TY - CONF
AB - The Price of Anarchy (PoA) is a well-established game-theoretic concept to shed light on coordination issues arising in open distributed systems. Leaving agents to selfishly optimize comes with the risk of ending up in sub-optimal states (in terms of performance and/or costs), compared to a centralized system design. However, the PoA relies on strong assumptions about agents' rationality (e.g., resources and information) and interactions, whereas in many distributed systems agents interact locally with bounded resources. They do so repeatedly over time (in contrast to "one-shot games"), and their strategies may evolve. Using a more realistic evolutionary game model, this paper introduces a realized evolutionary Price of Anarchy (ePoA). The ePoA allows an exploration of equilibrium selection in dynamic distributed systems with multiple equilibria, based on local interactions of simple memoryless agents. Considering a fundamental game related to virus propagation on networks, we present analytical bounds on the ePoA in basic network topologies and for different strategy update dynamics. In particular, deriving stationary distributions of the stochastic evolutionary process, we find that the Nash equilibria are not always the most abundant states, and that different processes can feature significant off-equilibrium behavior, leading to a significantly higher ePoA compared to the PoA studied traditionally in the literature.
AU - Schmid, Laura
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Schmid, Stefan
ID - 7346
T2 - Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems
TI - The evolutionary price of anarchy: Locally bounded agents in a dynamic virus game
VL - 153
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The monitoring of event frequencies can be used to recognize behavioral anomalies, to identify trends, and to deduce or discard hypotheses about the underlying system. For example, the performance of a web server may be monitored based on the ratio of the total count of requests from the least and most active clients. Exact frequency monitoring, however, can be prohibitively expensive; in the above example it would require as many counters as there are clients. In this paper, we propose the efficient probabilistic monitoring of common frequency properties, including the mode (i.e., the most common event) and the median of an event sequence. We define a logic to express composite frequency properties as a combination of atomic frequency properties. Our main contribution is an algorithm that, under suitable probabilistic assumptions, can be used to monitor these important frequency properties with four counters, independent of the number of different events. Our algorithm samples longer and longer subwords of an infinite event sequence. We prove the almost-sure convergence of our algorithm by generalizing ergodic theory from increasing-length prefixes to increasing-length subwords of an infinite sequence. A similar algorithm could be used to learn a connected Markov chain of a given structure from observing its outputs, to arbitrary precision, for a given confidence.
AU - Ferrere, Thomas
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Kragl, Bernhard
ID - 7348
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 28th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic
TI - Monitoring event frequencies
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The ability to sense environmental temperature and to coordinate growth and development accordingly, is critical to the reproductive success of plants. Flowering time is regulated at the level of gene expression by a complex network of factors that integrate environmental and developmental cues. One of the main players, involved in modulating flowering time in response to changes in ambient temperature is FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM). FLM transcripts can undergo extensive alternative splicing producing multiple variants, of which FLM-β and FLM-δ are the most representative. While FLM-β codes for the flowering repressor FLM protein, translation of FLM-δ has the opposite effect on flowering. Here we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase G2 (CDKG2), together with its cognate cyclin, CYCLYN L1 (CYCL1) affects the alternative splicing of FLM, balancing the levels of FLM-β and FLM-δ across the ambient temperature range. In the absence of the CDKG2/CYCL1 complex, FLM-β expression is reduced while FLM-δ is increased in a temperature dependent manner and these changes are associated with an early flowering phenotype in the cdkg2 mutant lines. In addition, we found that transcript variants retaining the full FLM intron 1 are sequestered in the cell nucleus. Strikingly, FLM intron 1 splicing is also regulated by CDKG2/CYCL1. Our results provide evidence that temperature and CDKs regulate the alternative splicing of FLM, contributing to flowering time definition.
AU - Nibau, Candida
AU - Gallemi, Marçal
AU - Dadarou, Despoina
AU - Doonan, John H.
AU - Cavallari, Nicola
ID - 7350
JF - Frontiers in Plant Science
SN - 1664-462X
TI - Thermo-sensitive alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M is modulated by cyclin-dependent kinase G2
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present nsCouette, a highly scalable software tool to solve the Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow between differentially heated and independently rotating, concentric cylinders. It is based on a pseudospectral spatial discretization and dynamic time-stepping. It is implemented in modern Fortran with a hybrid MPI-OpenMP parallelization scheme and thus designed to compute turbulent flows at high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. An additional GPU implementation (C-CUDA) for intermediate problem sizes and a version for pipe flow (nsPipe) are also provided.
AU - Lopez Alonso, Jose M
AU - Feldmann, Daniel
AU - Rampp, Markus
AU - Vela-Martín, Alberto
AU - Shi, Liang
AU - Avila, Marc
ID - 7364
JF - SoftwareX
TI - nsCouette – A high-performance code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent Taylor–Couette flow
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently Kloeckner described the structure of the isometry group of the quadratic Wasserstein space W_2(R^n). It turned out that the case of the real line is exceptional in the sense that there exists an exotic isometry flow. Following this line of investigation, we compute Isom(W_p(R)), the isometry group of the Wasserstein space
W_p(R) for all p \in [1,\infty) \setminus {2}. We show that W_2(R) is also exceptional regarding the
parameter p: W_p(R) is isometrically rigid if and only if p is not equal to 2. Regarding the underlying
space, we prove that the exceptionality of p = 2 disappears if we replace R by the compact
interval [0,1]. Surprisingly, in that case, W_p([0,1]) is isometrically rigid if and only if
p is not equal to 1. Moreover, W_1([0,1]) admits isometries that split mass, and Isom(W_1([0,1]))
cannot be embedded into Isom(W_1(R)).
AU - Geher, Gyorgy Pal
AU - Titkos, Tamas
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 7389
IS - 8
JF - Transactions of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Wasserstein space
KW - isometric embeddings
KW - isometric rigidity
KW - exotic isometry flow
SN - 00029947
TI - Isometric study of Wasserstein spaces - the real line
VL - 373
ER -