TY - THES
AB - In this thesis we study persistence of multi-covers of Euclidean balls and the geometric structures underlying their computation, in particular Delaunay mosaics and Voronoi tessellations.
The k-fold cover for some discrete input point set consists of the space where at least k balls of radius r around the input points overlap. Persistence is a notion that captures, in some sense, the topology of the shape underlying the input. While persistence is usually computed for the union of balls, the k-fold cover is of interest as it captures local density,
and thus might approximate the shape of the input better if the input data is noisy. To compute persistence of these k-fold covers, we need a discretization that is provided by higher-order Delaunay mosaics.
We present and implement a simple and efficient algorithm for the computation of higher-order Delaunay mosaics, and use it to give experimental results for their combinatorial properties. The algorithm makes use of a new geometric structure, the rhomboid tiling. It contains the higher-order Delaunay mosaics as slices, and by introducing a filtration
function on the tiling, we also obtain higher-order α-shapes as slices. These allow us to compute persistence of the multi-covers for varying radius r; the computation for varying k is less straight-foward and involves the rhomboid tiling directly. We apply our algorithms to experimental sphere packings to shed light on their structural properties. Finally, inspired by periodic structures in packings and materials, we propose and implement an algorithm for periodic Delaunay triangulations to be integrated into the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL), and discuss
the implications on persistence for periodic data sets.
AU - Osang, Georg F
ID - 9056
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Multi-cover persistence and Delaunay mosaics
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The sensory and cognitive abilities of the mammalian neocortex are underpinned by intricate columnar and laminar circuits formed from an array of diverse neuronal populations. One approach to determining how interactions between these circuit components give rise to complex behavior is to investigate the rules by which cortical circuits are formed and acquire functionality during development. This review summarizes recent research on the development of the neocortex, from genetic determination in neural stem cells through to the dynamic role that specific neuronal populations play in the earliest circuits of neocortex, and how they contribute to emergent function and cognition. While many of these endeavors take advantage of model systems, consideration will also be given to advances in our understanding of activity in nascent human circuits. Such cross-species perspective is imperative when investigating the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of early neocortical circuits in neurodevelopmental disorders, so that one can identify targets amenable to therapeutic intervention.
AU - Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.
AU - Butt, Simon J. B.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - De Marco García, Natalia V.
AU - Cardin, Jessica A.
AU - Voytek, Bradley
AU - Muotri, Alysson R.
ID - 9073
IS - 5
JF - The Journal of Neuroscience
KW - General Neuroscience
SN - 0270-6474
TI - The logic of developing neocortical circuits in health and disease
VL - 41
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Acquired mutations are sufficiently frequent such that the genome of a single cell offers a record of its history of cell divisions. Among more common somatic genomic alterations are loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Large LOH events are potentially detectable in single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets as tracts of monoallelic expression for constitutionally heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) located among contiguous genes. We identified runs of monoallelic expression, consistent with LOH, uniquely distributed throughout the genome in single cell brain cortex transcriptomes of F1 hybrids involving different inbred mouse strains. We then phylogenetically reconstructed single cell lineages and simultaneously identified cell types by corresponding gene expression patterns. Our results are consistent with progenitor cells giving rise to multiple cortical cell types through stereotyped expansion and distinct waves of neurogenesis. Compared to engineered recording systems, LOH events accumulate throughout the genome and across the lifetime of an organism, affording tremendous capacity for encoding lineage information and increasing resolution for later cell divisions. This approach can conceivably be computationally incorporated into scRNA-seq analysis and may be useful for organisms where genetic engineering is prohibitive, such as humans.
AU - Anderson, Donovan J.
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - McKenna, Aaron
AU - Shendure, Jay
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Horwitz, Marshall S.
ID - 9082
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Simultaneous identification of brain cell type and lineage via single cell RNA sequencing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We employ the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study acoustic emission generated in a uniform Bose gas by a static impurity. The impurity excites a sound-wave packet, which propagates through the gas. We calculate the shape of this wave packet in the limit of long wave lengths, and argue that it is possible to extract properties of the impurity by observing this shape. We illustrate here this possibility for a Bose gas with a trapped impurity atom -- an example of a relevant experimental setup. Presented results are general for all one-dimensional systems described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can also be used in nonatomic systems, e.g., to analyze light propagation in nonlinear optical media. Finally, we calculate the shape of the sound-wave packet for a three-dimensional Bose gas assuming a spherically symmetric perturbation.
AU - Marchukov, Oleksandr
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 9093
IS - 2
JF - SciPost Physics
SN - 2542-4653
TI - Shape of a sound wave in a weakly-perturbed Bose gas
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease clinically characterized by the appearance of red colored, well-demarcated plaques with thickened skin and with silvery scales. Recent studies have established the involvement of a complex signalling network of interactions between cytokines, immune cells and skin cells called keratinocytes. Keratinocytes form the cells of the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). Visible plaques in psoriasis are developed due to the fast proliferation and unusual differentiation of keratinocyte cells. Despite that, the exact mechanism of the appearance of these plaques in the cytokine-immune cell network is not clear. A mathematical model embodying interactions between key immune cells believed to be involved in psoriasis, keratinocytes and relevant cytokines has been developed. The complex network formed of these interactions poses several challenges. Here, we choose to study subnetworks of this complex network and initially focus on interactions involving TNFα, IL-23/IL-17, and IL-15. These are chosen based on known evidence of their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, we explore the role of IL-15 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and its potential as a future drug target for a novel treatment option. We perform steady state analyses for these subnetworks and demonstrate that the interactions between cells, driven by cytokines could cause the emergence of a psoriasis state (hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes) when levels of TNFα, IL-23/IL-17 or IL-15 are increased. The model results explain and support the clinical potentiality of anti-cytokine treatments. Interestingly, our results suggest different dynamic scenarios underpin the pathogenesis of psoriasis, depending upon the dominant cytokines of subnetworks. We observed that the increase in the level of IL-23/IL-17 and IL-15 could lead to psoriasis via a bistable route, whereas an increase in the level of TNFα would lead to a monotonic and gradual disease progression. Further, we demonstrate how this insight, bistability, could be exploited to improve the current therapies and develop novel treatment strategies for psoriasis.
AU - Pandey, Rakesh
AU - Al-Nuaimi, Yusur
AU - Mishra, Rajiv Kumar
AU - Spurgeon, Sarah K.
AU - Goodfellow, Marc
ID - 9097
JF - Scientific Reports
TI - Role of subnetworks mediated by TNF α, IL-23/IL-17 and IL-15 in a network involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study properties of the volume of projections of the n-dimensional
cross-polytope $\crosp^n = \{ x \in \R^n \mid |x_1| + \dots + |x_n| \leqslant 1\}.$ We prove that the projection of $\crosp^n$ onto a k-dimensional coordinate subspace has the maximum possible volume for k=2 and for k=3.
We obtain the exact lower bound on the volume of such a projection onto a two-dimensional plane. Also, we show that there exist local maxima which are not global ones for the volume of a projection of $\crosp^n$ onto a k-dimensional subspace for any n>k⩾2.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
ID - 9098
IS - 5
JF - Discrete Mathematics
SN - 0012365X
TI - On the volume of projections of the cross-polytope
VL - 344
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that on an Abelian variety over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic, the obstruction to lifting an automorphism to a field of characteristic zero as a morphism vanishes if and only if it vanishes for lifting it as a derived autoequivalence. We also compare the deformation space of these two types of deformations.
AU - Srivastava, Tanya K
ID - 9099
JF - Archiv der Mathematik
SN - 0003889X
TI - Lifting automorphisms on Abelian varieties as derived autoequivalences
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Marine environments are inhabited by a broad representation of the tree of life, yet our understanding of speciation in marine ecosystems is extremely limited compared with terrestrial and freshwater environments. Developing a more comprehensive picture of speciation in marine environments requires that we 'dive under the surface' by studying a wider range of taxa and ecosystems is necessary for a more comprehensive picture of speciation. Although studying marine evolutionary processes is often challenging, recent technological advances in different fields, from maritime engineering to genomics, are making it increasingly possible to study speciation of marine life forms across diverse ecosystems and taxa. Motivated by recent research in the field, including the 14 contributions in this issue, we highlight and discuss six axes of research that we think will deepen our understanding of speciation in the marine realm: (a) study a broader range of marine environments and organisms; (b) identify the reproductive barriers driving speciation between marine taxa; (c) understand the role of different genomic architectures underlying reproductive isolation; (d) infer the evolutionary history of divergence using model‐based approaches; (e) study patterns of hybridization and introgression between marine taxa; and (f) implement highly interdisciplinary, collaborative research programmes. In outlining these goals, we hope to inspire researchers to continue filling this critical knowledge gap surrounding the origins of marine biodiversity.
AU - Faria, Rui
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Stankowski, Sean
ID - 9100
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Evolutionary Biology
SN - 1010061X
TI - Speciation in marine environments: Diving under the surface
VL - 34
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Behavioral predispositions are innate tendencies of animals to behave in a given way without the input of learning. They increase survival chances and, due to environmental and ecological challenges, may vary substantially even between closely related taxa. These differences are likely to be especially pronounced in long-lived species like crocodilians. This order is particularly relevant for comparative cognition due to its phylogenetic proximity to birds. Here we compared early life behavioral predispositions in two Alligatoridae species. We exposed American alligator and spectacled caiman hatchlings to three different novel situations: a novel object, a novel environment that was open and a novel environment with a shelter. This was then repeated a week later. During exposure to the novel environments, alligators moved around more and explored a larger range of the arena than the caimans. When exposed to the novel object, the alligators reduced the mean distance to the novel object in the second phase, while the caimans further increased it, indicating diametrically opposite ontogenetic development in behavioral predispositions. Although all crocodilian hatchlings face comparable challenges, e.g., high predation pressure, the effectiveness of parental protection might explain the observed pattern. American alligators are apex predators capable of protecting their offspring against most dangers, whereas adult spectacled caimans are frequently predated themselves. Their distancing behavior might be related to increased predator avoidance and also explain the success of invasive spectacled caimans in the natural habitats of other crocodilians.
AU - Reber, Stephan A.
AU - Oh, Jinook
AU - Janisch, Judith
AU - Stevenson, Colin
AU - Foggett, Shaun
AU - Wilkinson, Anna
ID - 9101
JF - Animal Cognition
SN - 14359448
TI - Early life differences in behavioral predispositions in two Alligatoridae species
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present DILS, a deployable statistical analysis platform for conducting demographic inferences with linked selection from population genomic data using an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. DILS takes as input single‐population or two‐population data sets (multilocus fasta sequences) and performs three types of analyses in a hierarchical manner, identifying: (a) the best demographic model to study the importance of gene flow and population size change on the genetic patterns of polymorphism and divergence, (b) the best genomic model to determine whether the effective size Ne and migration rate N, m are heterogeneously distributed along the genome (implying linked selection) and (c) loci in genomic regions most associated with barriers to gene flow. Also available via a Web interface, an objective of DILS is to facilitate collaborative research in speciation genomics. Here, we show the performance and limitations of DILS by using simulations and finally apply the method to published data on a divergence continuum composed by 28 pairs of Mytilus mussel populations/species.
AU - Fraisse, Christelle
AU - Popovic, Iva
AU - Mazoyer, Clément
AU - Spataro, Bruno
AU - Delmotte, Stéphane
AU - Romiguier, Jonathan
AU - Loire, Étienne
AU - Simon, Alexis
AU - Galtier, Nicolas
AU - Duret, Laurent
AU - Bierne, Nicolas
AU - Vekemans, Xavier
AU - Roux, Camille
ID - 9119
JF - Molecular Ecology Resources
SN - 1755098X
TI - DILS: Demographic inferences with linked selection by using ABC
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the energy gap for the BCS gap equation is
Ξ=μ(8e−2+o(1))exp(π2μ−−√a)
in the low density limit μ→0. Together with the similar result for the critical temperature by Hainzl and Seiringer (Lett Math Phys 84: 99–107, 2008), this shows that, in the low density limit, the ratio of the energy gap and critical temperature is a universal constant independent of the interaction potential V. The results hold for a class of potentials with negative scattering length a and no bound states.
AU - Lauritsen, Asbjørn Bækgaard
ID - 9121
JF - Letters in Mathematical Physics
KW - Mathematical Physics
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 0377-9017
TI - The BCS energy gap at low density
VL - 111
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - While several tools have been developed to study the ground state of many-body quantum spin systems, the limitations of existing techniques call for the exploration of new approaches. In this manuscript we develop an alternative analytical and numerical framework for many-body quantum spin ground states, based on the disentanglement formalism. In this approach, observables are exactly expressed as Gaussian-weighted functional integrals over scalar fields. We identify the leading contribution to these integrals, given by the saddle point of a suitable effective action. Analytically, we develop a field-theoretical expansion of the functional integrals, performed by means of appropriate Feynman rules. The expansion can be truncated to a desired order to obtain analytical approximations to observables. Numerically, we show that the disentanglement approach can be used to compute ground state expectation values from classical stochastic processes. While the associated fluctuations grow exponentially with imaginary time and the system size, this growth can be mitigated by means of an importance sampling scheme based on knowledge of the saddle point configuration. We illustrate the advantages and limitations of our methods by considering the quantum Ising model in 1, 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. Our analytical and numerical approaches are applicable to a broad class of systems, bridging concepts from quantum lattice models, continuum field theory, and classical stochastic processes.
AU - De Nicola, Stefano
ID - 9158
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment
KW - Statistics
KW - Probability and Uncertainty
KW - Statistics and Probability
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 1742-5468
TI - Disentanglement approach to quantum spin ground states: Field theory and stochastic simulation
VL - 2021
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that Hilbert schemes of points on supersingular Enriques surface in characteristic 2, Hilbn(X), for n ≥ 2 are simply connected, symplectic varieties but are not irreducible symplectic as the hodge number h2,0 > 1, even though a supersingular Enriques surface is an irreducible symplectic variety. These are the classes of varieties which appear only in characteristic 2 and they show that the hodge number formula for G¨ottsche-Soergel does not hold over haracteristic 2. It also gives examples of varieties with trivial canonical class which are neither irreducible symplectic nor Calabi-Yau, thereby showing that there are strictly more classes of simply connected varieties with trivial canonical class in characteristic 2 than over C as given by Beauville-Bogolomov decomposition theorem.
AU - Srivastava, Tanya K
ID - 9173
IS - 03
JF - Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques
SN - 0007-4497
TI - Pathologies of the Hilbert scheme of points of a supersingular Enriques surface
VL - 167
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Transposable elements exist widely throughout plant genomes and play important roles in plant evolution. Auxin is an important regulator that is traditionally associated with root development and drought stress adaptation. The DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) gene is a key component of rice drought avoidance. Here, we identified a transposon that acts as an autonomous auxin‐responsive promoter and its presence at specific genome positions conveys physiological adaptations related to drought avoidance. Rice varieties with high and auxin‐mediated transcription of DRO1 in the root tip show deeper and longer root phenotypes and are thus better adapted to drought. The INDITTO2 transposon contains an auxin response element and displays auxin‐responsive promoter activity; it is thus able to convey auxin regulation of transcription to genes in its proximity. In the rice Acuce, which displays DRO1‐mediated drought adaptation, the INDITTO2 transposon was found to be inserted at the promoter region of the DRO1 locus. Transgenesis‐based insertion of the INDITTO2 transposon into the DRO1 promoter of the non‐adapted rice variety Nipponbare was sufficient to promote its drought avoidance. Our data identify an example of how transposons can act as promoters and convey hormonal regulation to nearby loci, improving plant fitness in response to different abiotic stresses.
AU - Zhao, Y
AU - Wu, L
AU - Fu, Q
AU - Wang, D
AU - Li, J
AU - Yao, B
AU - Yu, S
AU - Jiang, L
AU - Qian, J
AU - Zhou, X
AU - Han, L
AU - Zhao, S
AU - Ma, C
AU - Zhang, Y
AU - Luo, C
AU - Dong, Q
AU - Li, S
AU - Zhang, L
AU - Jiang, X
AU - Li, Y
AU - Luo, H
AU - Li, K
AU - Yang, J
AU - Luo, Q
AU - Li, L
AU - Peng, S
AU - Huang, H
AU - Zuo, Z
AU - Liu, C
AU - Wang, L
AU - Li, C
AU - He, X
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Du, Y
ID - 9189
JF - Plant, Cell & Environment
SN - 0140-7791
TI - INDITTO2 transposon conveys auxin-mediated DRO1 transcription for rice drought avoidance
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We associate a certain tensor product lattice to any primitive integer lattice and ask about its typical shape. These lattices are related to the tangent bundle of Grassmannians and their study is motivated by Peyre's programme on "freeness" for rational points of bounded height on Fano
varieties.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Horesh, Tal
AU - Wilsch, Florian Alexander
ID - 9199
T2 - arXiv
TI - Equidistribution and freeness on Grassmannians
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cryo-EM grid preparation is an important bottleneck in protein structure determination, especially for membrane proteins, typically requiring screening of a large number of conditions. We systematically investigated the effects of buffer components, blotting conditions and grid types on the outcome of grid preparation of five different membrane protein samples. Aggregation was the most common type of problem which was addressed by changing detergents, salt concentration or reconstitution of proteins into nanodiscs or amphipols. We show that the optimal concentration of detergent is between 0.05 and 0.4% and that the presence of a low concentration of detergent with a high critical micellar concentration protects the proteins from denaturation at the air-water interface. Furthermore, we discuss the strategies for achieving an adequate ice thickness, particle coverage and orientation distribution on free ice and on support films. Our findings provide a clear roadmap for comprehensive screening of conditions for cryo-EM grid preparation of membrane proteins.
AU - Kampjut, Domen
AU - Steiner, Julia
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 9205
IS - 3
JF - iScience
TI - Cryo-EM grid optimization for membrane proteins
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The precise engineering of thermoelectric materials using nanocrystals as their building blocks has proven to be an excellent strategy to increase energy conversion efficiency. Here we present a synthetic route to produce Sb-doped PbS colloidal nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are then consolidated into nanocrystalline PbS:Sb using spark plasma sintering. We demonstrate that the introduction of Sb significantly influences the size, geometry, crystal lattice and especially the carrier concentration of PbS. The increase of charge carrier concentration achieved with the introduction of Sb translates into an increase of the electrical and thermal conductivities and a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. Overall, PbS:Sb nanomaterial were characterized by two-fold higher thermoelectric figures of merit than undoped PbS.
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Wei, Kaya
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - Genç, Aziz
AU - Berestok, Taisiia
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Nolas, George S.
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 9206
IS - 4
JF - Materials
TI - Synthesis, bottom up assembly and thermoelectric properties of Sb-doped PbS nanocrystal building blocks
VL - 14
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose a novel hybridization method for stability analysis that over-approximates nonlinear dynamical systems by switched systems with linear inclusion dynamics. We observe that existing hybridization techniques for safety analysis that over-approximate nonlinear dynamical systems by switched affine inclusion dynamics and provide fixed approximation error, do not suffice for stability analysis. Hence, we propose a hybridization method that provides a state-dependent error which converges to zero as the state tends to the equilibrium point. The crux of our hybridization computation is an elegant recursive algorithm that uses partial derivatives of a given function to obtain upper and lower bound matrices for the over-approximating linear inclusion. We illustrate our method on some examples to demonstrate the application of the theory for stability analysis. In particular, our method is able to establish stability of a nonlinear system which does not admit a polynomial Lyapunov function.
AU - Garcia Soto, Miriam
AU - Prabhakar, Pavithra
ID - 9202
T2 - 2020 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium
TI - Hybridization for stability verification of nonlinear switched systems
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant fitness is largely dependent on the root, the underground organ, which, besides its anchoring function, supplies the plant body with water and all nutrients necessary for growth and development. To exploit the soil effectively, roots must constantly integrate environmental signals and react through adjustment of growth and development. Important components of the root management strategy involve a rapid modulation of the root growth kinetics and growth direction, as well as an increase of the root system radius through formation of lateral roots (LRs). At the molecular level, such a fascinating growth and developmental flexibility of root organ requires regulatory networks that guarantee stability of the developmental program but also allows integration of various environmental inputs. The plant hormone auxin is one of the principal endogenous regulators of root system architecture by controlling primary root growth and formation of LR. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding molecular networks where auxin is one of the main players shaping the root system and acting as mediator between endogenous cues and environmental factors.
AU - Cavallari, Nicola
AU - Artner, Christina
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 9212
JF - Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
SN - 1943-0264
TI - Auxin-regulated lateral root organogenesis
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In the multiway cut problem we are given a weighted undirected graph G=(V,E) and a set T⊆V of k terminals. The goal is to find a minimum weight set of edges E′⊆E with the property that by removing E′ from G all the terminals become disconnected. In this paper we present a simple local search approximation algorithm for the multiway cut problem with approximation ratio 2−2k . We present an experimental evaluation of the performance of our local search algorithm and show that it greatly outperforms the isolation heuristic of Dalhaus et al. and it has similar performance as the much more complex algorithms of Calinescu et al., Sharma and Vondrak, and Buchbinder et al. which have the currently best known approximation ratios for this problem.
AU - Bloch-Hansen, Andrew
AU - Samei, Nasim
AU - Solis-Oba, Roberto
ID - 9227
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Conference on Algorithms and Discrete Applied Mathematics
TI - Experimental evaluation of a local search approximation algorithm for the multiway cut problem
VL - 12601
ER -