebellum. Thus, we have determined the relative extracerebellar expression of GluD1 and GluD2 at regional, neuronal, and synaptic levels. These data provide a molecular–anatomical basis for possible competitive and cooperative interactions of GluD family members at synapses in various brain regions.
AU - Nakamoto, Chihiro
AU - Konno, Kohtarou
AU - Miyazaki, Taisuke
AU - Nakatsukasa, Ena
AU - Natsume, Rie
AU - Abe, Manabu
AU - Kawamura, Meiko
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Yamasaki, Miwako
AU - Sakimura, Kenji
AU - Watanabe, Masahiko
ID - 7148
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology
SN - 0021-9967
TI - Expression mapping, quantification, and complex formation of GluD1 and GluD2 glutamate receptors in adult mouse brain
VL - 528
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In recent years, many genes have been associated with chromatinopathies classified as “Cornelia de Lange Syndrome‐like.” It is known that the phenotype of these patients becomes less recognizable, overlapping to features characteristic of other syndromes caused by genetic variants affecting different regulators of chromatin structure and function. Therefore, Cornelia de Lange syndrome diagnosis might be arduous due to the seldom discordance between unexpected molecular diagnosis and clinical evaluation. Here, we review the molecular features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, supporting the hypothesis that “CdLS‐like syndromes” are part of a larger “rare disease family” sharing multiple clinical features and common disrupted molecular pathways.
AU - Avagliano, Laura
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Grazioli, Paolo
AU - Di Fede, Elisabetta
AU - Parodi, Chiara
AU - Mariani, Milena
AU - Kaiser, Frank J.
AU - Selicorni, Angelo
AU - Gervasini, Cristina
AU - Massa, Valentina
ID - 7149
IS - 1
JF - Clinical Genetics
SN - 0009-9163
TI - Chromatinopathies: A focus on Cornelia de Lange syndrome
VL - 97
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider dynamical transport metrics for probability measures on discretisations of a bounded convex domain in ℝd. These metrics are natural discrete counterparts to the Kantorovich metric 𝕎2, defined using a Benamou-Brenier type formula. Under mild assumptions we prove an asymptotic upper bound for the discrete transport metric Wt in terms of 𝕎2, as the size of the mesh T tends to 0. However, we show that the corresponding lower bound may fail in general, even on certain one-dimensional and symmetric two-dimensional meshes. In addition, we show that the asymptotic lower bound holds under an isotropy assumption on the mesh, which turns out to be essentially necessary. This assumption is satisfied, e.g., for tilings by convex regular polygons, and it implies Gromov-Hausdorff convergence of the transport metric.
AU - Gladbach, Peter
AU - Kopfer, Eva
AU - Maas, Jan
ID - 71
IS - 3
JF - SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis
SN - 00361410
TI - Scaling limits of discrete optimal transport
VL - 52
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper, we introduce an inertial projection-type method with different updating strategies for solving quasi-variational inequalities with strongly monotone and Lipschitz continuous operators in real Hilbert spaces. Under standard assumptions, we establish different strong convergence results for the proposed algorithm. Primary numerical experiments demonstrate the potential applicability of our scheme compared with some related methods in the literature.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Gibali, Aviv
AU - Sagratella, Simone
ID - 7161
JF - Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications
SN - 0022-3239
TI - Inertial projection-type methods for solving quasi-variational inequalities in real Hilbert spaces
VL - 184
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the living cell, we encounter a large variety of motile processes such as organelle transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. These processes are driven by motor proteins that generate force by transducing chemical free energy into mechanical work. In many cases, the molecular motors work in teams to collectively generate larger forces. Recent optical trapping experiments on small teams of cytoskeletal motors indicated that the collectively generated force increases with the size of the motor team but that this increase depends on the motor type and on whether the motors are studied in vitro or in vivo. Here, we use the theory of stochastic processes to describe the motion of N motors in a stationary optical trap and to compute the N-dependence of the collectively generated forces. We consider six distinct motor types, two kinesins, two dyneins, and two myosins. We show that the force increases always linearly with N but with a prefactor that depends on the performance of the single motor. Surprisingly, this prefactor increases for weaker motors with a lower stall force. This counter-intuitive behavior reflects the increased probability with which stronger motors detach from the filament during strain generation. Our theoretical results are in quantitative agreement with experimental data on small teams of kinesin-1 motors.
AU - Ucar, Mehmet C
AU - Lipowsky, Reinhard
ID - 7166
IS - 1
JF - Nano Letters
SN - 1530-6984
TI - Collective force generation by molecular motors is determined by strain-induced unbinding
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant root architecture dynamically adapts to various environmental conditions, such as salt‐containing soil. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved among others also in these developmental adaptations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, a novel branch of the ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis involving PYR/PYL/RCAR (abbreviated as PYLs) receptor‐protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex that acts in parallel to the canonical PYLs‐protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) mechanism is identified. The PYLs‐PP2A signaling modulates root gravitropism and lateral root formation through regulating phytohormone auxin transport. In optimal conditions, PYLs ABA receptor interacts with the catalytic subunits of PP2A, increasing their phosphatase activity and thus counteracting PINOID (PID) kinase‐mediated phosphorylation of PIN‐FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. By contrast, in salt and osmotic stress conditions, ABA binds to PYLs, inhibiting the PP2A activity, which leads to increased PIN phosphorylation and consequently modulated directional auxin transport leading to adapted root architecture. This work reveals an adaptive mechanism that may flexibly adjust plant root growth to withstand saline and osmotic stresses. It occurs via the cross‐talk between the stress hormone ABA and the versatile developmental regulator auxin.
AU - Li, Yang
AU - Wang, Yaping
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Li, Zhen
AU - Yuan, Zhi
AU - Glanc, Matous
AU - Domjan, David
AU - Wang, Kai
AU - Xuan, Wei
AU - Guo, Yan
AU - Gong, Zhizhong
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Zhang, Jing
ID - 7204
IS - 3
JF - Advanced Science
TI - Root growth adaptation is mediated by PYLs ABA receptor-PP2A protein phosphatase complex
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic incompatibilities contribute to reproductive isolation between many diverging populations, but it is still unclear to what extent they play a role if divergence happens with gene flow. In contact zones between the "Crab" and "Wave" ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis, divergent selection forms strong barriers to gene flow, while the role of post‐zygotic barriers due to selection against hybrids remains unclear. High embryo abortion rates in this species could indicate the presence of such barriers. Post‐zygotic barriers might include genetic incompatibilities (e.g. Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities) but also maladaptation, both expected to be most pronounced in contact zones. In addition, embryo abortion might reflect physiological stress on females and embryos independent of any genetic stress. We examined all embryos of >500 females sampled outside and inside contact zones of three populations in Sweden. Females' clutch size ranged from 0 to 1,011 embryos (mean 130 ± 123), and abortion rates varied between 0% and 100% (mean 12%). We described female genotypes by using a hybrid index based on hundreds of SNPs differentiated between ecotypes with which we characterized female genotypes. We also calculated female SNP heterozygosity and inversion karyotype. Clutch size did not vary with female hybrid index, and abortion rates were only weakly related to hybrid index in two sites but not at all in a third site. No additional variation in abortion rate was explained by female SNP heterozygosity, but increased female inversion heterozygosity added slightly to increased abortion. Our results show only weak and probably biologically insignificant post‐zygotic barriers contributing to ecotype divergence, and the high and variable abortion rates were marginally, if at all, explained by hybrid index of females.
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Zagrodzka, Zuzanna
AU - Faria, Rui
AU - Westram, Anja M
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
ID - 7205
IS - 3
JF - Journal of Evolutionary Biology
SN - 1010061X
TI - Is embryo abortion a post-zygotic barrier to gene flow between Littorina ecotypes?
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hippocampus plays key roles in learning and memory and is a main target of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which causes progressive memory impairments. Despite numerous investigations about the processes required for the normal hippocampal functions, the neurotransmitter receptors involved in the synaptic deficits by which AD disables the hippocampus are not yet characterized. By combining histoblots, western blots, immunohistochemistry and high‐resolution immunoelectron microscopic methods for GABAB receptors, this study provides a quantitative description of the expression and the subcellular localization of GABAB1 in the hippocampus in a mouse model of AD at 1, 6 and 12 months of age. Western blots and histoblots showed that the total amount of protein and the laminar expression pattern of GABAB1 were similar in APP/PS1 mice and in age‐matched wild‐type mice. In contrast, immunoelectron microscopic techniques showed that the subcellular localization of GABAB1 subunit did not change significantly in APP/PS1 mice at 1 month of age, was significantly reduced in the stratum lacunosum‐moleculare of CA1 pyramidal cells at 6 months of age and significantly reduced at the membrane surface of CA1 pyramidal cells at 12 months of age. This reduction of plasma membrane GABAB1 was paralleled by a significant increase of the subunit at the intracellular sites. We further observed a decrease of membrane‐targeted GABAB receptors in axon terminals contacting CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate compartment‐ and age‐dependent reduction of plasma membrane‐targeted GABAB receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, suggesting that this decrease might be enough to alter the GABAB‐mediated synaptic transmission taking place in AD.
AU - Martín-Belmonte, Alejandro
AU - Aguado, Carolina
AU - Alfaro-Ruíz, Rocío
AU - Moreno-Martínez, Ana Esther
AU - De La Ossa, Luis
AU - Martínez-Hernández, José
AU - Buisson, Alain
AU - Früh, Simon
AU - Bettler, Bernhard
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Luján, Rafael
ID - 7207
IS - 3
JF - Brain Pathology
SN - 10156305
TI - Reduction in the neuronal surface of post and presynaptic GABA>B< receptors in the hippocampus in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
VL - 30
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis we study certain mathematical aspects of evolution. The two primary forces that drive an evolutionary process are mutation and selection. Mutation generates new variants in a population. Selection chooses among the variants depending on the reproductive rates of individuals. Evolutionary processes are intrinsically random – a new mutation that is initially present in the population at low frequency can go extinct, even if it confers a reproductive advantage. The overall rate of evolution is largely determined by two quantities: the probability that an invading advantageous mutation spreads through the population (called fixation probability) and the time until it does so (called fixation time). Both those quantities crucially depend not only on the strength of the invading mutation but also on the population structure. In this thesis, we aim to understand how the underlying population structure affects the overall rate of evolution. Specifically, we study population structures that increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants (called amplifiers of selection). Broadly speaking, our results are of three different types: We present various strong amplifiers, we identify regimes under which only limited amplification is feasible, and we propose population structures that provide different tradeoffs between high fixation probability and short fixation time.
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
ID - 7196
TI - A role of graphs in evolutionary processes
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many systems rely on optimistic concurrent search trees for multi-core scalability. In principle, optimistic trees have a simple performance story: searches are read-only and so run in parallel, with writes to shared memory occurring only when modifying the data structure. However, this paper shows that in practice, obtaining the full performance benefits of optimistic search trees is not so simple.
We focus on optimistic binary search trees (BSTs) and perform a detailed performance analysis of 10 state-of-the-art BSTs on large scale x86-64 hardware, using both microbenchmarks and an in-memory database system. We find and explain significant unexpected performance differences between BSTs with similar tree structure and search implementations, which we trace to subtle performance-degrading interactions of BSTs with systems software and hardware subsystems. We further derive a prescriptive approach to avoid this performance degradation, as well as algorithmic insights on optimistic BST design. Our work underlines the gap between the theory and practice of multi-core performance, and calls for further research to help bridge this gap.
AU - Arbel-Raviv, Maya
AU - Brown, Trevor A
AU - Morrison, Adam
ID - 7272
SN - 9781939133021
T2 - Proceedings of the 2018 USENIX Annual Technical Conference
TI - Getting to the root of concurrent binary search tree performance
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The fixation probability of a single mutant invading a population of residents is among the most widely-studied quantities in evolutionary dynamics. Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures that increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, compared to well-mixed populations. Extensive studies have shown that many amplifiers exist for the Birth-death Moran process, some of them substantially increasing the fixation probability or even guaranteeing fixation in the limit of large population size. On the other hand, no amplifiers are known for the death-Birth Moran process, and computer-assisted exhaustive searches have failed to discover amplification. In this work we resolve this disparity, by showing that any amplification under death-Birth updating is necessarily bounded and transient. Our boundedness result states that even if a population structure does amplify selection, the resulting fixation probability is close to that of the well-mixed population. Our transience result states that for any population structure there exists a threshold r⋆ such that the population structure ceases to amplify selection if the mutant fitness advantage r is larger than r⋆. Finally, we also extend the above results to δ-death-Birth updating, which is a combination of Birth-death and death-Birth updating. On the positive side, we identify population structures that maintain amplification for a wide range of values r and δ. These results demonstrate that amplification of natural selection depends on the specific mechanisms of the evolutionary process.
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin A.
ID - 7212
JF - PLoS computational biology
TI - Limits on amplifiers of natural selection under death-Birth updating
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The combined resection of skull-infiltrating tumours and immediate cranioplastic reconstruction predominantly relies on freehand-moulded solutions. Techniques that enable this procedure to be performed easily in routine clinical practice would be useful. A cadaveric study was developed in which a new software tool was used to perform single-stage reconstructions with prefabricated implants after the resection of skull-infiltrating pathologies. A novel 3D visualization and interaction framework was developed to create 10 virtual craniotomies in five cadaveric specimens. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implants were manufactured according to the bone defects. The image-guided craniotomy was reconstructed with PEEK and compared to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Navigational accuracy and surgical precision were assessed. The PEEK workflow resulted in up to 10-fold shorter reconstruction times than the standard technique. Surgical precision was reflected by the mean 1.1 ± 0.29 mm distance between the virtual and real craniotomy, with submillimetre precision in 50%. Assessment of the global offset between virtual and actual craniotomy revealed an average shift of 4.5 ± 3.6 mm. The results validated the ‘elective single-stage cranioplasty’ technique as a state-of-the-art virtual planning method and surgical workflow. This patient-tailored workflow could significantly reduce surgical times compared to the traditional, intraoperative acrylic moulding method and may be an option for the reconstruction of bone defects in the craniofacial region.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Mallouhi, Ammar
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Wolfsberger, Stefan
AU - Reissig, Lukas
AU - Hammadi, Firas
AU - Matula, Christian
AU - Baumann, Arnulf
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7218
IS - 8
JF - International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
SN - 09015027
TI - Single-stage bone resection and cranioplastic reconstruction: Comparison of a novel software-derived PEEK workflow with the standard reconstructive method
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Root system architecture (RSA), governed by the phytohormone auxin, endows plants with an adaptive advantage in particular environments. Using geographically representative arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions as a resource for GWA mapping, Waidmann et al. and Ogura et al. recently identified two novel components involved in modulating auxin-mediated RSA and conferring plant fitness in particular habitats.
AU - Xiao, Guanghui
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
ID - 7219
IS - 2
JF - Trends in Plant Science
SN - 13601385
TI - Adaptive growth: Shaping auxin-mediated root system architecture
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - BACKGROUND:The introduction of image-guided methods to bypass surgery has resulted in optimized preoperative identification of the recipients and excellent patency rates. However, the recently presented methods have also been resource-consuming. In the present study, we have reported a cost-efficient planning workflow for extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) revascularization combined with transdural indocyanine green videoangiography (tICG-VA). METHODS:We performed a retrospective review at a single tertiary referral center from 2011 to 2018. A novel software-derived workflow was applied for 25 of 92 bypass procedures during the study period. The precision and accuracy were assessed using tICG-VA identification of the cortical recipients and a comparison of the virtual and actual data. The data from a control group of 25 traditionally planned procedures were also matched. RESULTS:The intraoperative transfer time of the calculated coordinates averaged 0.8 minute (range, 0.4-1.9 minutes). The definitive recipients matched the targeted branches in 80%, and a neighboring branch was used in 16%. Our workflow led to a significant craniotomy size reduction in the study group compared with that in the control group (P = 0.005). tICG-VA was successfully applied in 19 cases. An average of 2 potential recipient arteries were identified transdurally, resulting in tailored durotomy and 3 craniotomy adjustments. Follow-up patency results were available for 49 bypass surgeries, comprising 54 grafts. The overall patency rate was 91% at a median follow-up period of 26 months. No significant difference was found in the patency rate between the study and control groups (P = 0.317). CONCLUSIONS:Our clinical results have validated the presented planning and surgical workflow and support the routine implementation of tICG-VA for recipient identification before durotomy.
AU - Dodier, Philippe
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Mistelbauer, Gabriel
AU - Wang, Wei Te
AU - Ferraz-Leite, Heber
AU - Gruber, Andreas
AU - Marik, Wolfgang
AU - Winter, Fabian
AU - Fischer, Gerrit
AU - Frischer, Josa M.
AU - Bavinzski, Gerhard
ID - 7220
IS - 2
JF - World Neurosurgery
SN - 18788750
TI - Novel software-derived workflow in extracranial–intracranial bypass surgery validated by transdural indocyanine green videoangiography
VL - 134
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Habitat loss is one of the key drivers of the ongoing decline of biodiversity. However, ecologists still argue about how fragmentation of habitat (independent of habitat loss) affects species richness. The recently proposed habitat amount hypothesis posits that species richness only depends on the total amount of habitat in a local landscape. In contrast, empirical studies report contrasting patterns: some find positive and others negative effects of fragmentation per se on species richness. To explain this apparent disparity, we devise a stochastic, spatially explicit model of competitive species communities in heterogeneous habitats. The model shows that habitat loss and fragmentation have complex effects on species diversity in competitive communities. When the total amount of habitat is large, fragmentation per se tends to increase species diversity, but if the total amount of habitat is small, the situation is reversed: fragmentation per se decreases species diversity.
AU - Rybicki, Joel
AU - Abrego, Nerea
AU - Ovaskainen, Otso
ID - 7224
IS - 3
JF - Ecology Letters
SN - 1461-023X
TI - Habitat fragmentation and species diversity in competitive communities
VL - 23
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Gastrulation entails specification and formation of three embryonic germ layers—ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm—thereby establishing the basis for the future body plan. In zebrafish embryos, germ layer specification occurs during blastula and early gastrula stages (Ho & Kimmel, 1993), a period when the main morphogenetic movements underlying gastrulation are initiated. Hence, the signals driving progenitor cell fate specification, such as Nodal ligands from the TGF-β family, also play key roles in regulating germ layer progenitor cell segregation (Carmany-Rampey & Schier, 2001; David & Rosa, 2001; Feldman et al., 2000; Gritsman et al., 1999; Keller et al., 2008). In this review, we summarize and discuss the main signaling pathways involved in germ layer progenitor cell fate specification and segregation, specifically focusing on recent advances in understanding the interplay between mesoderm and endoderm specification and the internalization movements at the onset of zebrafish gastrulation.
AU - Nunes Pinheiro, Diana C
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 7227
SN - 00702153
T2 - Gastrulation: From Embryonic Pattern to Form
TI - Zebrafish gastrulation: Putting fate in motion
VL - 136
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - T lymphocytes utilize amoeboid migration to navigate effectively within complex microenvironments. The precise rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton required for cellular forward propulsion is mediated by actin regulators, including the actin‐related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, a macromolecular machine that nucleates branched actin filaments at the leading edge. The consequences of modulating Arp2/3 activity on the biophysical properties of the actomyosin cortex and downstream T cell function are incompletely understood. We report that even a moderate decrease of Arp3 levels in T cells profoundly affects actin cortex integrity. Reduction in total F‐actin content leads to reduced cortical tension and disrupted lamellipodia formation. Instead, in Arp3‐knockdown cells, the motility mode is dominated by blebbing migration characterized by transient, balloon‐like protrusions at the leading edge. Although this migration mode seems to be compatible with interstitial migration in three‐dimensional environments, diminished locomotion kinetics and impaired cytotoxicity interfere with optimal T cell function. These findings define the importance of finely tuned, Arp2/3‐dependent mechanophysical membrane integrity in cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte activities.
AU - Obeidy, Peyman
AU - Ju, Lining A.
AU - Oehlers, Stefan H.
AU - Zulkhernain, Nursafwana S.
AU - Lee, Quintin
AU - Galeano Niño, Jorge L.
AU - Kwan, Rain Y.Q.
AU - Tikoo, Shweta
AU - Cavanagh, Lois L.
AU - Mrass, Paulus
AU - Cook, Adam J.L.
AU - Jackson, Shaun P.
AU - Biro, Maté
AU - Roediger, Ben
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Weninger, Wolfgang
ID - 7234
IS - 2
JF - Immunology and Cell Biology
SN - 08189641
TI - Partial loss of actin nucleator actin-related protein 2/3 activity triggers blebbing in primary T lymphocytes
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the Fröhlich model of a polaron, and show that its effective mass diverges in thestrong coupling limit.
AU - Lieb, Elliott H.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 7235
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 0022-4715
TI - Divergence of the effective mass of a polaron in the strong coupling limit
VL - 180
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The biotic interactions hypothesis posits that biotic interactions are more important drivers of adaptation closer to the equator, evidenced by “stronger” contemporary interactions (e.g. greater interaction rates) and/or patterns of trait evolution consistent with a history of stronger interactions. Support for the hypothesis is mixed, but few studies span tropical and temperate regions while experimentally controlling for evolutionary history. Here, we integrate field observations and common garden experiments to quantify the relative importance of pollination and herbivory in a pair of tropical‐temperate congeneric perennial herbs. Phytolacca rivinoides and P. americana are pioneer species native to the Neotropics and the eastern USA, respectively. We compared plant‐pollinator and plant‐herbivore interactions between three tropical populations of P. rivinoides from Costa Rica and three temperate populations of P. americana from its northern range edge in Michigan and Ohio. For some metrics of interaction importance, we also included three subtropical populations of P. americana from its southern range edge in Florida. This approach confounds species and region but allows us, uniquely, to measure complementary proxies of interaction importance across a tropical‐temperate range in one system. To test the prediction that lower‐latitude plants are more reliant on insect pollinators, we quantified floral display and reward, insect visitation rates, and self‐pollination ability (autogamy). To test the prediction that lower‐latitude plants experience more herbivore pressure, we quantified herbivory rates, herbivore abundance, and leaf palatability. We found evidence supporting the biotic interactions hypothesis for most comparisons between P. rivinoides and north‐temperate P. americana (floral display, insect visitation, autogamy, herbivory, herbivore abundance, and young‐leaf palatability). Results for subtropical P. americana populations, however, were typically not intermediate between P. rivinoides and north‐temperate P. americana, as would be predicted by a linear latitudinal gradient in interaction importance. Subtropical young‐leaf palatability was intermediate, but subtropical mature leaves were the least palatable, and pollination‐related traits did not differ between temperate and subtropical regions. These nonlinear patterns of interaction importance suggest future work to relate interaction importance to climatic or biotic thresholds. In sum, we found that the biotic interactions hypothesis was more consistently supported at the larger spatial scale of our study.
AU - Baskett, Carina
AU - Schroeder, Lucy
AU - Weber, Marjorie G.
AU - Schemske, Douglas W.
ID - 7236
IS - 1
JF - Ecological Monographs
SN - 0012-9615
TI - Multiple metrics of latitudinal patterns in insect pollination and herbivory for a tropical‐temperate congener pair
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 is encoded by the imprinted Cdkn1c locus, exhibits maternal expression, and is essential for cerebral cortex development. How Cdkn1c regulates corticogenesis is however not clear. To this end we employ Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) technology to genetically dissect Cdkn1c gene function in corticogenesis at single cell resolution. We find that the previously described growth-inhibitory Cdkn1c function is a non-cell-autonomous one, acting on the whole organism. In contrast we reveal a growth-promoting cell-autonomous Cdkn1c function which at the mechanistic level mediates radial glial progenitor cell and nascent projection neuron survival. Strikingly, the growth-promoting function of Cdkn1c is highly dosage sensitive but not subject to genomic imprinting. Collectively, our results suggest that the Cdkn1c locus regulates cortical development through distinct cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. More generally, our study highlights the importance to probe the relative contributions of cell intrinsic gene function and tissue-wide mechanisms to the overall phenotype.
AU - Laukoter, Susanne
AU - Beattie, Robert J
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Nakayama, Keiichi I.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 7253
JF - Nature Communications
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Imprinted Cdkn1c genomic locus cell-autonomously promotes cell survival in cerebral cortex development
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cytoskeletal filaments such as microtubules (MTs) and filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamically support cell structure and functions. In central presynaptic terminals, F-actin is expressed along the release edge and reportedly plays diverse functional roles, but whether axonal MTs extend deep into terminals and play any physiological role remains controversial. At the calyx of Held in rats of either sex, confocal and high-resolution microscopy revealed that MTs enter deep into presynaptic terminal swellings and partially colocalize with a subset of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated that depolymerization of MTs specifically prolonged the slow-recovery time component of EPSCs from short-term depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation, whereas depolymerization of F-actin specifically prolonged the fast-recovery component. In simultaneous presynaptic and postsynaptic action potential recordings, depolymerization of MTs or F-actin significantly impaired the fidelity of high-frequency neurotransmission. We conclude that MTs and F-actin differentially contribute to slow and fast SV replenishment, thereby maintaining high-frequency neurotransmission.
AU - Piriya Ananda Babu, Lashmi
AU - Wang, Han Ying
AU - Eguchi, Kohgaku
AU - Guillaud, Laurent
AU - Takahashi, Tomoyuki
ID - 7339
IS - 1
JF - Journal of neuroscience
TI - Microtubule and actin differentially regulate synaptic vesicle cycling to maintain high-frequency neurotransmission
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose that correlations among neurons are generically strong enough to organize neural activity patterns into a discrete set of clusters, which can each be viewed as a population codeword. Our reasoning starts with the analysis of retinal ganglion cell data using maximum entropy models, showing that the population is robustly in a frustrated, marginally sub-critical, or glassy, state. This leads to an argument that neural populations in many other brain areas might share this structure. Next, we use latent variable models to show that this glassy state possesses well-defined clusters of neural activity. Clusters have three appealing properties: (i) clusters exhibit error correction, i.e., they are reproducibly elicited by the same stimulus despite variability at the level of constituent neurons; (ii) clusters encode qualitatively different visual features than their constituent neurons; and (iii) clusters can be learned by downstream neural circuits in an unsupervised fashion. We hypothesize that these properties give rise to a “learnable” neural code which the cortical hierarchy uses to extract increasingly complex features without supervision or reinforcement.
AU - Berry, Michael J.
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
ID - 7656
JF - Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
TI - Clustering of neural activity: A design principle for population codes
VL - 14
ER -