TY - CONF
AB - Reconstructing a 3-D scene from more than one camera is a classical problem in computer vision. One of the major sources of difficulty is the fact that not all scene elements are visible from all cameras. In the last few years, two promising approaches have been developed 11,12 that formulate the scene reconstruction problem in terms of energy minimization, and minimize the energy using graph cuts. These energy minimization approaches treat the input images symmetrically, handle visibility constraints correctly, and allow spatial smoothness to be enforced. However, these algorithm propose different problem formulations, and handle a limited class of smoothness terms. One algorithm 11 uses a problem formulation that is restricted to two-camera stereo, and imposes smoothness between a pair of cameras. The other algorithm 12 can handle an arbitrary number of cameras, but imposes smoothness only with respect to a single camera. In this paper we give a more general energy minimization formulation for the problem, which allows a larger class of spatial smoothness constraints. We show that our formulation includes both of the previous approaches as special cases, as well as permitting new energy functions. Experimental results on real data with ground truth are also included.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Zabih, Ramin
AU - Gortler, Steven
ID - 3171
TI - Generalized multi camera scene reconstruction using graph cuts
VL - 2683
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We address visual correspondence problems without assuming that scene points have similar intensities in different views. This situation is common, usually due to non-lambertian scenes or to differences between cameras. We use maximization of mutual information, a powerful technique for registering images that requires no a priori model of the relationship between scene intensities in different views. However, it has proven difficult to use mutual information to compute dense visual correspondence. Comparing fixed-size windows via mutual information suffers from the well-known problems of fixed windows, namely poor performance at discontinuities and in low-texture regions. In this paper, we show how to compute visual correspondence using mutual information without suffering from these problems. Using 'a simple approximation, mutual information can be incorporated into the standard energy minimization framework used in early vision. The energy can then be efficiently minimized using graph cuts, which preserve discontinuities and handle low-texture regions. The resulting algorithm combines the accurate disparity maps that come from graph cuts with the tolerance for intensity changes that comes from mutual information.
AU - Kim, Junhwan
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Zabih, Ramin
ID - 3174
TI - Visual correspondence using energy minimization and mutual information
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the fixed alphabet shortest common supersequence (SCS) and the fixed alphabet longest common subsequence (LCS) problems parameterized in the number of strings are W[1]-hard. Unless W[1]=FPT, this rules out the existence of algorithms with time complexity of O(f(k)nα) for those problems. Here n is the size of the problem instance, α is constant, k is the number of strings and f is any function of k. The fixed alphabet version of the LCS problem is of particular interest considering the importance of sequence comparison (e.g. multiple sequence alignment) in the fixed length alphabet world of DNA and protein sequences.
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3209
IS - 4
JF - Journal of Computer and System Sciences
TI - On the parameterized complexity of the fixed alphabet shortest common supersequence and longest common subsequence problems
VL - 67
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Luby and Rackoff showed how to construct a (super-)pseudo-random permutation {0,1}2n→ {0,1}2n from some number r of pseudo-random functions {0,1}n → {0,1}n. Their construction, motivated by DES, consists of a cascade of r Feistel permutations. A Feistel permutation 1for a pseudo-random function f is defined as (L, R) → (R,L ⊕ f (R)), where L and R are the left and right part of the input and ⊕ denotes bitwise XOR or, in this paper, any other group operation on {0,1}n. The only non-trivial step of the security proof consists of proving that the cascade of r Feistel permutations with independent uniform random functions {0,1}n → {0,1}n, denoted Ψ2nr is indistinguishable from a uniform random permutation {0,1}2n → {0,1}2n by any computationally unbounded adaptive distinguisher making at most O(2cn) combined chosen plaintext/ciphertext queries for any c < α, where a is a security parameter. Luby and Rackoff proved α = 1/2 for r = 4. A natural problem, proposed by Pieprzyk is to improve on α for larger r. The best known result, α = 3/4 for r = 6, is due to Patarin. In this paper we prove a = 1 -O(1/r), i.e., the trivial upper bound α = 1 can be approached. The proof uses some new techniques that can be of independent interest.
AU - Maurer, Ueli M
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3210
TI - The security of many round Luby Rackoff pseudo random permutations
VL - 2656
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Bollenbach, Mark Tobias
AU - Strother, T.
AU - Bauer, Wolfgang
ID - 3425
TI - 3D supernova collapse calculations
VL - 166
ER -
TY - CHAP
AU - Peter Jonas
AU - Unsicker, Klaus
ED - Schmidt, R. F.
ID - 3458
T2 - Lehrbuch Vorklinik
TI - Molekulare und zelluläre Grundlagen des Nervensystems.
VL - B
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurons can produce action potentials with high temporal precision(1). A fundamental issue is whether, and how, this capability is used in information processing. According to the `cell assembly' hypothesis, transient synchrony of anatomically distributed groups of neurons underlies processing of both external sensory input and internal cognitive mechanisms(2-4). Accordingly, neuron populations should be arranged into groups whose synchrony exceeds that predicted by common modulation by sensory input. Here we find that the spike times of hippocampal pyramidal cells can be predicted more accurately by using the spike times of simultaneously recorded neurons in addition to the animals location in space. This improvement remained when the spatial prediction was refined with a spatially dependent theta phase modulation(5-8). The time window in which spike times are best predicted from simultaneous peer activity is 10-30 ms, suggesting that cell assemblies are synchronized at this timescale. Because this temporal window matches the membrane time constant of pyramidal neurons(9), the period of the hippocampal gamma oscillation(10) and the time window for synaptic plasticity(11), we propose that cooperative activity at this timescale is optimal for information transmission and storage in cortical circuits.
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Hirase, Hajima
AU - Dragoi, George
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3526
IS - 6948
JF - Nature
TI - Organization of cell assemblies in the hippocampus
VL - 424
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Gamma frequency oscillations (30-100 Hz) have been suggested to underlie various cognitive and motor functions. Here, we examine the generation of gamma oscillation currents in the hippocampus, using two-dimensional, 96-site silicon probes. Two gamma generators were identified, one in the dentate gyrus and another in the CA3-CA1 regions. The coupling strength between the two oscillators varied during both theta and nontheta states. Both pyramidal cells and interneurons were phase-locked to gamma waves. Anatomical connectivity, rather than physical distance, determined the coupling strength of the oscillating neurons. CA3 pyramidal neurons discharged CA3 and CA1 interneurons at latencies indicative of monosynaptic connections. Intrahippocampal gamma oscillation emerges in the CA3 recurrent system, which entrains the CA1 region via its interneurons.
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Jamieson, Brian G
AU - Wise, Kensall D
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3528
IS - 2
JF - Neuron
TI - Mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus of the behaving rat
VL - 37
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Parallel recording of neuronal activity in the behaving animal is a prerequisite for our understanding of neuronal representation and storage of information. Here we describe the development of micro-machined silicon microelectrode arrays for unit and local field recordings. The two-dimensional probes with 96 or 64 recording sites provided high-density recording of unit and field activity with minimal tissue displacement or damage. The on-chip active circuit eliminated movement and other artifacts and greatly reduced the weight of the headgear. The precise geometry of the recording tips allowed for the estimation of the spatial location of the recorded neurons and for high-resolution estimation of extracellular current source density. Action potentials could be simultaneously recorded from the soma and dendrites of the same neurons. Silicon technology is a promising approach for high-density, high-resolution sampling of neuronal activity in both basic research and prosthetic devices.
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Henze, Darrell A
AU - Jamieson, Brian G
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Sirota, Anton M
AU - Bartho, Peter
AU - Wise, Kensall D
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3529
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Neurophysiology
TI - Massively parallel recording of unit and local field potentials with silicon-based electrodes
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic engineering of the mouse brain allows investigators to address novel hypotheses in vivo. Because of the paucity of information on the network patterns of the mouse hippocampus, we investigated the electrical patterns in the behaving animal using multisite silicon probes and wire tetrodes. Theta (6-9 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillations were present during exploration and rapid eye movement sleep. Gamma power and theta power were comodulated and gamma power varied as a function of the theta cycle. Pyramidal cells and putative interneurons were phase-locked to theta oscillations. During immobility, consummatory behaviors and slow-wave sleep, sharp waves were present in cornu ammonis region CA1 of the hippocampus stratum radiatum associated with 140-200-Hz “ripples” in the pyramidal cell layer and population burst of CA1 neurons. In the hilus, large-amplitude “dentate spikes” occurred in association with increased discharge of hilar neurons. The amplitude of field patterns was larger in the mouse than in the rat, likely reflecting the higher neuron density in a smaller brain. We suggest that the main hippocampal network patterns are mediated by similar pathways and mechanisms in mouse and rat.
AU - Buzsáki, György
AU - Buhl, Derek L
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Czéh, Boldizsár
AU - Morozov, Alexei
ID - 3536
IS - 1
JF - Neuroscience
TI - Hippocampal network patterns of activity in the mouse
VL - 116
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Both neocortical and hippocampal networks organize the firing patterns of their neurons by prominent oscillations during sleep, but the functional role of these rhythms is not well understood. Here, we show a robust correlation of neuronal discharges between the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus on both slow and fine time scales in the mouse and rat. Neuronal bursts in deep cortical layers, associated with sleep spindles and delta waves/slow rhythm, effectively triggered hippocampal discharges related to fast (ripple) oscillations. We hypothesize that oscillation-mediated temporal links coordinate specific information transfer between neocortical and hippocampal cell assemblies. Such a neocortical-hippocampal interplay may be important for memory consolidation.
AU - Sirota, Anton M
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Buhl, Derek L
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3543
IS - 4
JF - PNAS
TI - Communication between neocortex and hippocampus during sleep in rodents
VL - 100
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define the Morse-Smale complex of a Morse function over a 3-manifold as the overlay of the descending and as- cending manifolds of all critical points. In the generic case, its 3-dimensional cells are shaped like crystals and are sepa- rated by quadrangular faces. In this paper, we give a combi- natorial algorithm for constructing such complexes for piece- wise linear data.
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
AU - Harer, John
AU - Natarajan, Vijay
AU - Pascucci, Valerio
ID - 3556
TI - Morse-Smale complexes for piecewise linear 3-manifolds
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Given a finite point set in R, the surface reconstruction problem asks for a surface that passes through many but not necessarily all points. We describe an unambigu- ous definition of such a surface in geometric and topological terms, and sketch a fast algorithm for constructing it. Our solution overcomes past limitations to special point distributions and heuristic design decisions.
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
ID - 3573
T2 - Discrete & Computational Geometry
TI - Surface reconstruction by wrapping finite sets in space
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We develop fast algorithms for computing the linking number of a simplicial complex within a filtration.We give experimental results in applying our work toward the detection of non-trivial tangling in biomolecules, modeled as alpha complexes.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Zomorodian, Afra
ID - 3584
IS - 2
JF - Homology, Homotopy and Applications
TI - Computing linking numbers of a filtration
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Temporal logics such as Computation Tree Logic (CTL) and Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) have become popular for specifying temporal properties over a wide variety of planning and verification problems. In this paper we work towards building a generalized framework for automated reasoning based on temporal logics. We present a powerful extension of CTL with first-order quantification over the set of reachable states for reasoning about extremal properties of weighted labeled transition systems in general. The proposed logic, which we call Weighted Quantified Computation Tree Logic (WQCTL), captures the essential elements common to the domain of planning and verification problems and can thereby be used as an effective specification language in both domains. We show that in spite of the rich, expressive power of the logic, we are able to evaluate WQCTL formulas in time polynomial in the size of the state space times the length of the formula. Wepresent experimental results on the WQCTL verifier.
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
AU - Dasgupta, Pallab
AU - Chakrabarti, Partha P
ID - 3593
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Automated Reasoning
TI - A branching time temporal framework for quantitative reasoning
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - There are several analyses in evolutionary ecology which assume that a family of offspring has come from only two parents. Here, we present a simple test for detecting when a batch involves two or more subfamilies. It is based on the fact that the mixing of families generates associations amongst unlinked marker loci. We also present simulations illustrating the power of our method for varying numbers of loci, alleles per locus and genotyped individuals.
AU - Vines, Timothy H
AU - Nicholas Barton
ID - 3618
IS - 7
JF - Molecular Ecology
TI - A new approach to detecting mixed families
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - What is the chance that some part of a stretch of genome will survive? In a population of constant size, and with no selection, the probability of survival of some part of a stretch of map length y<1 approaches View the MathML source for View the MathML source. Thus, the whole genome is certain to be lost, but the rate of loss is extremely slow. This solution extends to give the whole distribution of surviving block sizes as a function of time. We show that the expected number of blocks at time t is 1+yt and give expressions for the moments of the number of blocks and the total amount of genome that survives for a given time. The solution is based on a branching process and assumes complete interference between crossovers, so that each descendant carries only a single block of ancestral material. We consider cases where most individuals carry multiple blocks, either because there are multiple crossovers in a long genetic map, or because enough time has passed that most individuals in the population are related to each other. For species such as ours, which have a long genetic map, the genome of any individual which leaves descendants (∼80% of the population for a Poisson offspring number with mean two) is likely to persist for an extremely long time, in the form of a few short blocks of genome.
AU - Baird, Stuart J
AU - Nicholas Barton
AU - Etheridge, Alison M
ID - 3619
IS - 4
JF - Theoretical Population Biology
TI - The distribution of surviving blocks of an ancestral genome
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Stable hybrid zones in which ecologically divergent taxa give rise to a range of recombinants are natural laboratories in which the genetic basis of adaptation and reproductive isolation can be unraveled. One such hybrid zone is formed by the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae). Adaptations to permanent and ephemeral breeding habitats, respectively, have shaped numerous phenotypic differences between the taxa. All of these are, in principle, candidates for a genetic dissection via QTL mapping. We present here a linkage map of 28 codominant and 10 dominant markers in the Bombina genome. In an F2 cross, markers that were mainly microsatellites, SSCPs or allozymes were mapped to 20 linkage groups. Among the 40 isolated CA microsatellites, we noted a preponderance of compound and frequently interleaved CA-TA repeats as well as a striking polarity at the 5′ end of the repeats.
AU - Nürnberger, Beate
AU - Hofman, Sebastian
AU - Förg-Brey, Bqruni
AU - Praetzel, Gabriele
AU - Maclean, Alan W
AU - Szymura, Jacek M
AU - Abbott, Catherine M
AU - Nicholas Barton
ID - 3620
IS - 2
JF - Heredity
TI - A linkage map for the hybridising toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae)
VL - 91
ER -
TY - THES
AU - Christoph Lampert
ID - 3678
T2 - Bonner Mathematische Schriften
TI - The Neumann operator in strictly pseudoconvex domains with weighted Bergman metric
VL - 356
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Proteins of the ARGONAUTE family are important in diverse posttranscriptional RNA-mediated gene-silencing systems as well as in transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila and fission yeast and in programmed DNA elimination in Tetrahymena. We cloned ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4) from a screen for mutants that suppress silencing of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN(SUP) gene. The ago4-1 mutant reactivated silentSUP alleles and decreased CpNpG and asymmetric DNA methylation as well as histone H3 lysine-9 methylation. In addition,ago4-1 blocked histone and DNA methylation and the accumulation of 25-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that correspond to the retroelement AtSN1. These results suggest that AGO4 and long siRNAs direct chromatin modifications, including histone methylation and non-CpG DNA methylation.
AU - ZILBERMAN, Daniel
AU - Cao, Xiaofeng
AU - Jacobsen, Steven E.
ID - 9455
IS - 5607
JF - Science
KW - Multidisciplinary
SN - 0036-8075
TI - ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation
VL - 299
ER -